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1. The Host Reaction To Experimentally Induced Eimeria Infections In Broilers Chicks

by Ata ur Rehman Awan | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The experiment was designed to study the host reaction to the experimentally induced Eimeria species in broiler chicks. For this purpose two hundred and twenty, one-day-old chicks were reared. At the age of day 3, they were divided randomly in four groups each comprising of 55 birds. They were named as A, B, C and D. The group A was kept as un-infected control, while group B, C and D, at the age of day 3, received a primary dose of 1000 virulent sporulated oocysts, through oral, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes respectively. The challenge doses of 50,000 virulent sporulated oocysts each were adminigtered to the members of each group B, C and D on days 13, 28 and 43 of age. The OPG counts in group A remained nil throughout the experiment the maximum OPG counts 65,500 were recorded in group B by the day 21. On the same day OPG counts of group C and D were also on the peak found to be 40,500 and 54,500 respectively. Three mortalities occurred in group B, 4 in C and 6 in group D. Similarly the maximum weight was attained by the members of group A (Control) i.e. 1750 gm, secondly by group B (oral) i.e. 1530 gm, thirdly group D (S/C) i.e. 1410 gm and fourthly group C (I/P) i.e. 1280gm. The difference in B was of 220gm, in C 470 gm, and in D 340 gm lesser as compared to group A. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0404,T] (1).

2. Study On The Pathlogy Of Leg Deformity In Broiler Chickens

by Farrukh Khurshid | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Shirin Munir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The project was designed to. study the pathology of legdeformity in broiler chickens. Fifty leg deformed broiler chickens were collected from 30 commercial poultry farms of Lahore, Kasur and Pattoki. Abnormal posture or gait, reluctanceto walk and twisted, bent, bowed or rotated legs were the presenting signs. Routine post-mortem examination was performed to observe qualitative (severity and direction of deformity, position of gastrocnemius tendon, subjective assessment of bone strength, swollen and enlarged joints) assessment of bones. Four cases of varus, 30 cases of valgus, 14 cases of slipped tendon, 2 cases of dislocated condyles were recorded, in gross pathology 30 cases of dyschondroplasia, 4 cases of rickets, 7 cases of thickening of tendons, 1:3 cases of synovitis, 5 cases of femoral head necrosis, 1 case of bone abcess and 8 cases of curly toes were observed. It was observed that male birds had greater incidence of leg deformity than females Hubbard strain had greater incidence than other strain and It was noted that the most important age of deformity was 2nd and 3rd week of age and Hubbard birds grew fastly at this age and more prone to leg deformity. The affected portions of bones and tendons were processed for histopathological examination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0408,T] (1).

3. Comparative Efficacy Of Anthelmintics Against Gastro Intestinal Parasites Of Buffalo Calves And Their Effects On Blood Parameters

by Tariq Humayun | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 90 (60%) out of 150 fecal samples from buffalo calves of different age groups were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites. Coprological examination revealed Toxocara vitulorurn (42.22%) as single infection and 31.11% as mixed infection. Strongy.Zoides papillosus as 21.11% as single infection arid 20% mixed infection. Nematodirus spp. 1.11% as single. Haemonchus sp., 2.22% as single and 1.11% mixed infection. Honiezia sp. 3% as single and Eimeria spp., 21% as single and 13.33% as mixed infection. Intensity of infection of gastro-intestinal parasites in buffalo calves was determined as 41.1% of calves upto 500 eggs per gm of faeces, in 22.22% calves from 501 to 1000 epg, in 16.66% calves from 1001 to 1500 epg and in 20% calves greater than 1500 epg of faeces. Comparative percentages of means of EPG counts of infected control subgroups of groups A,B and C showed increasing trend of EPG counts by day 14. However subgroup A3, showed 'I3.l% reduction, subgroup B3 showed 61.15% reduction and C) showed 72.29% reduction in epg counts on day 3 after medication with oxfendazole. Similarly on day 7 of medication, the reduction percentage were, 95.52, 89.93 and 96.38 in respective subgroups. Albendazole in subgroups A4, 84 and C4 showed reduction on day 3, by 67.08, 64.89 and 78.57 and 95.24 respectively. On day 14, both the anthelmintics showed 100% etticacy No significant change was noted in RBC, UBC counts Hb gm/mi and PCV%, however, Eosinophils and lymphocyte counts depicted siynificant increase in the infected subgroups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0439,T] (1).

4. Effect Of Fermacto On The Function And Morphology Of Liver And Kidneys Of Broiler Chicks

by Tahir Aziz | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Ahmad Raza | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effect of two levels of Fermacto feeding for different durations on general metabolic state of broiler chickens by determining the functional and morphological state of liver and kidneys. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven groups viz A through G each containing fifteen birds. Group A was kept as control. To other six groups Fermacto feeding was done at two different levels (2 gm/kg and 4 gm/kg of feed) and for different durations. The experimental period was 42 days. Organ: body weight indices, FCR, gross and histopathological lesions of liver and kidneys, serum glucose, serum cholesterol, serum total protein and serum uric acid levels and antibody titres against Newcastle disease studied. The statistical analysis of organ body weight index for left kidney and right kidney showed a highly significant difference between all treated and control groups. The highest mean left kidney body weight index was achieved in the birds of group E. Similarly the highest mean right kidney body weight index was obtained in the birds of group C. Organ: body weight index for liver also showed a highly significant difference between control and treated groups and the highest liver body weight index was achieved in birds of group G. Best feed conversion efficiency was shown by the birds of group B. The gross pathological study of liver and kidneys revealed some nonspecific gross lesions such as slight atrophy, little changes in colour and streaks of haemorrhages in some birds of control and experimental groups. No characteristic histopathological lesion was observed in liver and kidneys of birds except accumulation of RBCs in some birds of control and experimental groups. The data obtained by the analysis of serum statistically indicated that the concentration of serum glucose and serum cholesterol levels were significantly increased in treated groups than that of control group. Concentration of serum total protein was increased in all treated groups except for C group. But there was no significant difference in serumuric acid levels of all treated and control groups. The data obtained by the analysis of antibody titre against Newcastle disease on zero, 14th, 28th and 42nd day of experiment showed that geometric mean HI titres of all groups carried no significant statistical difference on any of the above mentioned days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0493,T] (1).

5. Taxonomical Study Of Treatment Infections And Their Effect On Blood Picture In Sheep And Goats

by Sulman Hameed | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. M. Sarwar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In the present study two hundred sheep and two hundred goats both above one year of age and below one year age were examined after their slaughtering at abattoirs of Lahore for the presence of Gastrointestinal trernatodes during the month of May to August, 1995. Monthwise prevalence of p. Cervi, f... hepatica a6% D. dendriticum and D. dendriticurn during the month of May to august, 1995, was as under: May 1995 15% cervi, 20% f hepatica 6% D. dendriticum June // 19% P.cervi 27% f. hepatica 8% D. dendriticum July // 33% P.cervi 40% hepatica 16% D. dendriticum August // 28%P.cervi 32% f hepatica 13% D. dendriticurn It was observed that the infection increased gradually and reached at peak in the month of July and then declined. An overall incidence of 64.25% of trematodes was recorded in both the species. The parasitic incidence was as . cervi 23.75%, .J hepatica (29.75%) and .. dendriticum (1 0.75). So the rate of infection was on the peak in the month of July in P.cervi, E. hepatica and . dendriticurn as shown in Figure 1. The hernatological values of sheep and goats infected with trernatodes were :total Erythrocytic count 1 2.01 3 ± 0.096 million/cubic microliter, Haemoglobin level 8.037±0.160 g/l00rnl, Packed cell volume 30.10 ± 0.326%, IErythrocytic sedimentation rate 2.71 ± 0.242 mrn/24 hours and Total Erythrocytic count 10.973 ± 0.094 million/ microliter, Haemoglobin 7.637±0.128 g/1 OOml, Packed cell volume 28.15 ± 0.316% and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 1.94±0.246 rnm/24 hour respectively for sheep and goats. It was observed that the infection with trernatode had an adverse effect on total erylhrocyte count, haemoglobin level and packed cell volume. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0509,T] (1).

6. Taxonomuy And Prevalence Of Eimeria Species Infecting Young Buffalo And Cattle Calves And Their Effect On Various

by Afzal, M | Dr. Muhammad Afzal | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: This study was contemplated to evaluate some aspects of prevalent species including taxonomy of Eimeria infection& in young cattle and buffalo calves. In addition the effects of Eimeria infections on various haematological parameters i.e., Haemoglobin, PCV, RBC count, ESR and Differential leucocyte count were also studied. For this purpose the animals (Buffalo and Cattle calves) were divided into two groups. Firstly those having diarrhoea and secondly those which were apparently healthy. The buffalo and cattle calves were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) on the basis of the age in days under the maximum age of 120 days. A group ranged from 1-30 days, B ranged 31- 60 days, C ranged 61-90 and D ranged 91-120 days. The haematological observations were recorded from both the groups formulated upon the basis of age as A, B, C and D in both cattle and buffalo calves and findings compared with the control groups A, B, C and D having the same age range. Results revealed that out of 816 animals (442 cattle and 374 buffalo calves), 167 (84 cattle and 83 buffalo calves) were found to be positive (20.46%) for Eimeria species infection. Whereas 62 out of 250 (24.80%) suffering from diarrhoea and 22 out of 192 (11%) apparently healthy cattle calves showed coccidial infections. For buffaloes 63 out of 220 cases (29%) were positive from animals showing diarrhoea and 20 out of 154 (13%) were found positive for coccidiosis from apparently healthy group. Four species of Eimeria namely, Eimeria zuernii, Elmerip bovis, Eimeria cylindrica and Eimeria ellipsoidalis were found in the above mentioned ca1ves E. zuernhi was the most prevalent species found (48%) followed by . bovis (27%), Eimeria cvlindrica (16%) and Eimeria ellipsoidalis (10%) respectively. OPG count carried out ranged from 2500-70,000 oocyst per gram of faeces. Haematological observations showed anaemia, which was a feature of the diarrhoeic calves and not found in apparently healthy animals although some of them had been harbouring Eimeria infection. The PCV decreased proportionately with haemoglobin whereas erythrocyte count also showed decrease in positive cases. On the other hand ESR of the above referred calves increased. There was neutrophilia in the infected animals versus control animals and lymphocytes decreased in infected animals. There was no significant change in eosinophil and monocyte counts. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0511,T] (1).

7. Taxonomical Studies Of Prevalent Species Of Eimeria In Broiler Chicks And Comparison Of Immucox (Imported Vaccine) Versus Locally Prepared Vaccine Against Coccidiosi

by Sodaghar Ali Shaker | Dr. Muhammad Afzal | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The study was designed to identify different species of the genus Eimeria in broiler chicks occuring in poultry farms situated in and around Lahore. For this purpose one thousand faecal samples were collected from different broiler farms out of which 145 (14.5%) were positive for coccidiosis. Two hundred broiler carcases, suspected to he suffering from coccidiosis were obtained from different diagnostic Laboratories at Lahore. One hundred and ninety out of 200, (95%) were found positive for coccidiosis. Identification of the species of the genus Eimeria was done and seven species were identified i.e, E tenella 119 out of 190 (62.63%), J. brunetti 27 (14.21%), E. necatrix 13 (6.84%), . acervulina 19 (10%), . maxima 4 (2.10%), . mitis 3 (1.58%) and . praecpx 5 (2.63%). The second aim of the present study was to compare the immunogenic properties of locally prepared (atlenuated) and imported (live) vaccine (Immucox). For this purpose one hundred and fifty five day old broiler chicks were reared under controlled conditions. They were equally divided into five groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E. Group A was kept as uninfected control. Group B acted as infected control. Group B, C, D and E were infected with 50,000 sporulated Oocysts at day 15, 25, 35 and 45 of age. Group C acted as infected and treated control alongwith 5 days treatment with amprolium, after three days of each primary and challenge doses. Group D received 1000 sporulated formalin treated oocysts orally, at the age of day 3 and day 10. The members of group E received orally imported vaccine (Immucox) at the age of day 5. Immunogenicity was measured by the passage of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) and by comparative weight gains amongst different groups. It was noticed that no coccidiosis could be established in groups A, C, D and E. The OPG counts remained nil in groups A and C throughout the experimental period. Groups D and E showed moderate counts and Group B showed high counts of OPG. The OPG counts gradually decreased to 35,000, 1200 and 1150 in groups B, D and E, respectively at the end of the experiment. Average weight gain records showed 430, 150, 332 and 270 gms greater in A, C, D and E groups, respectively at the end of the experiment, as compared to group B. FCR of group A, B, C, D and E was 2.82, 3.48, 3.11, 2.76 and 2.93, respectively at the end of the experiment. Group D was the best and group B was the worst. Group D depicted full protection and remained second to the uninfected control group (A) in respect of weight gains. Group E also showed complete protection and remained third to the uninfected control group A in respect of weight gains. Inspite of complete protection in group C due to amprolium treatment, the weight gains remained lower than groups D and E. There was no development of exogenous species of Elmeria due to immunization with immucox. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0533,T] (1).

8. Comparative Studies On The Incidence Of Gastro Intestinal Parasites Of Sheep And Goats And Their Effect On Different Blood

by Najeeb ur Rehman | Dr. M. Afzal | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. M. Akram | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: A study of gastro-intestinal parasitism alongwith isolation and identification of the parasite species affecting Demani sheep and goats in and around district Dera Ismail Khan was conducted in the months of May, June, July and August, 1998. For this purpose 96 gastro-intestinal tracts of sheep and goats (48 from each) were collected from the slaughter houses of D.I. Khan and adjoining areas. The overall incidence of gastro-intestinal parasitism in sheep and goats was found to be 67.60 and 55.81%, respectively. Overall incidence of Trernatodes (22.91 and 18.75%), Cestodes (25 and 33.33%) and Nematodes (52.08 and 47.91%) was found in the said animals, respectively. Month-wise prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitism was also carried out which was the highest in the month of August. Fifteen different species of parasites were isolated and identified which include: Paramphi stomum cervi (18.75 and 12.5%), Cotylophoron cotylophorum (4.16 and 6.25%), Moniezia expansa (16.66 and 10.41%), Moniezia benedeni (6.25 and 16.66%), Avitellina centripunctata (0 and 16.06%), Haernonchus contortus (27.08 and 14.58%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (8.33 and 0%), Trichuris gyj (20.83 and 31.25%), Ostertagia circumcincta (8.33 and 10.41%), Trichostrongvlus colubriformis (6.25 and 0%), Trichostrongvlus vitrinus (6.16 and 6.25%), Trichostron&vlus axel (2.08 and 8.33%), Nematodirus spathiger (12.50 and 0%), Cooperia curticel (18.75 and 0%), Strongvloides papillosus (6.25 and 0%) in sheep and goats, respectively. The relationship between the seasonal conditions and occurrence of gastro intestinal parasitism showed close correlation. The findings of haematological studies showed that there was decrease in haernoglobin contents, TEC, PCV, TLC, and increase in ESR both in sheep and goats under the effect of gastro intestinal parasitism. The values of differential leukocytic count were variable both sheep and goats. Most of the haematological disturbances of different blood parameters in both sheep and goats were proved to be statistically significant, particularly TEC, Hb level and ESR. Whereas the percentage of basophils and monocytes was not affected. From the results of the presents study, it may be concluded that the incidence of gastro-intestinal parasitism in sheep and goats warrants that rational treatment and preventive measures must be adopted to safeguard our valuable livestock from these serious parasitic infections. It is also evident from the results that gastrointestinal parasitism adversely affects the blood components in sheep and goats which may lead to anaemia, loss of growth and loss of production resulting into depreciation of quality of milk, meat and wool. Therefore it should be considered as top priority to educate the farmers for following a strict deworming programme amongst their animals to get rid of detrimental parasites. This will ultimately be useful in producing healthy and profitable livestock, which will not only fulfill our protein requirements but also help for foreign exchange earnings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0565,T] (1).

9. Studies On The Taxonomy And Prevalence Of Eimeria Species And Their Effect On Total Serum Protein In Commercial Layers

by Usman Naqi | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. M. Afzal | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the prevalence of Eimerian species in layers of different age groups arid breeds. For the purpose, 500 carcasses of layers were obtained from various sources and brought to the College of Veterinary Sciences Lahore, and opened in Paraisitology Laboratory. Different parts of intestine were examined for the presence of Eimerian species. In addition, to asses the general health status of birds, relationship between oocyst count and total serum protein, 30 different layer farms were selected randomly and from cacti farm 5 birds were subjected to faecal arid blood examination. The faecal samples were checked for the presence of Eimerian. oocysts arid their count par gram of faeces. The serum wan separated from the collected blood sample and total serum protein value was calculated. The managemental factor of these 30 Farms were also recorded. Five species were isolated from the 500 carcasses on the basis of site of infection, oocyst shape, size, length/width ratio and sporulation time. These specie5 included Simeria tenella 32.40%, C. acervulina 29.62%, C. necatrix 15.68%, C. brunetti 13.59% and C. maxima G.71@. Out of 30 farms, 13 farms were found positive for coccidiosis. Correlation was found between the values of oocyst count and total serum protein. Five farms showed positive correlation which indicated that there was no significant difference between oocyst count and total serum protein values. Eight farms showed negative correlation indicating significant difference between the relavtive values of oocyst count and total serum protein. It was found that layers between 3-9 weeks of age were most susceptible to coccidiosis. ESb3 was found to be the most effective and commonly used drug. Among different types of litter being used in the farms, rice husk was found to be the best bedding. Babcock was found to be the most resistant breed in layers. It was also observed that inadequate space provided to the birds, uncontrolled temperature of the farm and inadequate number of drinkers and feeders favoured the infection. Biosecurity measures remained the most important among all the factors. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0571,T] (1).

10. Incidence Of Molluscan Intermediate Host And Faecal Diagnosis Of Bovine Schistosomiasis In And Around Lahore

by Naeem Irshad | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Khalid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: An investigation was undertaken to find out the prevalence of molluscan intermediate host, identification of the infected and non infected snails harbouring the intermediate stages of Schistosoma bovis and the role of coprological examination in the diagnosis of bovine schistosomiasis. Four places in and around Lahore were selected for the purpose of collection of snails, isolation of cercariae from these snails and collection of faecal samples for coprological examination Four hundred snails were collected, 100 from each of 3 ponds and a natural habitat. The Snails were collected fortnightly from October 1997 to December 1997. Prevalence of Lymneae acuminate, L. luteola, Indoplanorbis exustus, Physa acuta Melania tuberculata and Gyralaus was found to be 37.75%, 3.25%, 58%, 20.83%, 1.92% and 1.33%, respectively. Only Indoplanobis exustus was infected with intermediate stage of schistosomes, i.e. C. nudifurca and C. indice with total infection of 12792 (C nudifurca) and 7930 (C.indice) in Bansinager fish pond and Mustafabad drain Kahana, Distt. Lahore during the period from October, 1997 to December, 1997. Out of total 200 faecal samples, 32% were positive for Schistosoma infection with 3 species of genus. The positive cases showed S. bovis (100%), S. Japonicum (75%) and S. nasalis (7.8%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0593,T] (1).

11. Comparative Effecacy Of Different Prophylactic Measures Against Cocidiosis In Broilers

by Faisal Masood | Dr. kamran Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Muhamad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The study was designed to look into the comparative efficacy of different prophylactic measure against coccidiosis in broilers. One hundred and fifty, day old broiler chickens were reared under controlled conditions. They were equally divided into five groups, on day 1, i.e. A, B, C, D and E. Group 'A' was kept as uninfected, unmedicated control whereas all other test groups B, C, D and E were infected with 30,000 sporulated virulent oocysts. Group 'B' acted as infected and unmedicated control at day 20 and 30 of age. Group 'C' acted as infected and treated with Diasul-S at the rate of 1/2 gm/lit of drinking water for 3 days and group 'D' was treated with coxicure A-K at the rate of 1/4 gm/lit drinking water for 3days. The birds of group E received locally prepared Eimeria tenella vaccine (ETV) on day 3 and 10 of age of birds. No coccidiosis in the birds of group A and E was noted through out the experiment. The oocysts per gram (OPG) of faeces in group A and E was nil Members of group 'B' showed the highest counts than any other group. The birds of group 'C' and 'D' showed the moderate counts but towards the completion of experiment, the OPG counts gradually reduced in both groups. Weekly average weight gain record showed that average weight gain by the birds of group 'A' were the highest as compared with all other groups. The average weight gain of group E showed the second highest weight gains. The members of group 'B' showed the lowest weight gains while the members of groups 'C' and 'D' were ranked as 3rd and 4th in weight gains. The weight gains observed in groups A, C, D and E as compared with groups B were significantly higher (PO.O5) N. P.. In groups 'A', 'C' and 'E' the morbidity was nil. While in groups 'B' 30% morbidity was observed. Group 'D' showed low morbidity and one bird died due to coccidiosis. The best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in groups 'A' and followed by groups 'E', 'C' and 'D'. The feed conversion ratio in groups 'C' and 'D' was equally good. Worst feed conversion ratio was observed in group 'B'. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0740,T] (1).

12. Prevalence And Taxonomical Studies On Haemoparasites Of Equine And Their Effect On Blood Parameters During Winter Season

by Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was conducted between November 1999 and January 2000 to find out the prevalence and to study the taxonomy of haemoparasites of horses. In addition, their effect on haematological parameters was also studied. A total of 40 out of 435 horses were found positive for haemoparasites. The prevalence recorded was 9.20%. Out of positive animals 22(5.O6%) were positive for babesia species, of which 10 (45.45%) were infected with 6 (27.27%) were infected with B.caballi and 6 (27.27%) were positive with mixed infection of and B caballi out of remaining positive cases, 14 (3 22%) were positive for T.evansi and 4 (0.92%) were positive for P.multipapillosa. Animals of group A, belonged to all the places of other groups. Animals of group B showed 10.52 % prevalence for haemoparasites, Babesia species was present in 6 (6.31%) and T.evansi was present in 4 (4.21%) animals respectively. Horses of group C showed prevalence as 14.28% haemoparasites out of which 6(8.57%) were positive for babesia species, and 4 (5.7l%) positive for T.evansi. Similarly, animals in group D, indicated 11.11 % prevalence of haemoparasites including babesia species 3 (3.33%), T.evansi 3 (3.3%) and P.multipapiltosa, 4 (4.44%) respectively. Ten out of 180 (5.56%) horses of group E were positive for haemoparasites and 7 (3.89%) were positive for Babesia spp. and 3 (1.66%) were positive for T.evansi. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin estimation, packed cell volume, neutrophils and basophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in lymphocytes and eosinophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses of group A From the results of the present study it may be concluded that the horses belonging to the poor community need due attention for the control of haemoparasite diseases. Services must be extended to educate owners of these Tonga ponies for the control of haemoparasitic diseases and their vectors. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0767,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Potassium Chloride And Sodium Bicarbonate Suplementation On Thermotolerance Of Broileers Exposed to Heat Stress

by Muhammad Tahir Naseem | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Kamran | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6ºF) to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level. Thermostress lead to significant in decrease (P<0.05) weight gain, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, while FCR was increased. During heat stress, KCl and NaHCO3 at levels of 1.5% and 0.5% respectively, improved weight gain, and FCR and significantly increased (P<0.05) serum potassium and bicarbonate level. The results showed that combination of KCl and NaHCO3 supplementation alleviated the negative effects of heat stress in broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0863,T] (1).

14. Prevalence And Schedding Intensity Of Giardia Duodenalis Cysts In Buffaloes

by Khurrum Goraya | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. M. Sarwar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: A total of 300 faecal samples from buffaloes were collected to determine the prevalence and shedding intensity of G. duodenalis. Information about age, sex, breed and faecal consistency were also recorded. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 33.0 per cent (99/300). Prevalence of Giardia was higher (43.0 %) in buffaloes of Group I (<1 year of age) followed by 28.7 and 27.5 per cent in Group 2 (1-3 years of age) and Group 3 (< 3 years of age), respectively. The prevalence of Giardia in buffaloes with normal faeces was 23.3 % (28/120) and in abnormal faeces was 39.4 % (71/180). The prevalence of G. duodenalis in male animals was 25.5 % (15/60) and 35.0 % (84/240) in females The cysts counted in the faccal samples of buffaloes of Group I (<1 year of age) were 45383 per gram of faeces. Whereas, the cysts counted in the faecal samples of buiThiocs of Group 2 (1-3 years of age) were 28652. Group 3 (<3 years of age) showed 17273 cysts per gram of faeces. Mean shedding intensity of Giardia cysts per gram of normal faeces was 2705 and 43729 in abnormal faeces. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0896,T] (1).

15. Seroprevalence Of Ftoxoplasma Gondii Infection In Sheep And Goats

by Sher Hayat Khan | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis the present study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats using commercially available kit "Toxopalasmosis Latex" based on the principal of Latex agglutination. . For this purpose 100 blood samples (50 sheep & 50 goats) were collected randomly from slaughter house of Lahore and local sheep & goat forms, the serum was separated and analyzed for anti Toxoplasma antibodies. The animals were divided in three groups, Group I included animals below one year, Group II 1-4 years and Group III included animals aged 4 years and above. The overall 8% and 6% seroprevalence were recorded in sheep and goats respectively. Age titer relationship in sheep showed that Group III had (12.5%), Group 11(7.6 %) and Group I had no positive cases in sheep examined. In goats Group III had (10 %), Group II (5.7%) and no seropositive cases in Group I could be recorded. These results indicate that the infection was higher in older animal than young ones, Breed wise seroprevalence indicated that, Kchhi sheep 14.28%, Desi (non descript) 8.33% and no seropositive case in Lohi and Thali breeds was recorded. In goats Teddy breed had 11.11%, Desi (non descript) 5.55% while no seropositive case in Beetal goats could be recorded. From the data analyzed it is concluded that although the seroprevalence of T gondii infection in sheep and goats is relatively low in this area as compared to the other parts of the world. Yet adequate management might be useful and essential to further minimize the infection in sheep and goats herds. Consequently, preventive measures could further reduce the exposure of toxoplasmosis in the human population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0899,T] (1).

16. The Impact Of Community Based Animal Helth Services Delivery System On Epidemiological Parameters And Farmer'S

by Farrukh nazir | Dr. Muhammad athar khan | Dr. Haji ahmad hashmi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: A study was conducted to understand the impact of community based animal health services delivery systems on epidemiological parameters and farmer's economic sustainability in Central Punjab. In Pakistan three systems for the animal health services delivery are being practiced without any data base and conclusive findings for the comparison purposes and in terms of the replication if needed in future, therefore, a study was planned to quantify and compare the three systems. These systems are; community based, public based and conventional based animal health services delivery systems. As the community based system was launched as Halla scheme, in Central Punjab through the German Technical Cooperation program / funding. Therefore, the other two systems i.e. public and conventional based were selected in the areas adjacent to the community based system (Halla Cluster). The project area was selected because of the similar geographical, environmental, socio cultural and political similarities. One cluster of five villages was selected randomly for each system. The data was obtained from each cluster through active disease surveillance and was recorded on a questionnaire. Each questionnaire was used for one farmer. The cluster of five villages was 'considered as one herd. In the 1st project, the clusters were quantified and compared on different parameters, like provision of animal health services, provided from the system to the member farmers. Epidemiological parameters like morbidity and mortality rate were recorded and analyzed statistically. In the 2IId project, the community trials were also conducted to compare the efficacy of prophylactic interventions, for the economically important diseases of buffaloes and cattle i.e. the haemorrhagic septicaemia and foot and mouth disease. The effect of deworming was also recorded with reference to morbidity and mortality. In the third project the sustainability of the farmers residing in the systems were compared in terms of cost benefit ratio. Animal health services were arranged like vaccination, treatment, deworming, artificial insemination and nutrition support. Poor, good and better services were provided in conventional based, community based and public based animal health services delivery systems, respectively. The impact of services on morbidity and mortality was recorded, the minimum morbidity and mortality rate was recorded in the community based system and moderate and maximum morbidity rate, mortality rate, number of outbreaks and fertility rate due to various diseases were recorded in the conventional based animal health service delivery system. The results were statistically analyzed and significant difference at a level 5% was estimated. The efficacy of the vaccination was estimated and it was statistically found that the morbidity and mortality rates were significantly low in the intervention herds of buffaloes and cattle, as compared to non intervention herds. The overall sustainability of the farmer in term of cost benefit ratio was higher in community based as compared to public based and conventional based animal health services delivery system. In conclusion the better the animal health services delivery system, the more prosperous was the farmer. So, it is recommended that the community based animal health service system be promoted and replicated on priority basis. The animal health services are provided by public based service deliverers but they are not of the same quality as were provided by the community based system in Halla Cluster. This is the reason that in spite of all the services provided by the public based system, the morbidity rate and mortality rate due to various infectious and non infectious diseases were higher in buffaloes and cattle as compared to the community based system. In conventional based system neither the community based services nor the public based services were available for the farmers because those areas were remote and far from the public veterinary hospitals. Therefore, the morbidity rate and mortality rate at the highest spectrum of ranking and disease burden/disease load. The magnitude of disease problems was highest in the conventional based, lowest in the community based system and intermediate in the public based system. Better the quality of services are provided the minimal are the losses due to the diseases in the animal populations and in turn better the cost benefit ratio and ultimately the more prosperous is the farmer. The only way of poverty alleviation in the rural communities is to replicate the community based animal health services delivery system (Halla) with certain modifications in the Provinces of Punjab and Sindh in particular and in North West Frontier Province and Balochistan in general Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1147,T] (1).

17. Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis, Therapy And Control Of Schistosomiasis In Buffloes

by Ghulam Murtaza Arshad | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Pof. Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Schistosomiasis is one of the major diseases of public health and socio-economic importance in the developing countries of the world. Among human parasitic diseases, Schistosorniasis ranks second to malaria in tern-is of world wide public health risk. Keeping in view the importance of disease, the study was conducted to record the month wise and season wise prevalence of Schistosorniasis in buffaloes in four districts of the Punjab, province ie., Lahore, Sargodha, Kasur and Sheikhupura. The present study comprises of four parts. Part I: deals with epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in buffaloes. Overall prevalence of Schistosomiasis in buffaloes, different farms of Punjab province indicated that infection was the highest (17%) at Kasur district followed by Sheikhupura (14.83), then Lahore (14.6%) and the lowest (13.66%) at Sargodha. The highest month wise prevalence was recorded during August (25.5%) followed by July where as the lowest during December and January. Infection in buffaloes was higher in animals over two years of age (1 9%) than animals below two years of age (5%) in all the four districts of Punjab. The prevalence was higher in females (15.98%) than male (9.48%). There is variation in the prevalence as there is difference in the environmental and managemental condition of the area. For the serodiagnosis i.e. ELISA was used, the results indicated that the prevalence was lesser than the faecal examination because this was more specific and sensitive than the faecal examination. Part 2: deals with the prevalence and ecology of snails. Various species of snails which act as the intermediate host of the Schistosomes were collected from the study area. The e of infection in the snails and role of cercariae in transmission of the disease was studied. A total of 10418 snails were collected of these 13.51 per cent were found to be infected. Among these 2350 were collected from Kasur district with infection rate of 14.51 percent followed, by Sheikhupura 2882 (13.6%) then Sargodha 2709 (13.40%) and the lowest at Lahore 2477 (12.51%). At Kasur district, genus wise prevalence of snails with infection rate indicated that Oncomelonia, indoplanorbis and Bullinus are the predominant genera with infection rate of 31.79, 17.10 and 14.46 percent respectively. However the highest number of the snails collected belonging to the genera Indoplanorbis. At Sheikhupura district, genus wide prevalence of snail indicated that Bullinus, Lymnaea, Indoplanorbis and Physa are the four prominent snails with infection rate of 24.74, 20.57, 14.66 and 13.84 percent respectively. At Sargodha district, genus wise prevalence of snails indicated that Lymnaea, Indoplanorbis, Bullinus and Physa are the four prominent snails with infection rate of 25.09, 14.29, 14.28 and 16.77 percent respectively. At Lahore district, genus wise prevalence of snails indicated that Bullinus Lymnaea, Physa and Indoplanorbis are the four prominent snails with infection rate of 23.37, 18.96, 13.97 and 12.70 percent respectively.While the prevalence at the snail level the Chi square value is 242.944 and the P-Value is 0.0000 1 which is highly significant. Part 3: deals with the meteorological data ie, temperature, humidity, rainfall and pan evaporation with prevalence of snails and parasites. The temperature and rain fall play very important role in the spread of disease. The ideal temperature ranges form 22-25 °C where development within snail takes place in an efficient manner similarly humidity f ranges from 55-70% is ideal for the development of the snail and the parasite. Rainfall is very important for the spread of the disease. There is a positive correlation of disease incidence to maximum and minimum temperature, humidity, and rainfall and pan evaporation. It was seen that during summer and autumn, optimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall play an important role for rapid propagation of the parasitic life Part 4: deals with therapeutic trials against Schistosomiasis in buffaloes. A total of 150 animals (140 infected and 10 animals, normal) age ranged 5-9 years and of both sexes naturally infected with Schistosorniasis were used in thirteen controlled experiments. The efficacy of certain indigenous drugs, including Nigella sativa (Kalongi) , Caesalpinia Crista (Karangwa), Lagenaria siceraria seeds (Kadoo ke Beej), Sausseria lappa (Qushte-e-Shreen) and Praziquanlel was compared with each other and control. Efficacy was quantified by determining the difference of egg per gram faeces (EPG) pre and post treatment. After the single dose of 50, 75 and 100 mg 1kg body weight of Nigella sativa (Kalongi) reduced EPG by 65.85, 68.29 and 71.79 per cent, respectively. After the second dose the respective reduction in EPG was 85.36, 92.68 and 94.87 percent. Caesalpenia crista at three dosage levels i.e.50, 75 and 100 mgI kg body weight caused 46.34, 53.65 and 59.52 percent reduction respectively while the reduction in EPO after second dose was 82.92, 90.24 and 92.85 percent respectively. Lagenaria siceraria Seed at three dosage levels i. e., 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight caused the reduction in EPG reduction 47.61, 52.63 and 64.10 percent respectively, while after second dose, counts as the reduction 80.95, 86.84 and 92.30 percent respectively. Sausseria lappa at three dosage levels i.e., 100, 150 and 200 mg/ kg body caused EPG reduction as under 50.00, 53.48 and 56.09 percent respectively, while after second dose the reduction in EPG count was 71.42, 81.39 and 85.36 percent respectively. Where as Praziquantel at the dose of 10 mg/body weight caused reduction in EPO 66.66% while after the second dose the reduction in EPG count was 97.43 percent. The efficacy order was Praziquantel, Nigella saliva, Caesalpinia crista, Lagenaria siceraria and Sausseria lappa. No side effects with any drug were noted. All animals showed clinical improvement after the treatment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1150,T] (1).

18. Toxicity Problems Associated With Declofenac In Avaian Species And Its Substitute

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Talat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A catastrophic decline in vulture populations was first observed in 1996-97 in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. Later, similar situations were reported in many south Asian countries including Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Now, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed three vulture species i.e. Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus and Gyps tenuirostris as 'critically endangered'. Vultures are natural scavengers and play a key role in keeping the environment clean by consuming carcasses of dead livestock and wildlife. The unconsumed animal carcasses pose a serious threat to both human and animal health because decaying animal carcasses may contaminate groundwater and become a potential source of diseases such as tuberculosis and anthrax for humans and other animals. Also, due to the declines in vulture populations, a rise in the numbers of other scavengers like dogs has been observed. Therefore, the risk of dog bite and transmission of dangerous diseases, including rabies, has also increased. Furthermore, vultures play a vital role in the disposal of human corpses of the followers of the Parsi religion because they place their dead bodies before vultures for disposal rather burial beneath the earth. In the South Asian region, different communities have different attitudes toward the use of meat and its products. For example, Muslims do not use meat of dead animals, whereas Hindus abstain from cow's meat altogether because of religious bindings. For many centuries, the disposal of such meat has been done by vultures. The vulture population decline issue was investigated by researchers with the support of various international organizations dedicated to bird conservation in collaboration with regional ornithological societies. Scientists looked into the problem from different angles and considered a variety of reasons of this decline. These included food shortages, losses of habitat, persecution, human disturbances, infectious agents, environmental contaminants, intentional poisoning, and accidental poisoning through food or water. Initially, the outbreak of some infectious disease and/or poisoning appeared to be the most plausible basis of this crisis. Recent studies have ruled out presence of a widespread infection and have focused on some form of poisoning. Now, it is believed that diclofenac, a veterinary drug, was responsible for the huge fatalities in vultures, in part because the onset of the crisis was coincident with the introduction of this drug in veterinary practice. Diclofenac belongs to a class of drugs called, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Diclofenac served as an effective analgesic (pain killer), antipyretic (reduces fever), and anti-inflammatory (reduces swelling) drug. Initially, this drug was used in human beings for various indications such as arthritis. The use of diclofenac was started in domestic animals in the region a decade ago. It was reported that the presence of diclofenac in the bodies of dead animals that had been treated with this drug shortly before death was harming the vultures feeding on contaminated carcasses (Oaks et al., 2004; Shultz et al., 2004; Swan et al., 2005). The Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, has been given the task to investigate this problem. A series of experiments was conducted to study the likely causes of this problem and, if possible, find its solution by developing safer and efficacious alternatives to diclofenac for the treatment of animals. For this purpose, a chicken experimental model was developed to study the toxicity of diclofenac and other NSAIDs. These studies have shown that diclofenac produced similar toxic effects and mortalities in broiler chickens as had been reported from studies of diclofenac-poisoned vultures. Later on, therapeutic efficacy studies of safer alternative NSAIDs of diclofenac were conducted in horses, buffaloes. On the basis of these current studies, it was concluded that diclofenac was toxic to chickens and no significant difference was present in the death rates in bird groups treated with toxic doses of diclofenac via oral and intramuscular routes. Sodium and potassium salts of diclofenac caused comparable casualties in broiler chickens (unpublished study). A number of other NSAIDs were screened for their toxicity profile using the chicken model. This study showed that phenylbutazone, dipyrone, meloxicam, piroxicam and ketoprofen were comparatively safer than diclofenac. However, phenylbutazone and dipyrone may not be appropriate alternatives for diclofenac in food-producing animals because they are known to cause a condition called agranulocytosis in human and animals. Agranulocytosis involves marked reductions in numbers of white blood cells that are responsible for maintaining the body's immunity against various diseases. To evaluate the efficacy of safer drugs, fever was induced in buffalo calves with Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), and the animals were then treated them with ketoprofen, meloxicam orpiroxicam. Although, all three drugs were effective in lowering body temperature, ketoprofen was the most efficient. In another experiment, these drugs were used in the treatment of lameness in horses, and it was concluded that meloxicam was more effective followed by piroxicam and ketoprofen for the treatment of this particular problem. Based on these observations, it is concluded that ketoprofen, meloxicam and piroxicam may prove quite safe drugs for the scavenging birds and may be used as safe alternatives to diclofenac in veterinary practice. It has been observed during this study that ketoprofen, piroxicam, and meloxicam are less toxic for broiler chickens and may prove better alternates to be used in place of diclofenac in animals. The use of these NSAIDs may be less toxic for scavenger birds. The commercial preparations of ketoprofen and meloxicam for veterinary use are available at least in two south-east Asian countries i.e. Pakistan and India. The prices of these NSAIDs are comparable with those of the veterinary preparations of diclofenac which were previously available in the region. On the basis of results of this study it is concluded that ketoprofen, piroxicam, and meloxicam are effective NSAIDs in domestic animals, hence may replace diclofenac in veterinary practice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1784,T] (1).

19. Clinico-biochemical Studies on Detomidine Analgesia and Effects of its Combinatios on Animals

by Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the newly introduced imidazole derivative, drug "detomidine" with alpha-2 adr2noceptor binding properties, and its various combinations in animals. A clinico-hiochemical study was carried out to explore the various aspects of a novel sedative and analgesic drug. Analgesia was evaluated by performing castration in small ruminants, rumenal fistulization in large ruminants, skin prick test, electric stimulation, and developing an experimental colic model in donkeys. The parameters used to evaluate analgesia revealed that detomidine has greater potential to lessen the pain during minor and major surgical interventions in different animals. However, its local usage to achieve paravertebral and epidural analgesia proved that detomidine produces general effect after getting into the circulation and very poor local effect. It has been concluded that the drug can be used as preanaesthetic with chloral hydrate and pentothal sodium anaesthesia to perform major surgical exercises in equine and canine respectively. In addition it has an edge over other sedative drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on various physiological parameters of the animals. Clinical trials have proved that detomidine "a novel sedative and analgesic" is a drug of choice for restraining, examination, and minor and major surgical manipulations on equine, bovine, caprine, ovine and canine species without any untoward effects. Availability: No items available Checked out (1).

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