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1. Morphological Abnormalities Of Spermatozoa In Pure Bred Friesian, Sahiwal Bulls And Friesian X Sahiwal

by Ahsan Rashad, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Ch | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr. M. Akram | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Of the 15 normal semen producing breeding bulls, five bulls from each of pure bred Sahiwal, Friesian and the cross-breds (Friesian X Sahiwal) of the same age group were selected. These bulls were maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad (Sahiwal) under similar conditions of housing, feeding and management. Two consecutive ejaculates once a week were collected. A total of 395 ejaculates were evaluated for various seminal characteristics, extended, processed and frozen during August, September and October, 1990. During these three months semen parameters like ejaculate volume, mass motility, percent motility and the doses produced per ejaculate declined with increase of ambient temperature and humidity. The second ejaculate (195) at each collection and for each bull was always taken for studying the sperm morphology. Two slides from each semen sample were prepared in 10% solution of Nigrosin stain. A total of 200 sperm cells were counted in each slide and average values for various morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa in each breed were studied. The sperm cell abnormalities were accounted for head (abnormal, detached), neck (poor attachment, abaxial attachment and fractured neck), thickened mid-piece, protoplasmic droplet (proximal, distal droplet) and tail (detached, coiled- tail-droplet-enclosed, coiled tail). The mean values of different breeds so obtained for different abnormalities during various months were analysed. The average values for head abnormalities for three breeds were 9.69 ± 1.88, 5.12 ± 060 and 1.56 ± 0.14% in Friesian, cross-bred and Sahiwal, respectively. These abnormalities were highest during August and September in Friesian bulls and lowest in Sahiwal bulls during October. The neck abnormalities were highest in cross-breds (4.44 ± 0.57%) and lowest in Sahiwal (1.67 ± 0.14%). However, the neck abnormalities were statistically similar during the months of August, September and October. Similar trend of mid-piece abnormality was observed between various breeds and months. Likewise the values of protoplasmic droplets were highest in cross breds (14.12 ± 1.19%) and lowest in Sahiwal (2.36 ± 0.30%). The tail abnormalities were the highest in cross-breds (3.47 ± 0.45%) and lowest in Sahiwal (0.87 ± 0.12%). Among various months the tail abnormalities, were statistically similar (P> 0.05). The total values of different sperm abnormalities wçre highest in cross-breds during August (30.93 ± 3.11%) and comparatively lower during September and October (28.66 ± 2.28 and 26.11 ± 2.63%), respectively. Except head abnormalities, all the other abnormalities of spermatozoa were statistically significant among breeds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0206,T] (1).

2. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Chloramphenicol In Broiler Chicks

by Zubair Ulass | Dr. M. Akram Munir | Dr. M. Naeem | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of chioramphenicol on the inimune response of broiler chickens. The immuno-modulatory effects of chioramphenicol in chicks was evaluated using the following parameters: a) Morphometric effects of chioramphenicol on immune organs such as Li ursa of Fabricius, Tliymus and Spleen. b) Effects of cliloramphenicol on the development of antibody titres against Newcastle virus vaccine. c) Potential of chioramphenicol treated and NDV vaccinated birds to resist virulent NDV challenge. d) Comparison of body weight gains of chioramphenicol a iid treated and untreated birds. The untreated control birds had higher mean body weight than chioramphenicol and cyclophosphamide treated birds. Chioramphenicol treatment adversely affect the weight of bursa of Fabricius , spleen and thymus of birds. The normal dose of chioramphenicol slightly depressed the weight of immune organ than double dosage of chioramphenicol. Cycloposphamide treatment of birds in early life resulted in bursal atrophy and slight depression of splenic weight. The sera of untreated control vaccinated birds had higher antibody titres than chioramphenicol and cyclophospliatnide treated birds. The sera of chioramphenicol treated NDV vaccinated birds had lower antibdoy titres as compared to untreated control birds. The NDV vaccinated choramphenicol treated and NDV vaccinated cyelophosphamide treated birds had high post Nl)V challenge mortality than untreated control NDV vaccinated birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0556,T] (1).

3. Comparative Studies On The Incidence Of Gastro Intestinal Parasites Of Sheep And Goats And Their Effect On Different Blood

by Najeeb ur Rehman | Dr. M. Afzal | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. M. Akram | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: A study of gastro-intestinal parasitism alongwith isolation and identification of the parasite species affecting Demani sheep and goats in and around district Dera Ismail Khan was conducted in the months of May, June, July and August, 1998. For this purpose 96 gastro-intestinal tracts of sheep and goats (48 from each) were collected from the slaughter houses of D.I. Khan and adjoining areas. The overall incidence of gastro-intestinal parasitism in sheep and goats was found to be 67.60 and 55.81%, respectively. Overall incidence of Trernatodes (22.91 and 18.75%), Cestodes (25 and 33.33%) and Nematodes (52.08 and 47.91%) was found in the said animals, respectively. Month-wise prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitism was also carried out which was the highest in the month of August. Fifteen different species of parasites were isolated and identified which include: Paramphi stomum cervi (18.75 and 12.5%), Cotylophoron cotylophorum (4.16 and 6.25%), Moniezia expansa (16.66 and 10.41%), Moniezia benedeni (6.25 and 16.66%), Avitellina centripunctata (0 and 16.06%), Haernonchus contortus (27.08 and 14.58%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (8.33 and 0%), Trichuris gyj (20.83 and 31.25%), Ostertagia circumcincta (8.33 and 10.41%), Trichostrongvlus colubriformis (6.25 and 0%), Trichostrongvlus vitrinus (6.16 and 6.25%), Trichostron&vlus axel (2.08 and 8.33%), Nematodirus spathiger (12.50 and 0%), Cooperia curticel (18.75 and 0%), Strongvloides papillosus (6.25 and 0%) in sheep and goats, respectively. The relationship between the seasonal conditions and occurrence of gastro intestinal parasitism showed close correlation. The findings of haematological studies showed that there was decrease in haernoglobin contents, TEC, PCV, TLC, and increase in ESR both in sheep and goats under the effect of gastro intestinal parasitism. The values of differential leukocytic count were variable both sheep and goats. Most of the haematological disturbances of different blood parameters in both sheep and goats were proved to be statistically significant, particularly TEC, Hb level and ESR. Whereas the percentage of basophils and monocytes was not affected. From the results of the presents study, it may be concluded that the incidence of gastro-intestinal parasitism in sheep and goats warrants that rational treatment and preventive measures must be adopted to safeguard our valuable livestock from these serious parasitic infections. It is also evident from the results that gastrointestinal parasitism adversely affects the blood components in sheep and goats which may lead to anaemia, loss of growth and loss of production resulting into depreciation of quality of milk, meat and wool. Therefore it should be considered as top priority to educate the farmers for following a strict deworming programme amongst their animals to get rid of detrimental parasites. This will ultimately be useful in producing healthy and profitable livestock, which will not only fulfill our protein requirements but also help for foreign exchange earnings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0565,T] (1).

4. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Cestode Infection In Wild Felidae

by Zahid Zia | Dr. Khalid Pervaz | Dr. M. Akram | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present wok was conducted to see the efficacy of Niclosamide (Yomesan), Mebendazole (Vermox) and Praziquantel (Droncit) against cestode infection in wild felids in captivity because zoological gardens are permanent source of parastic infestation A survey was conduced to estimate ethe prevalence of various specises of cestodes in 40 wild fields kept in Lahore Zoo and Luch Irani Circus. The prevalence rate was recorded for Lahore Zoo 42.86% and for Lucky Irani Circus 100%. Overall prevalence was estimated (60%). The prevalence rate of Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus/Taenia species, Spriometra felis and Joyeuxiella pasaquaeli was recroded 32.60, 55.33, 39.81 and 27.90 percent, respectively. The animals showing moderat to heavy infection were selected for therapeutic trails. Two trainls were conducted wild felids kept in the Lahore Zoo and Luch Irani Circus comprising 12 animals each. In both experimental station four groups i.e. A, B, C and D of animals were made. Group A, B and C wre treated with Niclosamide (Yomesan)Mebendazole (Vermox) and Praziquantle (Droncit) respectively, while group D was kept as untreated control group. The efficacy of the drug was detrmined on the basis of reduction in the number of ova and segments discharged in the faeces on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of post medication. Results revealed that Praziquantel (Droncit) was the drug of choice against all species of cestodes, as it was found highly effective throughout the experiment. Membendazole (Vermox) was also found 100% effective against different species of cestodes upto 14th day of the experiment. Niclosamide (Yomesan) was not found as effective as other two drugs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0567,T] (1).

5. Immunomodulatory Effect Of Brucella Abortus Vaccine Strain Rb51 In Cross Bred Cows At Private Farms In Lahore

by Shafique, M | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr. M. Akram Munir | Dr. M. Aleem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: This project was designed to eradicate dangerous problem (Brucellosis) facing by livestock sector. Various trials of vaccine SRB51 were conducted and serum samples were taken to see the immune status of the animals by using serum tube agglutination test (STAT). For this purpose 100 animals of different age groups were examined and lactating or non lactating animals were randomly selected from different private dairy farms in and around Lahore. The serum samples were collected and subjected to serological tests to detect the presence of antibodies against brucella abortus. The incidence of brucellosis by RBPT was 16% and 14% by Standard tube agglutination test (STAT) in cattle. After screening the animals, we got 30 animals which were brucella abortus free, among these some animals were pregnant. We vaccinated the animal at neck region subcut with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine. After vaccination we found that antibody titer was higher at four weeks and begins to lower at eight weeks and later on, by using STAT. We also observed in this study that no animal was aborted and no premature or weak calf was delievered at parturition. So it can be said that the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine is a safe vaccine and it has been used in a lot number of states of America. The results of this study have revealed an alarming prevalence of brucellosis in cattle at private farms which calls for an emergent response of experts for reappraisal and reassessment of the present brucellosis control situation, especially when the disease is an important zoonosis and potential threat to the human health. It is anticipated that the trials would open new vistas and expose livestock (Dairy) scientists to new horizons of technical know how regarding brucellosis and associated problems. It is further hoped that the results obtained would make tangible contribution towards livestock and dairy industry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0589,T] (1).

6. Observations On Causative Agent(S) Of Hydropericardium Syndrome (Angara Disease) In Chickens

by Masood Rabbani | Dr. M. Akram Muneer | Dr. Ata-ur-Rehman Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) an avian adenovirus infection has been identified in poultry flocks all over Pakistan. This project was designed to study various aspects of HPS in terms of its aetiology (virus isolation, purification, and propagation in vitro), route of transmission, clinical picture, and pathology. In addition, identity of the contagium was confirmed through immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, biological titration, serotyping and molecular characterization. Attempts were also made to develop improved vaccines against the FIPS virus. Investigation on purified HPS agent indicated that this isolate was a new avian adenovirus (AAV) pathotype belonging to serotype-4 of group-I. This isolate was named after Pakistan Agricultural Research Council-I as PARC-I isolates. The results of one-way virus neutralization test with reference AAV antisera (1-1 1) confirmed that the isolate designated as PARC-I isolate belonged to serotype-4. The AAV serotype-4 isolate has the potential to produce the immunoprecipitating and virus neutralizing antibodies. It was observed that this isolate is capable of causing 1-IPS in broiler chicks. The lesions caused by this virus were identical to those of HPS observed under the field outbreaks. In embryonated chicken eggs, the isolate causes mortality, generalized mu scular congestion, hepatitis and stunted embryonic growth. This virus also causes typical cytopathic effects: rounding, moderate swelling and grape-like clustering upon inoculation onto chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells. The biological characterization indicated that the isolate PARC-I possessed standard properties of other known serotypes of AAV. Although, the new isolate is biologically and serologically identical to serotype-4 of AAV, it is more virulent than the previously known strains of serotype-4. The present work has further indicated that isolates obtained from different TIPS outbreaks over the last 10 years have identical in vitro and in vivo characteristics. The polypeptide analysis using SDS-PAGE confirmed the identity of i-IPS virus as AAV. The protein pattern of prototype strain of serotype-4 is quite comparable with those of the new isolate. The protein Profile of the isolate PARC-i and eleven other AAV serotypes were also compared. The results indicated that there were seven dense identifiable protein bands on the gel. These virus polypeptides were designated as II, Ill, lIla, IV, IVa, V and VI with molecular weights of 120 Kd, 86 Kd, 65 Kd, 55 Kd, 48 Kd, 42 Kd and 24 Kd, respectively. Western blotting was also performed to identify common immunogenic antigen (s) amongst the PARC-I isolate and other AAV serotypes of group- I. A total of 7 common bands of the same MW as seen in the gel were detectable in the lane of PARC-i isolate and the lanes of serotypes 1-1 1. In PARC-i lanes, one band above 120 Kd was seen reacting to the hyperimmune serum whereas, 2-3 such bands were detectable in other 1-I I serotypes ol' avian adenoviruses. The western blot studies indicated that at least five of the major proteins are conserved in the eleven AAV serotypes and PARC-i isolate. Although minor antigenic variations among different avian adenovirus serotypes existed no significant differences in the immunogenic proteins, among the eleven adenovirus serotypes, were observed except serotype-9, where 24 Kd band was uniquely present. The sharing of common antigens in various serotypes especially between serotype-9 and PARC-i isolate indicated that this serotype might be useful for developing heterotypic vaccine against HPS, as many field reports indicate failure of currently used vaccines to confer effective resistance in chickens especially 3-4 wks post FIPSV vaccination. One of the reasons of the persistence of HPS might be due to the absence of maternal immunity in broilers, as the breeders are neither properly immunized nor hyperimmunized against HPS. All the four experimental vaccines provoked almost similar level of protection in the inoculated broiler chicks as they resisted virulent HPSV challenge on 25th day postvaccination. A decrease in protection levels from days 32 postchallenge onwards was evidenced by decrease in the corresponding antibody titre in the vaccinated chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0594,T] (1).

7. Bacteriological Examination Of Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Milk With Particular Reference To Public Health

by Muhammad Ishaq | Dr. masood Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. M. Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present research was envisaged to study the bacteriological profile of raw camel's milk. A total of 50 milk samples were collected directly from the udders of healthy she-camels from various areas of Punjab and were examined for total viable counts (TVC), coliform counts (CC), effect of storage period on total viable counts and coliform counts, using milk ring test (MRT) for brucellosis and In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity tests for the isolates. All the samples were found negative for milk ring test (MRT) and hence for Brucella abortus. Standard plate count was in the range of 1 .39x 10 to 2. 13x107 c.f.u./ml. The mean standard plate count remained 2. 1x106 C. f. u. /ml. The coliform count was in the range of 3 . 2x iO to 5 . 9x104 c . f.u.Iml. The overall mean for coliforms count remained 3 . 9x104 c . f.u . /ml. The effect of storage period on standard plate count upto 12 hours was zero. At 24 hours, increase was not very high and it remained in the range of 0.008 % to 1.72% organisms per ml of milk. At 36 hours increase was in the range of 0.008% to 4.95%. Similarly the effect of storage period on coliform count was studied and it showed no increase in the number of organisms per ml upto 12 hours of storage. At 24 hours coliform count increase was in the range of 1.75% to 6.06% organisms/mi. At 36 hours, increase was in the range of 2.38 % to 9.09% organisms/mi. It showed that the storage period had no serious effect on the standard plate count and coliform count. Standard plate count (SPC) showed that 48 % samples gave between 1 .01x105 - 9.5x105 organisms per ml. which was not according to international standard of good quality raw milk. Of the total samples, 42 % gave the coliform count between 3 .2x103 - 6.2x103 organisms per ml which fulfilled the international standard of good quality raw milk. Different types of colonies on milk agar, nutrient agar and MacConkey's agar were purified and identified. The species isolated from all the milk samples included; Staphylococcus aureus (14 strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 strains), Escherichia coli (16 strains), Lactobacillusfermentum (4 strains) , Lactobacillus casei (12 strains), Bacillus cereus (10 strains), Bacillus subtilis (6 strains), Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains) and Neisseria mucosa (4-strains). In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity of different antibiotics with known concentrations was studied. Results showed that all of the isolated organisms were resistant to oxytetracycline, ampicillin and followed by penicillin while most of the organisms were sensitive to gentamycin, followed by chioramphenicol, kanamycin and streptomycin. Escherichia coli was resistant to all the antibiotics used while gave intermediate results by gentamycin and penicillin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0789,T] (1).

8. Preparation And Evaluation Of A Cell Culture Contagious Pustular Dermatitis Virus Vaccine

by Shahida Afzaal | Dr. M. Ajmal | Dr. M. Akram Munir | Dr. T.M. Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to prepare a cell culture vaccine against CPD to repice the older vaccine so as to induce an effective level of immunity and thus to reduce the economic losses caused by this malady. A local CPD virus strain, isolated from a direased goat during an outbreak occurred at 11.E.S. Bahadurnagar, was adapted on primary lamb kidney cells by giving several successive passages. The isolated virus was confirmed in vivo by known goat pox as well as CI']) viruses and Was used for vaccine production. Confluent primary monolayer of lamb kidney cells was achieved after 5 day of incubation. Viral material after its adaptation on kidney cells at sixth passage was inoculated on monolayer for production of vaccine. When 80% of the cells showed CPE after 6-8 days of post inoculation, the culture bottles were removed and stared at -20°C. After complete freezing, the culture bottles were thawed rapidly with vigorous shaking to disrupt the cells. The titre of the pooled virus ws found to be 10-4 in kidney cells. 5 percent suspension of the titrated virus was made in Alum Gel to prepare the vaccine. The CPD local virulent virus strain was used for challange purpose. Its titre was calculated and found to be io4.16 in susceptible goats. Sterility of the vaccine waS done on different culture media and safety was carried out in guinea pigs by inoculating the vaccine intramuscularly. The potency of the vaccine W&S done in susceptible goats( Tlilk teeth). The goats which were vaccinated in 10 ml and I ml dosage subcutaneously, and challanged after 14 days of vaccination with I ml of challange dose of 100 RD50 and 1000 RD50, proved to be immune by withstanding the above challange dose. This cell culture CPD vaccine is being used in the field with encouraging results. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1129,T] (1).

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