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1. Comparison Of Ameliorative Potential Of Sacccharomyces Cerevisiae And Bentonite Clay On Pathological Effects Induced By Aflatoxin in Broilers

by Muhammad Saqlain | Dr. Ishtiaq ahmad | Dr. Gulbeena saleem | Prof. dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2014,T] (1).

2. Ameliorating Effects Of Acetic Acid On Performance And Performance And Histopathological Parameters In Broiler

by Rukhshanda Ramzan | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Jawad Nazir | DR. Yaseen Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2107,T] (1).

3. A Study On Effects Of Natural Babesiosis Infection On Hemato- Biochemical Profile And Associated Pathological Changes In Sheep

by Abdul Bari | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali | Dr. M. Saeed Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2144,T] (1).

4. Pathologenesis Of Anaplasmosis In Balkhi Sheep And Their Confirmation With Polymerase Chain Reaction

by Ajab Khan | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2145,T] (1).

5. Amelioration Of Pathological Effects Of New Castle Disease By Aloe Vera

by Sayyed Raza Ali Shahid (2014-VA-515) | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Poultry industry has many threats from the infectious diseases. Newcastle disease is the most important disease of the poultry as it is distributed all over the world and it can cause huge economic losses in poultry industry. It is caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that can infect about 240 species of birds. Newcastle disease cause immune suppression in birds. It is reported that supplementations of Aloe vera enhances the immune status and reduce inflammation. So this research project was design to observe the effect of Aloe vera on lymphoid organs, growth performance and antibody response in Newcastle disease challenge birds. For this research a total of 120 broiler chicks were divided into four groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control group while B and C were treated with 2 percent aqueous extract of Aloe vera. Group C was also vaccinated against New Castle disease. Aloe vera was given to group B and C from day one to end of study trial. Both of the groups were challenged with ND virus at day 21. Group D was vaccinated against ND and was challenged with ND virus at day 21 without supplementation of Aloe vera. Blood samples were collected at day 1, 7, 20, 24, 26 and 28 to determine the antibody titer against ND. Highest antibody titers were observed in group C as compared to all other groups which was vaccinated against ND along with supplemented with Aloe vera. For gross pathology and histopathology, lymphoid organs were collected at day 24, 26 and 28..The average feed intake of group A and D was significantly higher than group B and C before challenge of virus but the body weight gain of 2% Aloe vera supplemented broiler was significantly (p<.05) higher than without treatment of Aloe vera. The FCR of birds supplemented with Aloe vera treatment was significantly different from the birds without Aloe vera treatment. The FCR value of group C and B was higher than A and D. lxxv A significant difference was observed in the weight of lymphoid organs of birds treated with Aloe vera as weight of organs was less in group C followed by group B, group A and group D. This was due to anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera. Microscopic examination revealed congestion, depletion of lymphocytes, dysplasia of thymic lobules, thinning of cortex, focal necrosis, disappearance of lymph follicles and inter-follicular edema like lesions within lymphoid organ of the groups challenged with Newcastle disease virus. However, cellular hypertrophy and decreased lymphocytes population were prominent changes in lymphoid organs of broiler treated with 2% Aloe vera. To check the virucidal effects of Aloe vera, a separate experiment was conducted in which 9 day old embryonated eggs were inoculated with ND virus along with 2 percent Aloe vera gel extract after incubation at 37Cº for an hour in group A while only ND virus was inoculated in group B. Candling was performed to see the survival of embryos in both groups which revealed a significant difference i.e. 16 percent embryos were found dead in group A while 80 percent was found dead in group B. Later on the amnioallantoic fluid of the eggs was used for spot Haemagglutination test. Group A showed less agglutination activity then group B. From this study it was concluded that Newcastle disease caused immune suppression and damage of vital organs in broiler while Aloe vera have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects as it raised antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus and lowered the inflammatory processes along with inactivation of ND virus. It also promotes growth performance of broilers and helps the birds to survive against lethal ND disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2525-T] (1).

6. Effect Of Acetic Acid Supplementation On Pathomorphological And Immunohistochemical Changes In Broiler Chickens Experimentally Infected With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Pullorum

by Bareera Javed Khan (2009-VA-156) | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of acetic acid in minimizing the severity of pathomorpholgical lesions in broiler chickens experimentally challenged with Salmonella pullorum. The experimental birds were divided into five groups. Group A acted as control, Group B was infected with S. pullorum. Antibiotic and acetic acid was given respectively to the challenged Group C and Group D. Group E was given acetic acid solely. Clinical signs were observed on daily basis. Postmortem findings of birds from each group was recorded on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the necropsy samples was performed subsequently. The data thus collected was organized using Factorial experiment on computer statistical software Minitab version 16 and analyzed by Two way ANOVA (Analysis of variance). Hemorrhagic, congested liver with greyish necrotic foci, pericarditis, congested lungs, spleen and unabsorbed yolk was observed in sick birds. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion and necrosis in liver, spleen and heart were histopathologically observed. Acetic acid reduced the severity of gross pathological and histopathological changes. The fecal excretion of S. pullorum significantly reduced with acetic acid. Results clearly demonstrated that use of acetic acid and antibiotic respectively produced comparable outcome. As the use of antibiotics was banned in European Union and the organism, Salmonella pullorum showed resistance against many antibiotics so the best way to control the disease is by supplementing the acetic acid to birds as it was helpful in minimizing the mortality and severity of gross and histopathological lesions in infected chickens. If diets can be planned to enhance the organic acid production in the caecum, it may be possible to control salmonella species through cost effective means. However further studies need to be conducted in order to analyze the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of organic acids. The use of prebiotics and probiotics along with organic acids on the growth and disease management of broiler chickens. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2564-T] (1).

7. Pathomicrobial And Immunohistochemical Findings In Broiler Chickens Naturally Infected With Salmonella Enterica Serotype Gallinarum Biotype Gallinarum

by Umar Farooq (2014-VA-1172) | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Mr. Ghulam Mustafa | Mr. Hassaan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Poultry industry is playing central role in the economics of Pakistan. Unfortunately, many diseases are continuous threat to this industry. One of the important disease is salmonellosis which is zoonotic problem and leftovers among principal causes of food borne illness throughout world. Salmonella Enterica serotype Gallinarum biotype Gallinarum is septicemic, acute, chronic and systemic disease of birds and had given huge economic losses to the farmers. A poultry producer suffers lose due to salmonella infection of the flock including loss of birds and production time. So the exact and precise diagnosis of disease is most important. A total of 150 samples were collected from six outbreaks of salmonellosis around Lahore region on the basis of clinical signs and postmortem lesions. 25 samples from each outbreak were collected in duplicates. One in polythene bag along with ice pack for bacteriology and second in ten percent neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. These samples were transported to the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, for further processing. Pre-enrichment method was used to isolate bacteria. 24 gram affected organs (liver, spleen, intestine, caeca, lungs, heart and kidney) were cut into very small pieces using sterile scalpel blades and suspended into 250 ml sterile buffered peptone water and incubated for 18 hours at 37°C. One mL of cultures was shifted to Selenite broth and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. One loopful from the Selenite broths was streaked onto plates of (SS) agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Whitish and slightly gray color colonies on SS agar, were observed. These colonies were confirmed by morphologically biochemically and serologically. Colonies were considered positive S. gallinarum when indole production, Voges-Proskauer, urease, motility, arginine and lactose fermentation tests were negative and H2S production, methyl red, mannitol fermentation with no Summary 39 gas production, lysine, ornithine and Salmonella Polyvalent “O” antiserum agglutination tests were positive. S. gallinarum was successfully recovered from organs including Liver, spleen, intestine, caeca, lungs, heart and kidney. All the organs of positive samples did not give recovery of S. gallinarum. Maximum recovery was obtained from liver. Majority of birds showed clinical sigs anorexia, depression, high fever, watery bright yellow diarrhea, rapid respiration and pale and shrunken comb. Bronze discoloration and necrotic foci on liver, congested and enlarged kidney, enlarged spleen, edematous and congested lungs, degeneration in intestine and degeneration and necrosis in caeca, were main gross lesions on internal organs. Microscopically liver showed hepatic card necrosis. kidney showed interstitial nephritis, peritubular necrosis and congestion. Intestinal caeca showed necrosis and degeneration. Intestinal mucosa showed degeneration. Immunohistochemistry on S. gallinarum positive tissues were conducted and revealed localize bacteria in tissues. In positive slides, dark stained areas showed immunoreaction between antigen and antibody. These stained areas actually showed the position of pathogen. In present study S. gallinarum was not isolated from all the birds showing clinical signs of disease and liver is the only organ that gave highest recovery of S. gallinarum. So liver may be the target organ in this disease. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry is precise and sensible technique to find out pathogen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2666-T] (1).

8. Study On The Pathogenesis Of Field Isolate Of Salmonella Pullorum In Experimentally Infected Broiler Chicken

by Muhammad Zeeshan (2014-VA-535) | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Poultry is one of the well organized sectors in Pakistan and generates employment for up to 1.5 million people. As use of modern techniques and medicine has reduced a risk lot but it is still facing threat from many diseases. One of these is Salmonellosis which is and hatchery borne infection and it also has a zoonotic importance. This organism is gram negative bacterium, non acid fast, uniform staining and non spore forming bacillus. Pullorum disease produced by it is also known as bacillary white diarrhea due to whitish droppings produced by birds. Day old chicks are affected because it can be transmitted vertically. Infected fomites and utensils also play a role in the transmission of infection. Growth of S. pullorum rapidly occurs upon beef agar on nutrient media and growth is best at 37 °C. Selective media such as selenite, tetrathionate broths and differential media such as MacConkey, bismuth sulfide and brilliant green agar are best for the proper growth of organism. The organism was isolated from the 30 different infected samples of broiler birds taken from different farms and was grown upon the selective media. The colonies were picked from the cultures and were subjected to PCR for the further process. After confirmation with PCR, inoculums was prepared with a bacterial load of 2 x 107 (CFU) in 0.5 ml of normal saline at the ph of 7.2. Chicks were randomly divided in to three groups as group 1, 2 and 3, each group containing 30 chicks. Group 1 was infected with field strain of S.pullorum, Group 2 with vaccinal strain and Group 3 was set as control group and no infection was given to it. Samples were collected from birds at 10th, 15th, 20th and 25th days of age. Observations were made upon, clinical signs, histopathological lesions, mortality and morbidity rate, FCR and gross pathological lesions. Clinical signs included were anorexia, depression, huddling, labored breathing, loss of feed and water intake, ruffled feathers, reduced mean body weights, low FCR and pasty vent. Gross and histopathological lesions were much observed and were prominent in the birds affected with field strain of S. pullorum. One Way-ANOVA was used for statistical analysis in between the groups. Gross pathological lesions included were liver congestion 55%, cheesy material in caeca 70% in the birds which were affected with field strain of S. pullorum. Histopathological findings in the birds affected with field strain were monocytes in spleen, leukocytes in intestine and heterophils in liver. Low FCR was recorded in infected birds of Group 1 and was 1.63 at 25th day. Mortality rate in the birds affected with field strain was maximum 43.33% and morbidity rate was 73.33% at the 10th day of age. Birds of group 2 were less affected and only showed medium level of lesions. No specific lesions were seen in group 3. The total prevalence of of S.pullorum after conformation with PCR was 20% out of total 30 infected samples. The organs for histopathology taken were liver, spleen, caeca and intestine and were preserved in 10% formalin prior to the infection. The overall pathogenesis of experimental bacteria after given through oral route was that it first localizes in digestive tract from where it enters into the blood stream and invades in the different organs and tissues at different time intervals producing lesions and immunological response. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2693-T] (1).

9. Pathological Studies On Contagiouscaprine Pleuropneumonia In Small Ruminants Of District Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Hamid Niaz (2008-VA-163) | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: These experiments presented the pathological studies on Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Distract Dera Ismail Khan at Govt. slaughter house through gross pathology, hematology, competitive ELISA, histopathology and molecular identification (PCR). For this purpose the blood and tissue samples were collected from contagious caprine pleuropneumonia suspect at govt slaughter house Dera Ismail Khan. On the basis of clinical examination, the animals were showing the elevated temperature, nasal discharge, painful cough, dyspnea and weakness. On postmortem examination the lungs showed congestion and marbled appearance (Figure no 4.1). There was straw color pleural fluid in the chest cavity (Figure no 4.2). Total of 50 samples 25 blood and tissue samples of sheep and 25 blood and tissue samples of goat were collected for the different parameters of the study. The hematology was performed at SEENA Lab in Distract Dera Ismail Khan. The hematology data was further compared and analyzed by using statistical analysis (independent t-Test). RBCs values of positive and negative cases of CCPP in goats were 9.50±0.27 and 3.15±0.39respectively. There is significant difference (p<0.05) between positive and negative cases of CCPP in goats regarding RBCs values. WBCs values of positive and negative cases of CCPP in goats were 8.31±0.38 and 17.19±1.22respectively. There is significant difference (p<0.05) between positive and negative cases of CCPP in goats regarding WBCs values. PCV values of positive and negative cases of CCPP in goats were 4.03±.63 and 17.11±1.5respectively. There is significant difference (p<0.05) between positive and negative cases of CCPP in goats regarding PCV values. The MCH values of positive and negative cases of CCPP in goats were 110±30.6and 7.65±1.01 respectively.So there was   Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2843-T] (1).

10. Genetic Polymorphism Of Mdr1 Gene (Abcb1) Associated With Drug Resistance In Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

by Abid Saeed Malik (2013-VA-844) | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The increasing number of leukemia patients, especially in developing countries like Pakistan is mounting pressure on health care facilities. Chemotherapy is the first line treatment for cancers. Despite its efficacy, stratification modalities fall a part due to the tumer cells that are drug resistant. Therefore the choice of induction depends on the mechanism of action of drug at cellular target but also on transport system which is regulated by the membrane embedded P-glycoprotein, a product of ABCB1 gene. Polymorphisms in ABCB1 gene are belived to be the one possible cause of drug resistance in cancers. In this study, genetic variants in ABCB1 gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia are identified. Polymorphism is the phenomenon that changes the course of DNA sequences and discriminates between individuals by the replacement of a single nucleotide at a locus in a gene. It can be an allele, present normally in a population or may be due to the insertions or deletion of a certain portion in a DNA molecule. These polymorphisms are accumulated in our genome through generations in history of mankind. It is commonly found at a frequency of 1 every 600 bases in all individuals. The genetic variants that are commonly found in a population or a group of individuals are known to be the wild type. The significance of SNP depends on its location in a gene. A variant present in the promoter region may have its importance as marker for the phenotype of a cell. As compared to these functional SNPs there are silent variants that may slow down the translation in a specific location to allow the peptide chain to bend into an unusual conformational effect. (Kimchi-Sarfaty et al, 2007). Multi drug resistance ABCB1 1199G>A, 1236C>T, 2677G>A/T and 3435C>T are the locus of ABCB1 gene that encodes the P-glycoprotein, that is known to have its major role in cellular transport across the membrane. Many researchers have studied the polymorphisms in ABCB1 gene and most reported is 3435CT with a relationship to leukemia with variant results to chemotherapy (Efferth et al, 2003) and in a study it was found in association with a lower event free survival/overall survival (Jamroziak et al, 2005). In this research study thirty nine patients and forty two controls were genotyped for polymorphism successfully, twenty two were male and seventeen female children, <15 years of age with median of 4.7 years for patients and 4.9 years for controls.Patients were diagnosed with precursor B-cell or T-Cell ALL in children who visited Children Hospital during the August 2016 till November 2016. The patients were excluded only when they were found missing or left without medical advice or due to lack of incomplete results or poor quality of DNA. The remaining thirty nine patients were eligible and admitted for the treatment and follow-ups. The patients were stratified according to the risk groups and Regimen they may assigned according to the criteria as mentioned in Table No: 4.6. Genotyping of ABCB1 1199G>A (rs2229109), 1236C>T (rs1128503), 2677G>A/T (rs 2032582), 3435C>T (rs1045642) and c.1308A>T were determined using allele specific tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method. SNPs were analyzed by using the DNA markers for the corresponding allelic bands in Agarose gel electrophoresis (3%). The results are then analyzed statistically. SPSS and SHEsis online software was used for the statistical analysis ofLinkage disequilibrium, Haplotype analysis (Figures: 4.27, 4.28)conducted for loci 1199G>A, 1236C>T, 3435C>T and 1308A>T of ABCB1 gene against control with same loci, using chi square with p<0.05 considered significant for these Haplotype groups. Result shows that genotypes CC/CT/TT, GG/GT/TT and CC/CT/TT of 1236C>T, 2677G>T & 3435C>T ABCB1 gene polymorphisms in this case control study are statistically significant (p<0.05) and haplotypes TTT & CTC are in consistent with individual tolerance to the choice of anticancer drug and hence aspire the concept of personalized medicine.In this research study, patients follow up with a status of “Not in Remission”are therefore believed to be the drug resistant. Polymorphisms in ABCB1 gene and anticancer therapies need to be a future study course to evaluate the scenario on a large scale. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2846-T] (1).

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