Caudal Epidural Analgesia With Bupivacaine, Medetomidine Alone And In Combination In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2105 Dissertation note: Epidural analgesia is very old technique used for many regional surgeries in humans as well as in animals. It is very wonderful technique used for regional surgeries and is helpful for intraoperative management of high risk patients, perioperative analgesia, cesarean section, and forelimb amputation and have certain advantages over general anesthesia, include safety and low cost, reduces the use amount for anesthetics drug, and long-acting drugs, are helpful in residual analgesia for up to 24 hours.
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride is amino-amine long acting local anesthetic. As compared to the lidocaine, it is four times more potent, and can show anesthetic effects up to 3-8 hours. It has high potency, prolong duration, and less degree of motor blockade effects with minimal neuro and cardio toxicity effects.
Medetomidine hydrochloride is the most potent alpha-2 adrenoceptor selective agonist. It is a racemic mixture of two optical enantiomers which are, dexmedetomidine and levomedetomidine. When alpha-2 agonists administered epidurally they produce analgesia by stimulating alpha-2 adrenergic receptors present in dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and show antinociceptive properties due to their interaction with noradrenergic receptors of the spinal cord.
The current project is designed to compare the analgesic and hematological efficacy of the Bupivacaine, Medetomidine alone and in combination as epidural analgesia in dogs. For this purpose 18 clinically healthy mongrel dogs weighing 12-15kg were selected. They were divided into three groups with each group contained six dogs (n=6). The groups were named as A, B and C respectively.
In group A Bupivacaine HCl, at dose rate of 0.5mg/kg body weight Injected Epidurally, in group B Medetomidine HCl, at dose rate of 0.015mg/kg body weight while in group C combination of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride + Medetomidine Hydrochloride Injected Epidurally.
Time to the onset, duration, ataxia, and the anatomic extent of the analgesia were recorded. Time from injection to loss of sensation was considered as onset of the analgesia. The presence of the analgesia was taken as lack of responses to “pin pricking” and by applying hemostat pressure. Positive responses to needle prick or hemostat pressure shows the presence and anatomic extent of analgesia. The tests were repeated after every 20 minutes until animals regain sensation. Ataxia was graded as 0=none, 1= mild, 2= moderate or 3= severe.
Blood sample were collected directly from the Cephalic vein before and after administration of anesthetic drug. A total of 3 mL blood was collected each time in test tubes containing blood coagulating gel. First sample were taken before anesthetic drug administration and second sample were collected after 60 minutes for evaluation of Liver Function Test.
Results of the present study proved that, minimum time to analgesic onset were shown by group C dogs, followed by group A and group B dogs. Maximum analgesic time duration was shown by group C dogs, followed by group B and group A dogs. After 20 minutes of drug administration ataxic response were same in group A and group C dogs, as 5 out of 6 dogs had sever ataxia. At 20 and 40 minutes after administration of drug, dogs of group A and group C showed maximum spread of analgesia as compare to group B dogs, at 60 minutes post drug administration, dogs of group, A, B and C showed maximum spread of analgesia.
Liver function test were evaluated by three enzymes, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). Blood samples were collected before and after 60 minutes of drug administration. First these tests were evaluated within
each group. ALP, AST and ALP values were non-significant in alone administration of Bupivacaine HCl and Medetomidine HCl, while significant rise in ALP value were observed in group C dogs, treated with Bupivacaine HCl in combination with Medetomidine HCl. When ALT, AST, and ALP were compared among all three treatments, their results were non-significant as with minor change in P-value in post 60 minutes of anesthetic drug administration, which showed that all three treatments are independent and did not effect these parameters.
Elective and emergency surgeries of hind limbs are very common in dogs, which demand appropriate, best, and safest regional anesthesia, with minimum and prolong duration of analgesic time. Maximum, uniform, and rapid spread of analgesia and having least effects on serological parameters of the animal. Present study suggested that epidural administration of Bupivacaine HCl in combination with Medetomidine HCl proved to be the safest anesthesia by showing rapid onset, prolong duration of analgesia time, early recumbency of animal, with maximum anatomic extent of analgesia in short duration time. Combination of Bupivacaine HCl and Medetomidine HCl showed least effects on serological parameters of dogs.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Advanced Surgical Hemostats In The Canine Hepatotomy
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The liver is a very complex and largest organ of the body. It has role in body metabolism, filtration of blood, synthesis of plasma protein, hormone production, and it is most vital organ of body. The liver has an excellent ability to recover from injury and regenerate new tissues. Liver is a highly vascularized organ and chances of bleeding are very high in hepatic surgeries. Liver is directly supplied by hepatic artery and drained by portal vein. We often come across certain problems in liver which require surgery. When an incision is given in liver there is a high risk of bleeding. In severe cases animal can lead to death due to hypovolemic shock. In this study we used latest and most advanced hemostatic agents by using Surgicel Snow and Surgicel Fibrillar to control bleeding during hepatotomy in dogs. These hemostats are affordable, safe, reliable and convenient.
Considering the significance of hemostasis in surgical interventions, this project was designed to compare the advance hemostatic agents e.g. Surgicel Snow, Surgicel Fibrillar and sterile Surgical Gauzes. This study helped us to identify the best method that can be used for future surgical interventions in dogs, with the aim to minimize surgical bleeding in liver surgeries to accentuate early recovery.
On the basis of findings of this study: it was concluded Surgicel Snow is best hemostat than Surgical Fibrillar. It is the best hemostat with minimum blood loss and least effects on liver function.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2658-T] (1).
Effect Of Unilateral And Bilateral Thyroidectomy On Hormonal And Biochemical Parameters In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Thyroid gland is one of the most important endocrine gland of animal body. T3 and T4 are two major hormones secreted by thyroid gland. These hormones have a major role in metabolism of cells and organs. In normal thyroid both these hormones have anabolic effect. Thyroid tumors account for 1.2-3.8 % of all types of tumors in dogs. Unilateral, bilateral or subtotal thyroidectomies are practiced to remove benign or malignant thyroid carcinomas.
The present study was conducted on 12 mongrel dogs. These dogs were rendered to 3 groups with 4 dogs in each group. One group acted as control, in which no surgery was performed, second group underwent unilateral removal of thyroid gland while the third group underwent bilateral removal of thyroid gland. Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone level, calcium, W.B.Cs, R.B.Cs and haemoglobin concentration were monitored for 21 days post-operatively.
The data was expressed as mean and standard deviation. Results of the study were analysed by 2 samples T-test, one way ANOVA using multiple comparison test on SPSS version 16.0.
Based on these results it was concluded that bilateral thyroidectomy was effective in relieving hyperthyroidism but there is a need to immediately initiate levothyroxine therapy. Free T4 level drops near to zero by day 21 and TSH level rises by many folds. On the other hand, in unilateral procedure Free T4 level remain in normal range and 75% of dogs require no levothyroxine therapy. Level of calcium in unilateral and bilateral thyroid removal remains within normal range provided parathyroid glands are preserved properly. Haemoglobin concentration in both the procedures is reduced significantly postoperatively. There is a need to monitor blood parameters postoperatively.
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Use Of Xylazine And Detomidine Alone And With Ketamine Anesthesia For Caponization In Pigeons
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: For this study, (16) sixteen pigeons were selected, the birds were allocated into four treatment groups i.e. Group A, Group B, Group C and Group D, with 4 birds each. In group A, after surgical preparation, birds were given xylazine injection intramuscularly at dose rate of 16mg per kg body weight. In group B, birds were given detomidine injection intramuscularly at dose rate of 1.4mg per kg body weight. In group C, birds were given ketamine-xylazine injection intramuscularly at the dose rate of 30mg and 8mg per kg body weight respectively. In group D, birds were given ketamine-detomidine injection with the dose rate of 30mg and 0.7mg per kg body weight respectively. While regularly checking reflexes after short intervals of time. After achieving of the surgical stage of anesthesia, the surgical operation was beginning. The data was analyzed by One Way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The purpose of designed research was to compare the efficacy of anaesthesia alone and with the combination of the other anaesthesia during the surgery of the pigeons. Different parameters were used to check the efficiency of the anaesthesia. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months’ duration (including adaptation and postoperative period).
The verdict based explanations for better and reliable anaesthetic combination used in pigeons and to evaluate safe anaesthetic combination and to find ideal pre anaesthetic with minimum effects. We concluded that detomidine alone can be used just for non-surgical
procedures because it produces the light sedation but superficial analgesia with smooth induction and recovery but xylazine can also be used if detomidine is not available. Xylazine produces superficial analgesia and light sedation but for the short time comparatively. For major and minor surgeries both combinations of ketamine i.e. (K-Xp) and (K-Dp) are more reliable and safe. Both cocktails produce the deep analgesia and anaesthesia as well, with rapid and smooth induction and recovery.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2684-T] (1).