Risk Factors Associatede With Calf Mortality In Smallholder Dairy Farms In Per-Urban Area Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: A case control study was conducted to confirm association of hypothesized risk factors like age, sex, breed, colostrums ingestion time, feeding practices, season, housing, hygiene status of the farms and tick infestation. This study was conducted in Rakh Chandra dairy colony the biggest dairy colony situated in periphery of Lahore, rich with dairy animal. 10% sample size was taken of the total population consisting of young calves' cattle and buffaloes of 90 days age.
The overall mortality rate was (31.88%) while the crude mortality rate was found to be higher in the cattle calves that was of (35.76%) than in the buffalo calves (28%). Amongst all risk factors in the form of diseases and other health related conditions point of view calf diarrhea (54.7%; p=0.000) significantly associated with calf mortality and was found to be the leading cause of death followed by the respiratory diseases (28.5%) and other several risk factors were also seen to be associated with calf mortality. Ticks infestation was found to be (p=0.000: OR=13.618) strongly associated with calf mortality rate. While season was found to be associated (p=0.04: OR=1.21) with calf mortality rate in dairy farms.
The major cause of death recorded was diarrhea accounted 54.7% of total deaths. The higher mortality rate was recorded in the first month of age mostly in the 3rd week of life. Therefore it was concluded that age, sex, breed, tick infestation and colostrums were all associated with calf mortality. Further research work is needed to identify the individual magnitude of each risk factor associated with mortality in calves.
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Incidence Spatial Distribution And Associated Topographic Risk Factors Of Malaria In Lahore And Rawalpindi
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Survey To Assess Knowledge About Poultry Disease, Vaccination And Zoonoses In Backyard Poultry Keepers Around Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The term backyard chicken production designates poultry birds which are reared on small scale by a household. In this type of poultry rearing, usually a few birds are kept primarily for family use. The surplus birds and eggs are sold in the village or nearby market and the cash were utilized for fulfilling other needs of the household. This was a common practice in the rural area of all over the Pakistan.
Backyard poultry keepers are not well aware of management practices and poultry diseases. For that purpose nine rural areas were selected from Lahore by convenient sampling method. The households in each of the village were also conveniently select. 200 respondents were interview through a model questionnaire to assess knowledge about poultry diseases, zoonotic diseases and vaccination of poultry in backyard poultry keepers.
After compilation of the research data only 25.00% respondents know about poultry disease and only 48.74% use vaccination and medication for their birds if they got sick otherwise they never vaccinate or medicate.73.73% people do vaccination against New castle disease out of those who use vaccination/treatment but according to data they have no proper knowledge even New castle disease. 55.56% farmer observed diseases and sign and symptoms in their flock from which mites and ticks are 55.56%, respiratory sound and nasal discharge 44.45%, coughing, sneezing and greenish diarrhea 33.34%, swollen joints and ocular discharge 22.23%.Respiratory diseases are prevalent in that area.
70.00% people of the study have information about zoonotic diseases while only 26.00 people know about poultry zoonotic diseases. They are not properly educated about poultry zoonotic diseases
This study will help to collect the information about the knowledge of zoonotic disease, poultry disease and vaccination through survey from backyard poultry farmers. Results of the study are helpful to point out the main issue of poultry diseases and mortality. It is a need of hour to properly manage the back yard poultry on an early basis while a timed procedure should be developed to educate the rural farmers. Currently no proper regulatory body is working for the Poultry sector, PPA (Pakistan Poultry Association) working privately without any authoritative power. These points can be easily improved to help the poultry farmers in the sense of developing skillful backyard poultry producers to boost up poultry sector.
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Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude And Food Handling Practices Of Household Women In Lahore
Material type: Book Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Considerable proportions of foodborne illnesses arise from mal practices in domestic kitchens. Such as serving contaminated raw food, insufficient cooking, re-heating of leftovers, and poor hygiene practices. There are no food safety regulations for domestic kitchens hence, household women as primary food preparers are to ensure food safety hygiene practices at home. The present study was an attempt to assess food safety KAP of Household Women in Lahore to understand its status in households, as there is no previous study in this field in Pakistan. A sample of 1000 household women from 10 Towns of Lahore was collected. Simple Random Sampling was used to select Union Councils within Towns and Convenient Sampling for selection of Household Women. A KAP survey study was conducted using a closed-ended questionnaire to assess status of Food Safety awareness among Household Women. A variable file was created on SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean and percentages of responses and overall KAP mean percentage scores. Chi-Square test was used to study significant association between KAP scores and education levels, and also to study association between knowledge & attitude, knowledge & practice and attitude & practice. Mean & standard deviation scores for overall knowledge of household women was 34.24 ± 4.210 which showed negative food safety knowledge among majority of the household women. Overall attitude was 32.47 ± 3.141 which showed negative attitude among majority of the household women in Lahore towards food safety awareness and overall practice was 26.60 ± 3.977 which showed unhygienic food handling practices among majority of the household women. Significant difference was observed between education and KAP scores & attitude and practice of household women. Data obtained served as baseline knowledge and information for emphasis on continuous improvement on the knowledge of household women. Household food preparers probably have misinformation or misunderstandings about food safety and are certainly engaged in culturally focused stereotypical food handling practices. Food preparers at domestic level need to realize that their current food safety practices jeopardize the health of their household members as well as the community. The inclination to alter behavior was certainly influenced by their attitude as per the results of this study. Henceforth, household women should commit and expose themselves to attaining the prerequisite knowledge and sources of information needed in reducing the probability of potential risks that will eventually lead to progressive food safety culture development in Pakistan. It is thus concluded that there is a need for surveillance and interventions at domestic level with professional assistance for household women regarding food safety issues and its awareness in the state. Food safety educational programs through formal and informal education and mass media must be advertised and repeated at specific intervals for consumers at all ages. Health & educational institutions can communicate and provide short training courses to consumers of all ages, especially beginning at school since education has a bigger impact on food safety KAP in the current study.Union council wise educational intervention programs/trainings can be introduced. They need to be informed about the basic principles of food safety at home such as using the Five Keys to Safer Food Manual as food safety starts and ends with frequent behaviors of consumers.Efforts in making flyers and other advertising materials at market level is advised such as pictorial flyers. This study concludes that there is a need for additional research for the possible risks household women at home could pose to human health in regards to food safety, since it is widely acceptable that household women as the primary food preparers at home are the ultimate route of protection against foodborne illness and thus in ensuring food safety at home.
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Impact Of Nutrition Education On Knowledge About Osteoporosis Among Women
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem. It leads to compromised bone health and quality of life deteriorates. As there is no cure to it, it is important to prevent it. The peak bone mass can be achieved prior to the age of 30. Therefore, prevention is most effective if done in childhood and adolescent. About 9.9 million people in Pakistan have osteoporosis of which 7.2 million are women. The occurrence of Pakistan is expected to rise in the coming years with an estimated prevalence of 11.3 million in 2020, and 12.9 million in 2050. Therefore, the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Pakistan is of public health concern. The nutrition knowledge about osteoporosis in women was improved after nutrition education. The study design was randomized pretest posttest control group design. A sample of 150 females aged between 16 - 30 years visiting Pakistan Society for the Rehabilitation and Disabled were selected through purposive sampling. Data was collected through closed ended questionnaire. Sample was divided into two equal groups; Control Group and Experimental Group. Both groups were pretested. The baseline knowledge of both the groups was assessed using a 27-item questionnaire. After pretesting nutrition education was imparted to the experimental group through various materials. Nutrition education was given once a week for 2 months (8 weeks). Each education session was of 30 minutes approximately. The educational tools used were handouts for participants and multimedia power point presentations. After 2 months, both control and experimental group were post-tested to assess the effectiveness of nutrition education. The data analysis was done using SPSS v.20 software. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used and qualitative data was presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Analysis of data was carried out by making tables and clustered bar charts. The study concluded that intervention (nutrition education) is effective on improving the knowledge and attitudes about Osteoporosis among females aged 16-30 years. The findings are in conformity with studies from Pakistan and abroad.
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Seroprevelance And Associated Risk Factors Of Avian Influenza Among Butchers In District Chakwal
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Summary:
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Kap Survey Of Foodborne Illness In Lahore City
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Occurrence of many food pathogens in variety of foods is conventional in Pakistan. Accurate estimation of foodborne illness in Pakistan is difficult to make because of lack of people knowledge, monitoring system, infection control and surveillance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, practices and perception of general public about food and food safety found in Pakistan and estimation of foodborne illness. There has been no research study found in this field in Pakistan.Lack of food safety knowledge, attitude and practices of general public are associated with food poisoning and foodborne illness.Datawas collected through questionnaire Performa’s present in hard copy filled by interviews.Convenient based samples were collected from general public of city Lahore. A sample size of 1000 was collected. Targeted respondents were members of aged 18 or above who were at least 2 years resident of Lahore city. Datawas collected from all 9 towns of city Lahore.Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS window version 22.0 was used to analyze the data. Significance level was set at p-value <0.05 for analyses involving the test of significance. Chi square test of association was used to compare two variables.Our study shows results that demographic characteristics have antagonistic effects on foodborne illness such as education level and income but education level impacts the overall knowledge about food safety and its related practices among consumers. Results reflect that source of water, outdoor food and meat products are the major cause of foodborne illness in city Lahore. Our research showed association between drinking water & suffer in foodborne illness, p-value is lesser than α i.e. 0.000 < 0.05 which shows the results were significant. Similarly, significant relationship has been observed between suffer in foodborne illness and outdoor food, p-value is smaller than α such as 0.000 < 0.05. Evidently, results showed association between food commodity and foodborne illness, p-value is smaller than α such as 0.000 < 0.05 which shows the results were significant.Water is mainly used for drinking, cooking, washing and rinsing of dishes. We should improve our water supply system so sewage water and other hazardous chemicals not mix with drinking water. On the other hand we should improve hygiene conditions of our outdoor localities/restaurants services; we should buy food only from certified food facilities, also give proper training/education to food handlers, food manufacturers and food retailers to avoid risk of foodborne illness because food safety is a shared responsibility. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of periodic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Henceforward we should improve our slaughtering techniques, animal husbandry techniques, meat storage and transportation techniques to eliminate the risk of salmonella, campylobacter and E.coli, also prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves. Foodborne illness of microbial origin is the most serious food safety problem..These data suggest a critical need for action that is focused on preventing disease transmission within the food service industry. Clinicians should report all suspected foodborne disease to public health authorities to ensure appropriate epidemiologic investigation.The results of the proposed study have provided a baseline data on food safety status in Pakistan and general public’s perception about food found in Pakistan. General public observations about Foodborne illness, health education, personal hygiene, environmental hygiene and food safety, all data helped to estimate foodborne illness in Lahore city by identifying which factor has influenced more on food safety and caused foodborne illness.
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Active Surveillance Of Avian Influenza In Sentinel Live Bird Markets Of District Rawalpindi
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live bird markets. The outbreak can be subsided by applying biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movement, using inactivated vaccines and initiating an Avian Influenza surveillance network throughout the country.
Avian influenza virus is prevalent in live birds markets of poultry in district Rawalpindi.A survey was conducted for a period of 6 months in order to determine prevalence and trends of Avian Influenza H9 in the live birds markets of district Rawalpindi. A total of 355 samples were required to estimate retail shop level prevalence of avian influenza. Using systematic sampling method 14 butchers will be enrolled from 2 sentinel live bird market and they were visited weekly to collect samples for a period of 6 months. In each week 14 pooled samples from 70 birds (a pool of 5 swab samples and 2 serum samples from each shop was collected) was collected from both sentinel sites. Tracheal/oropharyngeal swabs will be collected from live and apparently healthy poultry birds then stored properly at 4°C (24-48hours) until processed. Data was collected from the shopkeeper in a face to face interview. A detail predesigned questionnaires were filled after taking written consent from the owner. The sample collected during the survey live birds markets of Rawalpindi district were processed for laboratory analysis. Real time RT-PCR and HA and HI tests for avian Influenza virus were conducted to diagnose sample for AIV.
The proportion estimate with 95% C.I (confidence intervals) of the overall prevalence was computed by using R software. Pattern of influenza infection in live bird markets were estimated with reference to space and time. Descriptive analysis was conducted (i.e. mean, proportion) to answer four epidemiological W’s i.e. what, who, when and where.
In present study, sero-positivity against H9 AIV was determined in district Rawalpindi. Haemagglutination (HA) assay was performed and HA titer of 1:256 was calculated, the dilutions of 8HAU was 1:32.Serum samples (n=784) were tested by HI. Out of these 784, 306 sera samples were positive (HI titer>1:8) from 2 preselected sentinel markets and 14 poultry shops, while 478 were negative (HI titer <1:8) for AI. The highest antibody titer was 1:64.
The period sero-prevalence was 39.03% (95% CI: 35.41- 42.44).Results showed thatnumber of positive was high in the month ofOctober and November then slight decreased in the month of December, January and February after that it again increased in the month of March, April and May.During the study a week with one positive result was considered positive and a week was declared negative when all samples were negative. Results showed that minimum 4 and maximum 22 weeks remained positive sample results.Fourteen shops were followed up for 28 weeks and from each shop the study 56 sera samples were collected throughout the study. In 14 shops, highest prevalence was 48.21% and lowest was 28. 57%
It is concluded that avian influenza is circulating in Live Bird Markets in district Rawalpindi. This process shared that this market could perpetuate and transmit avian Influenza to Human. So these markets are the hot spot of avian influenza infection.
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