Sedative And Analgesic Effects Of Xylazine, Ketamine And Diazepam In Ducks
Material type: Book Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Mostly of the drugs given intramuscularly are ineffective in producing anesthesia in ducks. There are some combinations which have a synergistic effect for producing good sedation and analgesia. This combination includes ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-xylazine-diazepam. This study was conducted on ducks which are divided into two groups (A, B). The group A was given xylazine (5 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and the birds of group B was given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail. Anesthesia is the desensitization of body through nerve blockage. It is the reversible state of analgesia and loss of responsive-ness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, decreased stress response, or all of these simultaneously. The average body temperature of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 105.02±0.12, and 104.97±0.18 oF, respectively. The average heart rate of ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was 103.75±3.18, and 98.63±2.24 beats/min, respectively. The average respiratory rate of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 19.2±1.62, and 16.11±0.52 breaths/min, respectively. The onset of sedation in ducks anesthetized by KX, and KXD was recorded in 2.11±0.75 and 1.14±0.04 minutes after drug administration. The duration of sedation in the ducks anesthetized was 87.33±6.74, and 127.42±18.60 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from sedation was recorded in 89.53±6.22, and 128.56±18.52 minutes. Onset of analgesia in ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was recorded in3.22±0.54, and 1.67±0.77 minutes after drug administration. The duration of analgesia in the ducks anesthetized with KX and KXD was 39.76±3.89 and 81.15±11.17 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from analgesia was recorded in 43.37±4.42 and 82.82±11.15 minutes, when anesthetized with KX and KXD respectively. The onset of sedation, onset of analgesia, duration was relatively delayed in KX
group; recovery from sedation and analgesia was observed in ducks anesthetized with KX group is early than KXD group. These effects can be obtained from a combination of drugs to achieve very specific combinations of results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine- ketamine and diazepam in different combinations.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction.
The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France).
The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation.
During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation.
Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
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Seropravelance And Assosiated Risk Factor Of Avian Influenza Among Poultry Farm Workers/Handlers In District Lahore And Kasur
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Avian Influenza is one of the most important zoonotic diseases which are a major concern for public health. Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is a potential source for the emer¬gence of human influenza pandemics (Fouchier et al., 2005; Olsen et al., 2006; Webster et al., 1992). The outbreaks of Avian Influenzas are usually associated with various factors e.g. do not wash hands after handling sick poultry and mortality, do not use of PPE’s (personal protective equipment), no dipping area, eating and drinking during working with poultry, confinement of birds, mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and poultry fecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short intermittent temperature changes and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets.
Avian Influenza A, H9 virus was prevalent and potential risk factors are associated with AIV disease.
A cross sectional survey in poultry farm workers of district Lahore and Kasur would be conducted in order to determine seroprevalence of Avian Influenza. A study population was the apparently healthy poultry farm workers/handlers of District Lahore and Kasur of Province Punjab. Stage one cluster sampling technique was adopted and with the help of formula and 525 blood samples of poultry workers were taken from 38 selected clusters.
Blood sample from apparently healthy poultry workers were collected from brachial veins. Blood (4-5ml) was collected in vacutainers and allowed to clot for separation of serum. Collected sera were stored in freezer at -70°C for further laboratory analysis.
Haemagglutination assay (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test was applied on samples as per protocol of world health organization (WHO, 2013).
I had to work on H5, H7 and H9 strains according to my topic but due to the non-availability of H5 and H7 live viruses I could not perform lab analysis. So, I worked only on H9 strain of AIV.
The proportion estimate with 95% Cl (Confidence Intervals) of the overall seroprevalence would compute by using “R” software. Descriptive analysis was conducted by using SPSS (version 20). Logistic regression (univariable and multivariable) was conduct to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000).
The current study had provided useful estimates of risk factors related to AIV. The finding of above study will be published. These findings could be utilized by the policy maker to control the epidemics of AIV in population.
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Comparative Evaluation Of “Onlay” Versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” Novel Polyester Meshplasty In Ventral Hernia Of Rabbits
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with the body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of two placement techniques “Onlay” versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” polyester meshplasty for the treatment of ventral hernia. Polyester is a non-absorbable mesh. Polyester mesh is not available in Pakistan and was acquired from a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brand name of (Parietex®, Covidien, France).
The experimental study was conducted on 24 (twenty four) healthy rabbits presented for massive ventral hernia repair. All rabbits were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before the study. The rabbits were allocated into two different groups, viz. group-A and group-B with 12 rabbits in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) a placement technique that was used for the treatment of ventral hernia in group-A. The rabbits of group-B were treated with “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) placement technique. Ventral herniorhaphy was performed in both groups using Polyester mesh with two different placement techniques. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both techniques were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation.
During the experiment, it was observed that “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fiber. It was observed that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” showed remarkable advantages over “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” placement technique is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol Combination With Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac Tromethamine In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The study was designed on the premise that use of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol combination was more efficacious in providing better depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia than the combination of Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine.
Two separate combinations of anesthetic cocktails i.e. ketamine-xylazine-tramadol and ketamine-xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine were tested for their comparative efficacies. A total of 8 mongrel adult clinically healthy male dogs between 1 to 2 years of age which were presented to clinic for castration, were managed in to two groups comprising 4 (n=4) individuals in each. These groups were designated as group A and B. General and clinical examination of the animal, LFT and RFT were performed prior to surgery. Atropine was administered at dose rate of 0.04mg/kg SC twenty minutes prior to the surgery. Both anesthetic regiments were used respectively in either groups and their efficacy was tested based upon the depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia.
In case of group A ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and tramadol at a dose rate of 2mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia was monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. In case of group B, ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and ketorolac tromethamine at a dose rate of 0.5mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia were monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. Surgical procedure for castration was
performed as surgical plane of anesthesia was acquired. Postoperatively, Intramuscular antibiotics were injected for 5 days to avoid secondary bacterial infections to wounds. Cleaning of the wound with good antiseptic solution and excellent hygienic measures were adopted to minimize infection. Balanced diet was given to improve health of animals. LFT and RFT were performed preoperatively (baseline), and one hour postoperatively in each dog. The measurements were analyzed as change from baseline in each dog.
The results were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05), using statistical analysis software Statistica. The results of temperature, pulse and respiration were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05). Observations pertaining to depth and quality of sedation were analyzed by using t-test with statistical analysis software Statistica. Statistical significance was assigned at p≤0.05.
This study was helpful in determining efficacy of tramadol an opioid against ketorolac tromethamine which is an NSAID. This study emphasized upon discovering the most efficacious adjuvant to anesthetic combination of ketamine and xylazine. This study aimed to reduce the dose of xylazine without compromising the anesthetic effect of the combination while mitigating its side effects as well. This study provided us with a viable analgesic agent which may be administered peri-operatively to provide analgesia during immediate post-surgery period. Furthermore magnitude of improvement in depth of anesthesia helped determine an effective and cheap adjuvant to ketamine-xylazine combination.
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Active Surveillance Of Avian Influenza In Sentinel Live Bird Markets Of District Rawalpindi
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live bird markets. The outbreak can be subsided by applying biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movement, using inactivated vaccines and initiating an Avian Influenza surveillance network throughout the country.
Avian influenza virus is prevalent in live birds markets of poultry in district Rawalpindi.A survey was conducted for a period of 6 months in order to determine prevalence and trends of Avian Influenza H9 in the live birds markets of district Rawalpindi. A total of 355 samples were required to estimate retail shop level prevalence of avian influenza. Using systematic sampling method 14 butchers will be enrolled from 2 sentinel live bird market and they were visited weekly to collect samples for a period of 6 months. In each week 14 pooled samples from 70 birds (a pool of 5 swab samples and 2 serum samples from each shop was collected) was collected from both sentinel sites. Tracheal/oropharyngeal swabs will be collected from live and apparently healthy poultry birds then stored properly at 4°C (24-48hours) until processed. Data was collected from the shopkeeper in a face to face interview. A detail predesigned questionnaires were filled after taking written consent from the owner. The sample collected during the survey live birds markets of Rawalpindi district were processed for laboratory analysis. Real time RT-PCR and HA and HI tests for avian Influenza virus were conducted to diagnose sample for AIV.
The proportion estimate with 95% C.I (confidence intervals) of the overall prevalence was computed by using R software. Pattern of influenza infection in live bird markets were estimated with reference to space and time. Descriptive analysis was conducted (i.e. mean, proportion) to answer four epidemiological W’s i.e. what, who, when and where.
In present study, sero-positivity against H9 AIV was determined in district Rawalpindi. Haemagglutination (HA) assay was performed and HA titer of 1:256 was calculated, the dilutions of 8HAU was 1:32.Serum samples (n=784) were tested by HI. Out of these 784, 306 sera samples were positive (HI titer>1:8) from 2 preselected sentinel markets and 14 poultry shops, while 478 were negative (HI titer <1:8) for AI. The highest antibody titer was 1:64.
The period sero-prevalence was 39.03% (95% CI: 35.41- 42.44).Results showed thatnumber of positive was high in the month ofOctober and November then slight decreased in the month of December, January and February after that it again increased in the month of March, April and May.During the study a week with one positive result was considered positive and a week was declared negative when all samples were negative. Results showed that minimum 4 and maximum 22 weeks remained positive sample results.Fourteen shops were followed up for 28 weeks and from each shop the study 56 sera samples were collected throughout the study. In 14 shops, highest prevalence was 48.21% and lowest was 28. 57%
It is concluded that avian influenza is circulating in Live Bird Markets in district Rawalpindi. This process shared that this market could perpetuate and transmit avian Influenza to Human. So these markets are the hot spot of avian influenza infection.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Advanced Surgical Hemostats In Rabbit Spleen
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The spleen is delicate organ which is at high risk of damage after blunt trauma to the
abdomen. Splenic accidents such as spleen rupture and splenic hemangiosarcoma, are most
common cause of intra-abdominal hemorrhage in dogs. When an incision is given on spleen there
is always a high risk of bleeding. In severe cases animal often leads to death due to massive blood
loss and hypovolemic shock. The objective of study was to check the efficacy of latest and
advanced surgical hemostats i.e., Surgicel Original and Surgicel Snow to control bleeding when
spleen is severed either accidentally or surgically. These hemostats are affordable, safe, reliable
and convenient. For this, Rabbits were arranged in three groups. Group A consisted of 4 Rabbits
on which Surgical Gauz was used. In Group B Surgicel Original was used. On rabbits of Group C
Surgicel Snow was used. Hemostasis time of all the groups was monitored and number of
leucocytes, erythrocytes, platelets AST, ALT and ALP were evaluated. The results of present study
clearly indicated that Surgicel Snow is better choice to control hemorrhage than Surgicel Original.
Therefore, when ligation and other conventional methods of controlling blood stand impractical,
Surgicel should be used to control arterial, venous and capillaries bleeding during surgery.
On the basis of findings of this study, it has been concluded that Surgicel Snow is better hemostat
than Surgical Original. Surgicel Snow yields ideal stoppage of hemorrhage and does not impair
vital function of spleen.
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