Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored.
Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks.
The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds.
Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus.
Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age.
Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds.
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Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies In Captive Birds Of District Lahore & Kasur, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is the furthermost zoonosis globaldiseases which isinitiated by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma (T.) gondii. Felidae,(Felis silvestris) are the only definitive hosts.All warm-blooded vertebrates, mammals and birds, turn out to beseptic by consumption sporulated T. gondii oocysts in the environment or by ingesting T. gondii tissue cysts within the tissues of intermediate hosts. Climatic aspects influence the oocysts in the atmosphere. Tropical countries have higher seroprevalence due to humid and warm climate.The main reason of human seroprevalence, are dietary habits (categories of meat or vegetables consumed, cooking technique of meat,vegetable cleaning, hand washing, etc.) economic, cultural social habits, quality of water, and sanitation coverage. Pet birds are act as natural pools for many pathogens. The lifeless infected birds eaten by cats, the catscome to be infected and afterwards eliminated oocysts.
The current study wasdesigned toconclude the seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive birds (Domesticated and caged) in district Kasur and Lahore, Pakistan.The study area was comprised of two geologically altered districts. Fifteen different sampling sites areas were UVAS-C and A-block, Pattoki; Defence Colony, Kasur; Village Kyloon Kalan, Kasur; Kyloon Khurd, Kasur;Khudian Khas, Kasur;Gulburg Colony, Kasur; Kacha Paka, Kasur; Dowlay Wala, Kasur;Pet Market, Pattoki; Tollinton Market, Lahore;Elahabad City, Kasur; Village Wadana, Kasur; Mustafa Abad, Kasur; The Educator School, Pattoki.
A total of 200 bird’sblood samples were collected. All birds’ sample were collectedrandomly from Pet Markets (n = 44), Captive Breeding Centres (n = 93)and Homes (n = 63).
One ml of blood was taken from wing vein and stored in sterile clean test tube.Serum samples were analyzed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT).Thirty seven serum samples (18.5%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies out of 200. Apparently, highest seroprevalence (66.7%) was documented inDefence Colony, Kasur and no seropositive case was reported from Mustafa Abad, Kasur and The Educator School, Pattoki.
Several parameters(order/species, habitat, feeding and drinking behavior and environmental conditions of the birds) were observed for the seroprevalence of T.gondii antibodies. In order, Galliformes 11.9%, Anseriformes15.8%, Psittaciformes 29.4% Columbiformes, 22.4%,Passeriformes 41.7%were seropositive for antibodies against T. gondii by Latex Agglutination Test.According to species level parameter, the Turkey (Meleagri gallopavo) 20%, Indian Peacock(Pavo muticus) 5.6%, Common Quail(Anser domesticus) 10.7%, Duck (Bucephala albeola) 17.2%, White Goose (Corturnix coturnix) 11.1%, Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) 50%, Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)20%,Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri)25.0%, Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) 50%, Dimond Dove(Geopelia cuneata) 50%,Eurasian collared-dove(Streptopelia decaocto)40%, Khumra33.4%,Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) 11.2%, Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) 27.3%, Tricoloured Munia (Lonchura malacca)50%,Zebra Waxbill (Amandava subflava) 50%, Society Finch(Lonchura striata domestica) 75% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies.None of White Peahen(Pavo cristatus),Desert Finch(Rhodospiza obsoleta), Guinea fowl(Numida meleagris),and White-throated Munia (Euodice malabarica) serum sample was seropositive for T.gondii antibodies.
Gender wise study shows that out of total sera samples male seroprevalence rate were20.9%,while in the female 16.8%. Out of total samples in domesticated birds the seroprevalence rate were14.3%, breeding centers 15.1%,pet market of districts Kasur and Lahore 31.9%.The rate of seroprevalence in natural source drinker were 20.4%, while in contaminated drinker were 14.4%.
The present study provided evidence of T. gondii infection in domesticated and caged birds in district Kasur and Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. As, T. gondii is zoonotic agent which can be transferred from these birds to human being having close contact with them. There is dire need of prevention and control of said diseases in our domesticated and caged birds.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2692-T] (1).