Productive And Reproductive Performance Of The Parents And The Growth Performance Of Subsequent Progeny As Influenced By Molting In Japanese Quails
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Japanese quail is a member of order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie Japonica. Scientific name of Japanese quail is Coturnix coturnix japonica (Mizutani, 2003). Japanese quail attained significance as agriculture specie due to its unique flavor of eggs and meat hence got importance as a food animal (Kayang et al. 2004). Egg production is important in south East Asia whereas meat is an important product in Europe (Baumgartner, 1994: Minvielle, 1998). Female quail starts laying at the age of 6 weeks and constantly produces eggs for at least one year. Quail is efficient converter of feed, with each egg a female deposits an edible package of 8 percent of her own body weight as compared to 3 percent in case of chicken (Martin et al. 1998).
Molting in avian species is the periodic shedding and replacement of feathers as well as rejuvenation of the reproductive system (Berry, 2003). Molting has been conducted through different techniques including photoperiod reduction, feed restriction, hormone administration, feeding dietary salt of zinc, aluminium and/or iodine (Khan et al. 2011). Molting has been associated with sudden change in physiological biochemistry which requires restoration before coming into production (Khan et al. 2011). The most important advantage of molting is the rejuvenation of reproductive system which increases tissue efficiency, development of reproductive system, loss of fat on female reproductive system, hence better post-molt performance (Park et al. 2004). Attia et al. (1994) explored that bird’s egg shell quality, albumen quality, and hatchability are influenced by molting method.
Molting is followed by ovary and oviduct histophysiological changes (De-cuypere and Verheyen 1986); affecting egg characteristics, hatchability and chick quality.
Induced molting is an effective management tool, enabling to meet egg production with demand and even providing greater economic benefit as it reduces bird cost per dozen of eggs because it lengthens the productive life of the hen (Carey and Brake 1987).Induced molting is used in the poultry industry to increase the reproductive lifespan of birds leading to new productive cycles (Laurentiz et al. 2005). In the induced molting methods, 25-30% of body mass reduction from initial weight is ideally required to achieve a maximum post-molt performance (Brake, 1993). Induced molting has been reported to improve egg production and other performance parameters (Akram, 1998; Usman et al. 2013). As to body weight loss (BWL), research studies point out that BWL levels between 25 and 30% promotes better post-molting production in a second laying cycle (Hussein, 1996). Reduction in ovary weight depends upon the duration of fasting or body weight loss levels (Berry, 2003); 15% body weight loss results in heavier eggs as compared to 20-25% (Buhr and Cunningham 1994). Post-molt reproductive improvement is related to the regression and to the regeneration of the cells of reproductive system (Brake and Thaxton 1979). Egg quality and hatchability decrease with the age of the breeder and are reported to be improved in terms of Haugh Units and overall hatchability after molting (Lapaˆo et al. 1999). Induced molting not only helps in improving production performance and egg shell quality but also increases profit by optimizing the use of replacement pullets on commercial layer farms (Bell, 2003).
The combination of feed withdrawal and light reduction was most widely used to induce molting in the US egg industry in the past. Most producers used some form of feed withdrawal for periods of 5 to 14 days in breeder birds (Bell and Kuney 2004).
It is further reported that induced molting improves the post-molt performance of the laying hens compared to the pre-molt performance, this improvement includes egg size, shell quality, internal
egg quality, and the rate of egg production. Egg size increases significantly after a molt with a higher percentage of higher grade eggs (Zeelen, 1975). Hatchability is influenced by molting method (Attia et al. 1994). Several researchers studied a relationship among hen age and hatchability (King’ori, 2011). Induced molting through feed withdrawal and photoperiod reduction is an effective method to improve egg production, egg quality, fertility and hatchability of broiler breeders (Moustafa et al. 2010).
The effect of molting in chicken and turkey is very well studied and some basic facts have been well established but its significance in quail production is still having a question mark. Reason being the availability of little information on this aspect of quail production. It is also being felt that in Pakistan, especially at Avian Research and Training Center selection for higher body weight is being practiced since last 5-6 years and with the passage of time final body weight (4 week) of quail is almost doubled. These genetically improved quails need to be subjected to maximum experimentation in order to study their potential and standardize their management requirements. Present study is also an effort in the same direction with the main objective to explore the effect of molting on productive and reproductive performance as well as subsequent progeny growth performance in Japanese quails.
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Growth Performance, Body Measurements And Slaughter Characteristics As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters In Japanese Quail
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Coturnix japonica is the zoological name of Japanese quail, which belongs to order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie japonica (Beletsky, 2006). It is highly disease resistant with a very short maturity age as well as market life (4-5weeks). Female quail starts laying almost at 7-8 weeks of age, hence getting popular (Ashok and Prabakaran 2012).
Generally the chicks are removed from hatcher only when most of chicks have hatched within the period of hatch window which is almost 36 to 48 hours (Careghi et al. 2005). Many factors affect delay in hatching, the most important being the parent flock age, handling of eggs, time of egg preservation and internal incubation conditions (Decuypere et al. 2001). Little space in the hatcher for hatched chicks, opening of hatcher over many time and late collection of chick can lead to dehydrated and low quality chicks (Bamelis et al. 2005). To reduce above stated risks a concept named “Patio system” was introduced in Netherland, proposed by Kuijpers brothers to improve hatchability and growth performance of chicks. In this system pre incubated eggs (hatching phase) and after hatching chicks (brooding phase) are placed combined in hatchery (http://www.vencomatic.com). Patio system improves body weight, quality of chicks and reduces chick mortality in broilers (Van de Ven et al. 2009). A synergistic effect on growth performance and various economic traits can be attained by using patio system and various feed additives such as probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics etc. The term probiotic is derived from two Latin words “pro” and “bios”. Probiotics are prepared from different species of microorganisms (Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces) considered as intestinal beneficial microflora (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Probiotics are used to make the products through the use of which, many species of animals improve their intestinal miro-flora (Leeson and Summers 1997). Improved beneficial bacteria
of intestine suppress harmful bacteria like E. coli and produce beneficial enzymes and substances that have antibiotic like effects (Montes and Pugh 1993). Probiotics work by two ways. 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Enhancing immune system. In competitive exclusion, bacterias in gastrointestinal tract produce such type of substances that stunt the growth of harmful bacterias and compete for their predilection site (intestinal epithelium) while second mode of action is, to stimulate their immune system as the young one born is sterile, hence, their gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and beneficial bacterias in GIT are not able to produce antibodies against harmful bacterias that aggregate in chick GIT. By using probiotics that attach intestinal mucosa and create barriers for harmful bacteria and enhance immune system (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Different probiotics (Bacillus subtili) have different modes of action (competitive inhibition) that utilize oxygen in GIT of birds and convert them in different useful enzymes (subtilin and catalase) by which friendly bacterias (Lactobacilli) colonize in birds GIT and block predilection site of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Lactobacilli bacteria produce lactic acid that kill many harmful bacteria like, Salmonella and E.coli (Hosoi et al. 2000). Probiotics are also found to enhance activity of immunoglobulins, macrophages, lymphocytes and interferon (Yang et al. 2009). Birds fed on probiotic mixed diet showed higher body weight and increased carcass percentage (Kabir et al. 2004a) but feed intake, proventiculus, gizzard and liver weight were found to be non-significant among different treatments (Dizaji et al. 2012). Similarly in another study, higher body weight and weight gain were observed in ostrich birds fed on probiotic enriched diet (Karimi-Kivi et al. 2015). Using antibiotics as feed additives can also improve health status of birds. The first antibiotic “chlortetracycline” when used in animal feed during early 1940s increased body weight was observed (Dibner and Richards 2005). For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used in
poultry feed as a supplement to improve bird’s growth performance, feed conversion ratio and carcass meat yield (Denli et al. 2003). Antibiotics being used in poultry industry are also used therapeutically in human medicines (Edens, 2003). However, recent progress in poultry industry and consumer concerns have risen the questions on use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to their side effects (Wray and Davies 2000). The European Union (EU) banned some antibiotics as growth promoters because of many bacterial strains showing resistant against them (Edens, 2003) In Pakistan high production cost and market price of quail meat discourage both the producer and consumer. The use of patio system may help reduction in production cost, hence, help in gaining the trust and preference of both quail farmers and consumers. Present study was conducted with the main objectives to study the advantages of patio system in Japanese quail and also provide basic information regarding future use of this technique in quails. It was further tried to understand the utility of different growth promoters in quail production with special emphasis on antibiotics and probiotics.
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Performance And Immune Response Of Layers Among Different Production Cycles Influenced By Body Weight Losses During Molting
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Molting is a natural phenomenon in birds to rejuvenate their potential and body reserves. Commercially molting is being practiced in most of the countries to extend the production cycle of the bird and gain more from a single birds. It also reduces the cost of rearing the replacement pullet and increase egg size. The success of molting depends on loss of body weight during molting. Genetic improvement is a continuous process and new strains of layers are being developed on regular basis. LSL Lite is one of the recently introduced strain in Pakistan. But, its optimum body weight loss during molting in different production cycles is need to be optimized. The present study was planned to compare the performance of birds after different body weight losses during molting in different production cycles of commercial LSL Lite strain. The study was conducted at a Commercial layer farm. A total of 216 uniform weight birds of three production cycles (1st Cycle = 16 Wk, 2nd Cycle = 80 Wk, 3rd Cycle = 108 wk) were placed in battery cages. The birds of 2nd and 3rd production cycles were first molted till reduction of 20, 25, and 30% body weight loss. The birds of 1st production cycle (Control group) were those having same body weight as those of 2nd and 3rd production cycle after molting. The birds used in 3rd production cycle were first molted at the age of 64 Wk. Each treatment was replicated three times with 8 birds each and placed according to Completely Randomized Designs. The parameters used were post-moult production performance, egg geometry, egg quality and immune profile of these birds. The data collected were subjected to ANOVA under Completely Randomized Design in factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1. Significant means (P<0.05) were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results of the present study showed that birds in 1st production cycle have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass, shape index, egg surface area,
Huagh unit, yolk index, shell %, egg shell thickness. Whereas birds in 3rd production cycle have highest feed intake. Egg weight was highest in 2nd and 3rd production cycle. Similarly birds in low weight category have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass. Whereas birds heavy weight category had highest egg mass. Non-significant difference were observed regarding immunity in different production cycles and body weight loss categories. Similarly non-significant difference were observed regarding egg quality with respect to body weight loss categories throughout the experiment. Feed intake and egg production remained non-significant in case of interaction of production cycles and body weight loss categories.
From present studied it can be concluded that:
Different production cycles influence productive performance of the birds, especially 1st production cycle birds had higher production % FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass however the production performance of 2nd and 3rd production cycles birds is relatively comparable. Similarly 2nd and 3rd production cycle birds exhibit higher egg weight and egg mass.
Birds of low weight category (< 1400 g) of 1st production cycle and 30% body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycles had relatively higher egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass. Whereas heavy weight category of 1st production cycle and 20 % body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycle had higher egg weight and egg mass.
Egg quality and geometry was influenced by production cycles but no difference was observed by body weight loss categories in this regard.
Different production cycles and body weight loss categories did not influence immune parameters.
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Supplementation Of Glycerin In Rearing Diets And Its Subsequent Effect On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Hatchability In Japanese Quails
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Glycerin has gained attraction being a low cost and energy rich compound that can partially replace the major ingredients including corn and some other energy rich stuffs. It may work as an alternative energy source without any detrimental effect on production performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quails. This study evaluated subsequent effect of glycerin on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quail. A total of 200 birds were arranged according to completely randomized design into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 8 birds each (6 female + 2 Males). Treatment consisted 5 levels of glycerin i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % and control group. Birds were fed with different levels of glycerin during rearing period of six weeks and their subsequent effect on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed. Data were collected regarding productive performance for 16 weeks, however, egg quality and hatching traits were recorded during pre-peak (at 4th week), peak (at 12th week) and post peak (at 16th week) phase. No significant effect of glycerin on subsequent productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed throughout the experimental period. Regarding productive performance, initial and final body weight, feed intake, hen housed and hen day production%, egg weight, egg mass, FCR / dozen egg and / kg egg mass did not show any major significant difference in all three phases. However, glycerin had significant effect on subsequent egg weight during peak and post peak phase. In egg quality, no significant effect of glycerin were observed on subsequent egg shell thickness, shell weight and yolk index in all three phases, whereas, albumen height and Haugh Unit score during pre-peak and peak phase were effected significantly. In terms of hatching traits, hatchability, fertility, dead in shell and dead germ% did not show any significant difference in all phases. However, clear egg % showed significant difference during peak phase of production.
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Morphometric Measurements, Carcass And Slaughter Characteristics In Japanese Quails As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore to evaluate the effect of 5 Patio strategies (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days) along with growth promoters (Neomycin, Protexin and control) on morphometric measurement, carcass and slaughter characteristics of Japanese quail. A total of 900 recently hatched chicks from prior incubated eggs were randomly divided into 5 Patio strategies i.e., Treatment 0 included chicks without any feed and water in hatcher, Treatment 1 included offering feed and water during the last three days in hatcher, Treatment 3 included birds kept for extra 3 days in hatcher with feed and water, Treatment 5 included keeping chicks for extra 5 days in hatcher with feed and water and Treatment 7 included birds kept for extra 7 days in hatcher and offered feed and water at same place.
Chicks hatched in each tray were further subdivided into 3 groups and subjected to three dietary treatments including (0.3 g/kg Neomycin, 0.1 g/kg Protexin and Control group) with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. At the age of five and seven weeks six birds (3 males and 3 females) from each replicate; hence a total of 90 birds were slaughtered to study different parameters pertaining to morphometric measurements, carcass and slaughter characteristics. At the end of the experiment, the data were analyzed according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial arrangement using GLM (General Linear Model) procedures (Steel et al. 1997). Comparison of means was worked out through Duncan’s Multiple Range test with the help of SAS 9.1. (2002-2004).
Result of present study showed significant differences among different patio strategies and growth promoters in different parameters at 5 and 7 week of age. Breast width, drumstick circumference, liver % Heart%, Bursa% and pancreas% were found to be significantly higher in birds kept under patio system for 0 days at the age of 5th week. Keel length, Breast %, neck %, head% and ovary % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 1 day at the age of 5th week. Shank circumference and testes % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 5 day at the age of 5th week. However Body length, drumstick length, shank length, wing spread, fillets%, thymus%, and spleen%, were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 7 day. The most promising result in terms of growth performance and carcass characteristic were observed in birds kept under patio system for 3 days at the age of 5th week. Under patio system 3 highest body weight, carcass % Wing %, back%, drumstick %, shank %, and gizzard % were observed.
Breast width, breast %,drumstick circumference, shank length, shank circumference, keel length, wing spread, thigh %, back %,head % ,heart %,% thymus% ,spleen %, and pancreas % were found to be higher in male birds. Body length, body weight Carcass %, Shank %, shank circumference, drumstick length, wing %, fillets%, drumstick %, neck%, liver %, and bursa % were found to be higher in female birds.
Body weight, Fillets%, breast %, liver %, shank % and heart % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with probiotic diet. Breast width, drumstick length, keel length, shank length, wingspread, drumstick %, back %, head %, gizzard%, spleen%, and bursa%, were found to be higher in birds supplemented with antibiotic diet. Body length, Drumstick circumference, shank circumference, wing%, neck%, carcass%, thymus%, bursa % and pancreas % were found to be higher in birds fed Control diet.
Body length, Shank Circumference, Wing spread, and liver % were found to be significantly higher in birds kept under patio system for 0 days at the age of 7th week. Fillets, bursa %, ovary % and testes were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 1 day. Breast width, Keel length, thigh %, back%, neck %and spleen % testes were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 5 day. However breast %,Head % ,shank %,Heart %,Gizzard % and pancreas % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 7 day. Body weights, carcass %, Drumstick circumference, Drumstick length, shank length, wing %, Drumstick % and thymus % werefound to be higherin birds kept under patio system for 3 days.
Breast width, breast %,drumstick circumference, drumstick length, keel length, wing spread, fillets %, thigh %, back %,head % shank %,heart %gizzard% thymus% and pancreas % were found to be higher in male birds. Body length, body weight, Carcass %, Shank length, shank circumference, wing %, drumstick %, neck% liver %, spleen %and bursa % were found to be higher in female birds.
Body length, body weight, Wing %, Back %, neck % and ovary % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with probiotic diet.Shank circumference, Shank length, wingspread, Breast %,Head %,liver %,heart %,thymus %,bursa%, pancreas % and tested % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with antibiotic diet.Breast width, Drumstick circumference, drumstick length, keel length, thigh %,drumstick %,carcass %,shank %,gizzard % and spleen % were found to be higher in birds fed Control diet.
Based upon findings of the present study it can be concluded that:
1. Patio system helped improving body measurement (body weight, breast width, body length, drumstick length, keel length, shank length, drumstick and shank circumference and wing spread) in Japanese quail at different week of age.
2. Patio system also had positive effect on carcass %.
3. The use of probiotic at different week of age helped improving body weight and body length in Japanese quail.
Suggestions and recommendations
No doubt the results of present study are very promising regarding the use of patio systems. However, This is an entirely new approach and unique in the sense that a little work is documented , hence needs to be studied very thoroughly.
1. It is suggested that the use of different probiotics and antibiotics needs to be studied in as much details as possible to draw some solid conclusions and guidelines for the quail industry regarding the use of these products.
2. In addition, females quail produced superior mean values in live body weight, body length and carcass % than males. So, more female quails be raised and produced by using these strategies.
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Effect Of Different Sources Of Selenium On Egg Production, Egg Quality And Egg Selenium Concentration In 2ND Phase Of Laying
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Se is an essential element required for the human body. On the daily basis food consumed by human does not fulfil the requirement of Se for the body. Se cannot be directly consumed as it is harmful for the human body that’s why scientist are trying to produce Se enriched foods for human consumption. In this way eggs are the best medium through which consumable Se can be provided to the human by fortifying eggs when Se given to the birds in feed.
Different sources of Se supplementation in the diet may affect the egg shell quality, albumin height and selenium concentration in the eggs when given to ISA hi-sex white commercial layer.A total of 240 birds from ISA hi-sex fed with two Se sources and having three levels (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/kg) each i.e. organic Selenium Yeast (SY), inorganic Se as Sodium Selenite (SS) and combination of organic and inorganic sources of selenium (SY+SS) one control were used in present study. Daily egg production, egg weight and weekly feed efficiency was recorded. Egg shell thickness, egg shell weight, albumen height, yolk index and haugh unit were measured every week. Whole egg Se concentration was determined 2nd, 4th and 8th week of the experiment.
Data collected were analyzed through completely randomized design (CRD) under one ANOVA technique (Steel et al. 1997). Means were separated through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (Duncan’s, 1955) with the help of SAS 9.1. The results of the observed study showed that supplementation of organic Se in the layer hen’s diet improved the albumen height (mm), Haugh unit score and yolk index. In this experiment different sources and levels of Se did not show the statistically significant difference in the results of egg production, egg weight, egg shell weight and egg shell thickness. All the sources and levels of Se improved the whole egg Se concentration and the organic Se showed much better results in whole egg Se concentration as compared to other sources of Se.
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Effect Of Selenium Supplementation On The Growth Performance Of Quail Chicks From Different Parental Body Weight Categories
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Quail farming, despite having enormous potential, is still one of the neglected components of the poultry sector in the country, reason being very little research work done on its breeding, incubation, housing, nutritional requirements, feeding and overall management. Interaction factor between different parental body weight categories and Selenium sources has never been studied earlier: Therefore, it is of much importance to investigate the effect of selenium on growth performance, body measurements and slaughtering characters of progeny from the parents of variable body weight in Japanese quails. Supplementation of feed with organic selenium may affect growth performance, morphological traits and carcass characteristics of the chicks from parents of different body weight categories. Present study was conducted at Avian Research and Training Center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore for the duration of 04 weeks. Standard managemental conditions were followed, where, birds were maintained in well ventilated octagonal quail house (33×12×9 cubic ft.) equipped with French made multi deck cages. The birds were fed quail ration according to NRC (1994) recommendations. Quail broiler starter crumbs (CP 24% and ME 2900 Kcal/Kg) were provided with addition of Se from different sources. Through nipple drinking system availability of fresh, clean drinking water was ensured. Treatments consisted of 3 parental body weight categories (Heavy, medium and low) and three Se sources (Control, Organic Se @ 0.2mg/kg and Inorganic Se @ 0.4mg/kg). Effect of different Selenium sources on different parental body weight categories was studied regarding progeny growth performance, body measurement and slaughter parameters. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) under Randomized complete block design (RCBD in factorial arrangements using PROC GLM in SAS software. Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Present study showed that parental body
weight, selenium and their interaction did not show significant effect on growth performance except livability% for which maximum value was observed in heavy x organic group. For body measurements, parental body weight (heavy) interacting with selenium (control) sources resulted in highest measurement of shank length and circumference. Keel length was maximum in heavy x control group. Drumstick length was found highest in medium x inorganic while its circumference was highest in medium x control. Wing spread was found to be the highest in heavy x control group. Regarding slaughtering characteristics live weight was found to be maximum in heavy x control group while regarding dressed weight, heavy x organic group showed the highest value. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
On the basis of the results of present study, it can be concluded that
Parental body weight, selenium and their interaction did not show any significant effect on growth performance of Japanese quail except livability%. The interaction of heavy x control for livability was found to be better.
For body measurements, parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected shank length, shank circumference, keel length, drumstick length and circumference. Wing spread only significantly responded to parental body weight. Selenium was found to be non-significantly affecting all other morphometric measurements.
Regarding slaughtering characteristics parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected live weight and dressed weight. Selenium sources had only significant effect on dressed weight. Live weight was not effected by selenium
supplementation. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
The dose rates of organic and inorganic Selenium especially for Japanese quail need to be fixed.
Carefully planned and well executed studies are needed to fix the dose rates of selenium for Japanese quail.
Organic selenium seems better but again, further experimentation is recommended to use this trace mineral in Japanese quail feeds.
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Quality, Nutritional And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Eggs From Different Chicken Genotypes In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Egg is a miraculous food having all essentials of life. In the recent times, consumer
consciousness regarding egg and egg products is increasing and people prefer to eat eggs from
indigenous breeds over commercial breed, as they consider them of high nutritional value and
good quality. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare egg quality,
proximate composition, macro minerals analysis, fatty acids profile, and organoleptic
evaluation of eggs from 6 different breeds of chicken in Pakistan. For this purpose, 5 bird of
each of the 6 breeds (White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock, Naked Neck, Aseel, Rhode Island
Red and Fayoumi; 40-50 week of age) were kept under Completely Randomized Design on
litter floor. A total of 10 eggs from each breed were used for egg geometry (Egg Shape index,
surface area, volume) and quality analysis (Egg specific gravity, shell thickness, shell %,
albumen %, albumen index, haugh unit score, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk %, yolk index, yolk
color, blood and meat spots), 3 from each breed were used for proximate analysis (Moisture
%, Crude Protein %, Lipids %, Ash %, Carbohydrates %), macro minerals (Calcium,
Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Iron) analysis, and fatty acid analysis, respectively. For
organoleptic evaluation, a semi trained panel of 20 people evaluated egg samples randomly
which were boiled at same time peeled and sliced into pieces. The panel evaluated Color,
Aroma, Flavor, Taste, mouth feel, and overall quality of Albumen and Yolk separately on 15-
point hedonic scale. The data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique
under Completely Randomized Design. The significant means were compared using Duncan’s
Multiple Range (DMR) test using SAS 9.4. Results showed no difference among breeds for
egg geometry and shell quality parameter, however, egg specific gravity was significantly
higher in Fayoumi chicken. In albumen quality, Rhode Island Red eggs showed highest
albumen percentage, while Haugh unit score was best in eggs of Aseel, Fayoumi, Naked neck
and Rhode Island Red as compa red to other breeds. But, Albumen index and Albumen pH
remained unaffected by different breeds. Similarly, in yolk quality traits, yolk percentage was
significantly higher in Aseel, Fayoumi and Naked neck, and yolk color in eggs of Fayoumi,
but yolk pH and yolk index remained unaffected by different breeds. Proximate analysis
showed significantly highest moisture and carbohydrate contents in White leghorn eggs while
Protein contents were highest in Aseel, Naked neck and White Plymouth rock. Moreover,
White Plymouth rock eggs also showed more lipid contents, while Ash percentage remained
comparable among different breeds. Macro minerals analysis showed higher Iron contents in
eggs of White leghorn breed, while Fayoumi eggs were higher in Magnesium, Potassium, and
Sodium contents. Naked neck eggs also showed higher Potassium and Calcium contents. Fatty
acid analysis showed higher Myristic acid (C14:0), DPA contents in eggs of White leghorn,
Stearic acid (C18:0) in eggs of Fayoumi and Aseel, Saturated Fatty acids in eggs of Fayoumi,
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1), Oleic acid (C18:1), Linoleic acid (C18:2), Arachidonic acid (C20:4),
EPA, DPA, DHA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-3 fatty acids in White Plymouth rock, n-6 fatty acids
in eggs of Rhode Island Red, While α-Linolenic acid (C18:3) was lowest in eggs of Naked
neck breed as compared to rest of the breeds. But, Naked neck showed higher total lipid
contents as compared to other breeds. During organoleptic evaluation, White Leghorn eggs
showed highest intensity for yolk taste, flavor and mouth feel, whilst, yolk color, aroma and
overall quality remained comparable among different breeds. Likewise, in albumen
organoleptic evaluation, Albumen color was least intense while Albumen Aroma was highest
in Aseel eggs. Albumen taste, flavor and overall quality was highly intense in White Leghorn
as compared to other breeds.
On the basis of the results of the present study it can be concluded that egg geometry was not
affected by genotype variation, however, very interestingly, huge variation was observed
regarding internal egg quality traits, proximate and mineral composition, fatty acid profile as
well as sensory evaluation of the eggs from different chicken breeds.
Suggestions and Recommendations:
Based upon the findings of present study it is suggested for future researchers that:
1. There is a dire need to conduct thorough studies to investigate the genetic basis of
differences among different breeds regarding egg quality attributes.
2. In future breeding plans, egg quality and sensory properties of different breeds must be
kept in mind and incorporated accordingly.
3. Improvement in production performance of indigenous breeds through selection should
be made as these breeds have better egg characteristics and preference by the local
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Effect Of Different Selenium Sources On Nutritive Composition Of Breast And Thigh Meat In Varieties Of Aseel Cockerels
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry industry is second largest enterprise of Pakistan owing to be a major source of food in terms of meat and egg and shares an enough contribution towards national GDP, livestock growth and mass employment. Indigenous poultry breeds also have been playing important role in fulfilling the protein requirements of people. Aseel is one of the famous breed of Pakistan and distributed throughout the country in its different varieties. Selenium enriched food items are gaining public interest due to health benefits and longer shelf life. Production of such enriched food items is requiring latest knowledge about supplementation of micro minerals in the diet of birds. For this purpose, a study was conducted with basic objective to determine the effect of different selenium sources on meat quality and composition in four varieties and Aseel chicken. Two hundred day old Aseel chickens cockerels were procured from Avian Research and Training Center. After three weeks of brooding and adaptation period, 120 Aseel cockerels were then randomly selected and separated into four groups (40 birds/group/variety), every group was further subdivided into three treatment sub groups (A, B, and C) with 10 birds in each treatment and were assigned three dietary treatments. Aseel cockerels were housed individually in cages system. Group A and B were experimental groups while group C was control. The Aseel chickens were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age and meat of breast and thighs were used for proximate analysis (CP, DM, Ash, Fat) and minerals (micro and macro) determination. Values obtained were used to analyze through two-way ANOVA technique using SAS 9.1 software. Means were compared with DMR test. Result of this study showed that DM% of breast was higher (P≤0.05) in Mushki × SS and of thigh meat higher (P≤0.05) in Peshawari × SS. Similarly, CP of breast meat was higher (P≤0.05) in Lakha × SS and of thigh meat Lakha SY
group and fat of breast was higher in Lakha × SY group and of thigh meat was higher (P≤0.05) in Mianwali × SS group. Varieties differed in macro-minerals i.e., sodium, potassium, phosphorus and calcium shown by Lakha variety in breast meat while magnesium was higher in breast meat of Mianwali. In thigh meat, sodium, potassium, calcium contents were prominent (P≤0.05) in Lakha while magnesium was higher in Mushki variety. However, phosphorus was non-significant in thigh meat. In micro-minerals, selenium contents in breast and thigh meat of Aseel chicken were higher (P≤0.05) in Lakha variety while for copper contents, breast of Lakha and thigh of Mushki variety had higher values (P≤0.05). Zn, ferrous and Mn contents were non-significant in breast meat while in thigh meat, Mn among was higher in Lakha variety. In breast meat, pH, Lightness, Chroma, Hue, Redness and Yellowness were higher in Peshawari, Mushki, organic × lakha, Organic× Mushki, Inorganic × lakha and organic × Mushki groups respectively while, in thigh meat, Mianwali, Mushki ×inorganic selenium, Lakha × inorganic selenium, Peshawari × Organic selenium, Peshawari × inorganic selenium and Lakha × organic selenium had highest values. From above results, we concluded that inorganic selenium is more beneficial in indigenous Aseel chicken as it improve the DM and CP contents while organic selenium is more helpful due to more fat contents in meat of chicken breast and thigh parts. While, Aseel Lakha chicken is strongly recommended for micro and macro mineral enriched meat production.
Based upon the finding of the present study it can be concluded that:
Organic selenium helps in improving breast fat and thigh protein in Aseel rooster.
Selenium don’t have any detrimental effect on minerals contents, pH and color of meat of Aseel rooster.
Organic selenium better retained in breast and thigh meat than inorganic selenium.
Meat of Lakha Aseel is more nutritive than others varieties fed organic selenium.
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based upon the result of the present study it is recommended that:
This study would be helpful for poultry meat processing industry because Se not only improve meat quality but also shelf life.
Organic selenium should be added in the diet of chicken to improve the nutritive value of meat.
Lakha and Mushki Aseel should be reared for beneficial effect of meat nutrient on human health.
Selenium yeast enrichment in the Aseel feeds can be very helpful increase in body weight which ultimately increase the profitability.
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Comparative Evaluation Of Effect Of Selenium Sources On Growth, Production And Reproduction In Different Varieties Of Indigenous Aseel Chicken
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Universally, domestic chickens are considered very important due to their better adaptability to the local climatic conditions. Among native poultry breeds of Pakistan, Aseel is a recognized native breed used mostly for backyard poultry production and is famous for its appreciable degree of resistance to various diseases as compared with commercial exotic poultry breeds. In many communities, native chickens are considered very important in breaking the vicious poverty cycle. This breed contains genes and alleles appropriate to their adaptation to the specific environment. On the basis of its characteristic of producing good quality meat, Aseel chicken can be used and further improved as a meat type bird. However, the main limitation in its propagation is its slower growth rate, poorer egg production, smaller egg size, lower fertility and hatchability.Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-mineral for poultry which exists in organic and inorganic forms. Organic Se is reported to be more bio-available which improves the growth performance, productive and reproductive potential of poultry resulting in better egg and meat production as well as the quality. Despite having considerable capabilities, inadequate research work has been so far conducted on Aseel that may be the main bottleneck towards increasing its overall production. In this study, there was a focus on the improvement of growth, productive and reproductive potential of Aseel; also for the development of functional poultry products (eggs and meat, enriched with Se). The present study was planned with the main objectives to investigate the influence of organic (Se-enriched yeast: SY) and inorganic (sodium selenite: SS) Se dietary supplements on growth performance, nutrient utilization, blood biochemical profile, slaughter characteristics, tissue Se concentration, rearing expenditures andmortality as well as the production traits including egg production, egg quality/geometry, hatching traits and egg Se concentration in four recognized varieties namely Lakha, Mushki, Peshaweri and Mianwaliof indigenous Aseel chicken. The study comprised two main experiments conducted at the Indigenous Chicken Genetic Resource Centre (ICGRC), Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Ravi campus, Block-C, Pattoki with the objectives to explore theimpact of dietary Se addition, influence of varieties and their interaction on overall performance of Aseel chickens. For this purpose, in the first experiment, 240 three-week-aged birds (120 males and 120 females) were distributed in a randomized complete block design into four groups, 60/variety (30 males + 30 females). These birds of either sex were further subdivided into three treatment groups A, B and C according to the nature of diet (SY added, SS added and without Se added) with 10 birds/treatment and each treatment was replicated 10 times with one bird in each replicate. Data thus collected were subjected to analysis of variance techniques in a randomized complete block design and means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range test. The studies regarding overall response to Se supplementation for growth performance depicted substantial influence. Dietary addition with SY increased the nutrient retention, feed conversion, body weight and decreased the mortality and rearing expenditures, especially in the males of Lakha variety. All body measurementswere improved in the birds received SY supplemented diet, the SY-fed males of Lakha exhibited better response compared to rest of the treatments.SY addition significantly increased the values of glucose, triglyceride, globulin, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in blood serum, while significantly decreased levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol, and thyroxine (T4) in the serum were observed in SY-fed birds, especially in the birds of Lakha and Peshaweri varieties. However, total protein and albumin values in the serumwere foundunaffected by Se supplementation. The significant variations in the slaughtering traits were observed; SY inclusion presented improved live final body weight, dressing weight, dressing percent, eviscerated weight, eviscerated percent and giblet weight. Selenium uptake by the chest and thigh muscles was also enhanced in the male birds of Lakha and Mushki varieties exposed to SY added diet. The rearing cost of the birds in SY-fedgroup was noticed lower than the cost recorded for those got SS supplemented or control diet. The males of Lakha in this regard presented the least rearing cost on receiving SY supplemented diet.
The second experiment was also conducted with the objectives to compare the influence of organic and inorganic Se inclusion, varieties and their interaction on productive performance, egg geometry/quality traits, reproductive performance and the egg Se contents in Aseel. For this purpose, 96 twenty-one-weeks old birds (84 females and 12 Males) from Lakha, Mushki, Peshaweri and Mianwali varieties of Aseel were selected and distributed under randomized complete block design into three groups, 24/variety (21 females + 3 males); further subdivided into three treatment groups, 7 females and 1 male in each treatment according to Se treatments (SY, SS and control) and each treatment was replicated 7 times with one bird in each replicate. Each bird was regarded as an experimental unit. The data thus collected were subjected to analysis of variance in a randomized complete block design and means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range test. The results showed that the females of Mianwali variety fed with SY supplemented ration exhibited higher feed intake, enhanced body weight and gained sexual maturity earlier; furthermore, Mianwali variety exhibited better egg production, showed higher egg weight and egg mass. FCR/dozen eggs, FCR/kg egg mass were as observed to be higher in the females of Peshaweri variety. Egg Se concentration was higher in the SY supplemented group as compared with SS or control groups.Dietary Se supplementation significantly influenced the shape index, yolk index, Haugh Units and eggshell thickness. However, non-significant variations were observed in Haugh Units among the females of all varieties. Interaction results presented the significant differences in egg breadth, egg length, egg volume, egg weight, egg shape index, egg shell thickness, yolk index and Haugh Units in the females of all varieties; with significantly higher values in the females of Mianwali variety exposed to SY added ration.The reproductive performance pertaining to hatching traits depicted that the Se supplements, varieties and their interaction influenced the hatching traitssignificantly. The SY-fed females of Peshaweri presented the decreased dead germ percent, dead in shell percent and clear egg percent compared with the females got SS supplemented ration or unsupplemented control ration. Improved hatchability percent and the hatch of fertile percent were noticed in the females of SY supplemented group than those of SS or control groups and the greatest increase was recorded in the females of Peshaweri variety. Similarly, enhanced body weights by the newly hatched chicks of Peshaweri and Mianwali varieties were observed fed with SY supplemented ration and also in the interaction, significant results were recorded.
Based upon the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that all four varieties of indigenous Aseel responded positively to the dietary addition with SY supplements of Se regarding growth performance of Aseel, especially in the male birds of Lakha variety. SY supplementation also showed the better results regarding productive and reproductive performance, especiallyin the females of Mianwali and Peshaweri varieties with more promising results. Moreover, SY addition displayed the substantial results in shape of production of functional foods such as Se-enriched eggs and meat.
9.2 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In future, indigenous Aseel chicken raising programs should be given due emphasis while proceeding for poultry farming by using native breeds of poultry.
9.2.1 Recommendations for the farmers
Keeping in mind the results of this study, here are some recommendations for the poultry farmers.
1. Due to the large body size of Aseel and a good ability to show resistance against a variety of infectious diseases, many poultry farmers want to rear and use Aseel as a parent flock for further breeding but are hesitant to go for that because of its slow growth. Slow growth is due to its low feed nutrient utilization and consequently slow gain in body weight. Lower production performance is mainly due to its late sexual maturity, long pauses and short clutch size.In the current situation,the strategic inclusion of Se in the diets of Aseel, being the effective technology, can help the farmers overcome the problems of slow growth and low productive performance in Aseel by synchronizing and consequently bringing the Aseel birds into better growth and production. It can help the farmers to get the production of the Aseel birds, according to their need and situations.
2. In the current study, SY has been substantiated to improve the reproductive performance of Aseel, hence can be used further to elucidate the very old concern of lower fertility and hatchability in Aseel parent flock consequently improving progeny size.
3. Keeping in view the above, the Aseel can be used as a feasible option for the poultry business by enhancing its sluggish growth rate and lower production potential through Se supplementation as well as to lower fertility and hatchability through the supplementation of organic Se supplement (SY) in the diet. Ultimately, it will be remained supportive towards the revival of open- sided poultry farms that have become closed after the trend to establish the environmentally controlled sheds and are lying vacant from a long time.
9.2.2 Suggestions for the researchers
1. In the current study, the fixed levels ofSe supplements were used for supplementation, whereas future researchers can work on different levels of it.
2. Further trials may be planned to check the subsequent effects of different sources of Se supplements on the biochemical profile of meat and eggs; also the immune response in the chicks from hens reared on Se supplemented diets.
3. The evaluation of semen quality in Aseel males and the impact of artificial insemination in the hens by the semen received from Se treated males of Aseel can also be studied.
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Comparative Phenotypic Characterization, Performance And Antibody Response In Naked Neck Chicken
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The indigenous chicken mostly found in rural areas of Pakistan are good scavengers as
well as foragers and playing important role towards poverty alleviation and food security. They
have good maternal qualities, hardier when compared to their exotic counterparts and have high
survival rates with minimal care and management. They have huge diversity. This diversity
provides a unique resource to respond to the present and future needs of poultry meat and eggs in
Pakistan. However, this diversity is shrinking rapidly. Local naked neck chicken is also an example
of such diverse genepool but under the threats of extinction. Present study was designed to compare
phenotypic characterization, productive, reproductive performance and anti-body response in
different phenotypes of Indigenous Naked-Neck chicken. The study was conducted at Indigenous
chicken genetic Resource Centre (ICGRC), UVAS Ravi campus, Pattoki. Six hundred day old
Naked-Neck chicks were procured from commercial hatchery and reared as the foundation stock
under best management practices. The study comprised of two main experiments. In the first
experiment, a total of 320 sexed day old chicks (160♂, 160♀) comprising 80 from each phenotype,
were randomly selected from the foundation stock and assigned 8 treatment groups, in a 2 (Sexes)
× 4 (Phenotypes) factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. Each treatment was
replicated 5 times with 8 birds in each. These chicks were reared for 8 weeks of age to study
comparative growth performance and morpho-metric traits. Growth parameters were live weight
(g), times of gain (g), total gain (g), feed intake (g), feed conversion ratio and livability%, while
morphometric traits studied were neck length, keel length, wing spread, shank length,
circumference, drumstick length, circumference and body length. The results showed significantly
higher live weight, total gain and better FCR in light and dark brown phenotypes, whereas times
of gain were found to be higher in dark brown. Feed intake and livability remained similar in all
phenotypes. Keel length and shank circumference measurements were higher in dark brown
whereas wing spread was greater in light brown phenotype. Drumstick circumference and body
length were same in all phenotypes. Over all brown phenotypes performed better. After that when
secondary sex organs were developed again 320 birds (80 of each plumage 40 females and 40
males) were selected from both foundation stock. These birds were again tagged, weighed and
arranged under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in 4 equal groups replicated 5 times with
16 birds in each pen. Each pen was considered as an experimental unit. Birds were reared till the
age of 20 weeks. At the end of the 20 weeks of age, 80 birds (40 males and 40 females) of each
phenotype was characterized for morphometric qualitative and quantitative traits based on head
appearance, comb type, wattle size, plumage pattern, shank color, spurs prevalence and number of
toes and were analyzed in terms of frequency and percentages. The results showed that males and
females of all phenotypes had plain head and single comb. Wattle size was medium in females
while highly developed in males. Over all plain feather pattern was predominantly most frequent
on breast, wing bow, wing bar, wing bay, saddle and tail followed by stippled, penciled and laced.
Males had most frequent yellow shanks followed by grey, off-white and green; however, females
had maximum grey shank color followed by yellow, green and off-white. White black, light and
dark brown phenotypes expressed maximum yellow shank coloration whereas grey shanks were
most frequent in black birds. However, morphometric characterization was based on Neck length
(cm), keel length (cm), wing span (cm), shank length (cm), shank circumference (cm), drum stick
length (cm), drum stick circumference (cm) and body length. The results showed significantly
higher morphometric measurements in males than females. Light and dark brown phenotypes had
higher measuring values of quantitative traits than those of black and white black. All males and
females of different phenotypes possessed four toes, normal spurs and tuft feathers on the ventral
portion of the Neck above crop. After that 40 birds, 10 from each phenotype (5 males and 5
females) were weighed, blood samples were collected for NDV titration and then slaughtered for
carcass characteristics, proximate meat analysis and cholesterol content estimation. Carcass
characteristics including (live weight (g), dressing%, liver weight%, gizzard weight%, heart
weight%, intestinal weight%, intestinal length (cm) and antibody response against Newcastle
disease virus (NDV) were studied and compared. The results showed significantly higher live
weight (g), dressing%, liver weight% and intestinal length (cm) in males whereas gizzard weight%
and intestinal weight% was found to be higher in females. Among different phenotypes, light
brown plumage color birds indicated significantly enhanced live weight (g) and dressing%
whereas black plumage color birds showed higher intestinal weight%. Antibody response was
significantly higher in females as compared to male birds. Light and dark brown phenotypes
exhibit significantly higher NDV titer as compared to black and white black phenotypes. In
proximate meat composition and cholesterol content study, results depicted significantly higher
dry matter%, crude protein%, ash% and cholesterol content(mg/100g) in males whereas ether
extract% and moisture% were found to be higher in females. Among different phenotypes, dry
matter% was found to be higher in white black, crude protein% in black, white black and dark
brown phenotypes, moisture% in light brown and cholesterol content was higher in black plumage
color birds, whereas ether extract% and ash% were observed to be higher in black and white black
plumage color birds. Brown phenotypes showed better performance regarding live body weight,
dressing%, cholesterol content and antibody response than others (black and white/black). In
second experiment production performance, egg characteristics and hatching traits in different
phenotypes of Naked- Neck hens were studied. In total, 300 adults 20 week old hens were
randomly selected from the foundation stock and allotted to 20 experimental groups, in
4(phenotypes) × 5 (replicates) × 15 (birds each replicate) arranged according to CRD. In
production performance, parameters studied were body weight, body weight gain, egg production,
egg weight (g), egg mass (g), and livability (%). Ten eggs of each phenotype, 2 from each pen at
initial, middle and final laying periods were collected and studied for egg geometry and quality.
Similarly, 200 hundred eggs 50 from each phenotype were collected randomly at the age of 42
weeks and studied for hatching traits comprising settable eggs%, fertility%, hatch of fertile%,
hatchability%, embryonic mortality%, and A-grade chick%. The results indicated significantly
higher feed intake (g) in white black phenotype, heavier body weight(g) in light brown and dark
brown phenotypes whereas, egg production, egg mass, FCR/dozen eggs and FCR/kg egg mass was
found to be better in light brown phenotype. Egg weight (g) remained higher in black, light brown
and dark brown phenotypes. Egg geometry results demonstrated higher egg breadth (mm), egg
volume (mm2) and egg surface area (mm3) in light brown phenotype whereas egg quality showed
no difference in various phenotypes of Naked-Neck chickens. While studying hatching traits,
results showed significantly higher settable eggs%, fertility% and hatchability% in black, dark
brown and light brown phenotypes than that of white black whereas better hatch of fertile% and
reduced embryonic mortality% was recorded in black and dark brown phenotypes as compared to
white black. Better chick quality was observed in dark brown phenotype followed by light brown,
black and then white black. In conclusion, phenotypes other than white black can be locally reared
because of their better production and hatching performance.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Naked Neck chicken with light brown, dark brown and black phenotypes should be the part of next
breeding plans owing to their better productive and reproductive performance, however, white
black phenotype should not be discarded, rather conserved as a backup gene pool for future poultry
breeding studies. Might be they have better climatic adaptability.
It is also recommended that selected Naked Neck varieties should be subjected to performance
traits analysis under different housing/production systems. Their potential needs to be thrashed
under intensive, semi intensive and extensive production systems.
Economics of each variety under different housing systems, especially under backyard type
chicken farming must be worked out in order to provide clear cut information to the rural folks to
address the most important issue of poverty alleviation in rural as well as peri-urban areas of
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