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1. Outbreak Investigation Of Dengue Fever In Disteict Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Saeed ahmad | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr.Mansut-ud-Din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1884,T] (1).

2. Prospective Study To Assess Risk Factors Responsible For The Spread Of Avian Influenza H9N2 In Conmmercial Poultry

by Maqbool ahmad | Dr. Mamoona chaudhry | Prof. Dr.Mansur-ud-Din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1896,T] (1).

3. Epidemiological Investigation Cf Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever In Reported Cases And Its Associated Risk Factors

by Muhammad Sohail | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr.Mansur-ud -Din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1897,T] (1).

4. Epidemiological Study Of Zoonotic Leishmaniasis In Humans And Dogs In District Jhelum

by Behzad kayani | Dr. Mamoona chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad hassan mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2000,T] (1).

5. A Cohort Study On Surgical Site Infectuins (Asnosocomial Infections) In Animal And Human Side

by Atia noreen | Dr. Mamoona chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2021,T] (1).

6. Incidence Of Animal Bite Injuries In Three Tehsil Headquarter Hospitals Of District Swat

by Munibullah | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2133,T] (1).

7. Epidemiological Outbreak Investigation Of Fmd In District Bihsud And Sarkhorod Nangarhar Afghanistan

by Abdul Wajid | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2138,T] (1).

8. Evaluation Of Vaccine Effectiveness Of Foot And Mouth Disease In District Dera Ghazi Khan

by Muhammad Fahed | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2163,T] (1).

9. Active Surveillance Of Wild Birds For Avian Influenza In The Wetlands Of Azad Jammu & Kashkmir

by Adnan Altaf | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Ali Ahmad | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2176,T] (1).

10. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis Of Pbi-F2 Protein Of Influenza A Virus Reported From Pakistan

by Muhammad Usman Basharat | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Aqeel | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2179,T] (1).

11. Incidence Of Dog Bite Injuries Reported In Tertiary Care Hospitals

by Ambreen Shahzadi (2012-VA-440) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Animal bites people should be considered an important public health problem. Moreover, the number of pets, specifically the dog, is increasing. (Palacio J et al., 2003).Animal bites, particularly dog bites, are a major public health problem throughout the world (Morgan and Palmer, 2007). Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, can become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body. Dog attacks, by street or domestic dogs, with injuries from very minor to significant and severe to fatal, are not uncommon. According to WHO report, ten million people are bitten by animals (especially Dogs) around the world, considered for prophylaxis and treatment against rabies and almost (55,000) people die from this disease annually (Mohdjunaid et al., Oct 2012). 6.2 Hypothesis: The incidence of dog bite injuries is high in densely populated towns of Lahore when compared to less populated towns of Lahore. 6.3 Methodology: General information about patients and possible causes was collected on a structured questionnaire. All the dog bite victims that were come to emergency ward during three months period were included in the study. Questionnaire include closed questions about the demographics of the victims, circumstances of bite incidents, body parts injured and the degree of injury, type of dog, history of previous bites, the level of knowledge about rabies, post bite home treatment (washing of bite wound etc.) prior to visited the hospital for medical treatment and post exposure treatment at hospital. The densely populated area (ravi town, data ganj bakhsh, shalimar town, samanabad etc) and less populated area (gulberg, azizbhati town, wagah, Allama iqbal town, & nishtar) was be compared. 6.4 Statistical Design Cumulative incidence was calculated as described by Leon Gordis (2008). Chi square test was applied on the data by using SPSS (version 19.0). 6.5 Results In this study, cumulative incidence is 4.653 per 1000 popluation, most of the dog bite victims were male 79.9 % as compare to female 20%.5.7% cases visited Mayo Hospital’s emergency department during the study period, 4.5% cases were reported in Services Hospital and 89.9% cases from IPH Lahore. In this the higher percentage was the patients who were illiterate (47%) and very few patients were those who had intermediate and above education (6%). The occupation of the patients who were attended Hospitals, were farmers (31.56%). The 24% patients were those who had bitten once before in previous years. In those 24% patients 19.2 % those who were bitten by dog and 5% were bitten by others (cats, horse, donkeys, etc). Most of the victims were bitten in rural area (65%) and most of the injuries were from stray dogs (65.9%). Most of the victims had provoked bite (74%) and the high frequency were recorded that the cases had type II wound category (deep scratch but no bleeding) 82%. The cases received treatment in different hospitals were RIG (18%), Tetanus toxoid (32%), Antibiotic (78%) and Suturing (7.9%). Most of the patients were from Ravi town Lahore that is one of the highly densely populated areas of Lahore (38%) and very few cases reported from Nishtar town Lahore (0.5%). The demographic location and the hospitals had no association as the results were insignificant (p-value>0.05). Most of the cases who were bitten by dog and they already bitten by dog in previous years, significant in relation as p-value <0.05. The association between dog status and biting animal was significant, as mostly biting dogs were stray dogs and most of the bite was provoked, there was significant association between biting animal and biting type (p-value<0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2285-T] (1).

12. Prevalence Of Newcastle Disease In Backyard Poultry In District Mardan

by Muhammad Saeed (2013-VA-439) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Abdul Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Newcastle disease (ND) is very important viral diseases of poultry industry in the rural areas of Pakistan It is caused by Avian Paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) of the genus Rubulavirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. The outbreaks of ND are usually associated with various factors e.g. confinement of birds, mode of disposal of diseased birds, cadavers and poultry fecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short irregular temperature changes and the refilling of farms with chickens from the markets. The present study was conducted in randomly picked 30 clusters in three Union councils of Tehsil Takht Bhai District Mardan to investigate the seroprevalence of Newcastle Disease virus and its potential risk factor in non-vaccinated chicken raised under backyard management system. Serum were observed through Haemagglutination inhibition test for the confirmation of prevalence of Newcastle Disease. 165 were found seropositive and 45 were seronegative (antibody titres of 4 or less) for ND out of 210 sera samples. Overall weighted seroprevalence was found as 76.836%, 95% Cl (66.238-87.433) using R software. This means that NDV was circulating in backyard poultry of district Mardan, while data on risk factor were obtained through a detail predesigned questionnaire from the owner in a face to face interview translated into local language (Pushto) after taking written consent from the owner. To identify the risk factors for Newcastle Disease seroprevalence, multivariable logistic regression were performed. The result showed that live birds market stall near houses was strongly associated with NDV seroprevalence. Source of water from both type (public water supply and street channels) were also found strongly associated. A strong association was also observed between NDV seroprevalence and water source of street channels. Result also showed that cleaning of backyard premises was a protective factor against NDV with OR < 1. Another Summary 38 strong risk factor was live birds market stall near houses (OR 33.64, 95 % Cl: 6.49-174.28). The largest confidence interval showed less precision which could be due to less no. of samples. The identified estimate of seroprevalence of ND and its associated potential risk factor will be communicated to concerned persons through publication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2292-T] (1).

13. Cross Sectional Study Of Newcastle Disease Virus In Wild Captive Peacocks (Pavo Cristatus) In Zoological Gardens Of District Lahore

by Faisal Sher (2007-VA-11) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is RNA virus.It is the member of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1).Its genus is Avulavirus genus. The incubation period ranges from 2-15 days. NDV strains are classified into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic categories. Newcastle disease is a virus disease of birds characterized by variable combinations of gastroenteritis respiratory distress and nervous signs. A cross sectional study was conducted for the duration of 3 months in order to identify the prevalence of Newcastle disease in five zoological gardens of Lahore district. Peacocks were restrained by the trained persons and oropharyngealsamples were collected from apparently healthy Peacocks present in the zoological gardens in Lahore. Sampling of 200Peacocks was done by convenience sampling and stored in freezer at -80°C for further analysis.Virus isolation by egg inoculation was performed to isolate virus and confirmationof (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was done by conducting HI test with specific antisera.Samples were inoculated in 10 days embryonated hen’s eggsand allantoic fluid was collected and tested for haemagglutination (HA) activity. Positive samples were confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Frequency distribution through age, sex, breed, origin, date and site of collection were examined by standard statistical methods to determine the prevalence by virus isolation method in that specified population. The data was analyzed by using two way contingency tables with Chi-square test for association. Test was performed to check the association of NDV with age, sex, breeds, origin, and specimen type. The significance level was kept at p<0.05. 2 samples were found positive. Overall prevalence in wild captive peacocks was 1% (95 CI=.1-3.6). 200 samples were screened by spot HA test and 198 samples were found negative in four zoological gardens while 2 samples that were positive found in private zoo samples. Significant association was found between positive samples for NDV and zoological gardens. Prevalence estimates of (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was generated for Peacock population. Associated factors were identified through this study. Results were shared with international community working for the control and eradication of Newcastle disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2411-T] (1).

14. Sero-Epidemiology Of Johne’s Disease Along With Its Effect On Serum Biochemical Profile In Cattle In District D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Nasrullah (2009-VA-90) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD) or Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) is characterized by an incubation period of several years. It is a chronic non-treatable disease of animals causing enteritis which ultimately leads to economic losses to dairy and meat industries worldwide. To estimate sero-epidemiology of the JD through ELISA is inexpensive, efficient, single step and sensitive for the detection of antibodies in cattle and buffaloes. So, keeping in view the economic and public health significance of the disease, the present study was designed with the objective to estimate the sero prevalence of JD using indirect ELISA and to quantify the effect of JD on the level of serum proteins in cattle of D. I. Khan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Johne’s disease is prevalent in cattle of D I Khan that affects serum proteins level in dairy animals. For the study animals were well restrained and about 5 ml blood was collected in Non- EDTA coated vacutainer from the jugular vein of each animal using 5 ml disposable syringe, after collection and proper labeling samples were transferred in Ice packed cooler to Microbiology laboratory, Govt. College of Veterinary Sciences D.I Khan. Serum was collected at the top of the vacutainer with the help of disposable pipette and was stored in eppendorf tubes in deep freezer until transported to University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for further analysis. Data was captured on questionnaires about the clinical signs and symptoms, management practices and possible risk factors associated with Johne’s disease, was obtained from the owners. Summary 40 The collected serum samples were analyzed by Indirect ELISA using commercial ELISA kit (Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX, USA) according to manufacturer instructions. The ELISA positive samples were processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis using Biuret method (Doumas et al. 1981;Spencer and Price. 1977).The serum albumin was determined by Photometric colorimetric test (Bromocresole green (BCG) method (Spencer and Price. 1977).The globulin will be estimated by subtracting serum albumin from serum total proteins (Javed et al. 2010). Data regarding sero-prevalence by indirect ELISA were analyzed through Pearson's Chisquare Test, while data regarding the effect on serum protein was analyzed by simple t-test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. P < .05 was considered significant. The present study demonstrated (12.7%) prevalence of MAP in cattle population of D.I Khan. There were no significant effect of MAP on serum biochemical profile. The results of all variables studied as under breed, gender, age, vaccinated status and management system. The most frequent level was observed in females 13.7% as compared to males 0% (0/4). Among different age groups, higher sero-prevalence 33.3% were present at age group above 6 years while sero-prevalence of 7.1% in 2-3 years and 0% were recorded in age group 4-6 years. Statistically a significant different were present between these groups. Moreover, there was no relationship of vaccination status with disease because the prevalence recorded 16.6% and vaccinated cases positive were recorded 0% but there was no significance difference among two groups of animals. Breed wise risk factor statistically significant because the MAP cases were highly prevalent in non-descript cattle 25% as compared to crossbred 5.8% and Sahiwal 0% cattle breed. BCS category I had highest prevalence 66.6% while in BCS category II prevalence Summary 41 was 23.8% and in BCS category III the prevalence was 0% recorded. Statistically the BCS of the disease animals was significantly associated. Highest prevalence 100% were recorded above 60 days of diarrhea duration while 0% were recorded less than 60 days of diarrhea duration. Statistically the sero-prevalence of diarrhea duration was highly significant. Management wise sero-prevalence of Johne’s disease on the type of housing was higher in open 19.2% as compared to confined 6.8% showing non-significant difference statistically. Sanitation wise seroprevalence were higher in poor 19.2% as compared to good sanitation 6.8% showing also nonsignificant difference statistically. Sero-prevalence of disease was less in well water 0% as compared to tap water 25% showing there were a significant difference between the seroprevalence of Johne’s disease under different water conditions. The results of total protein analysis was statistically non-significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2526-T] (1).

15. Seropravelance And Assosiated Risk Factor Of Avian Influenza Among Poultry Farm Workers/Handlers In District Lahore And Kasur

by Aneela Ilyas (2014-VA-512) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Avian Influenza is one of the most important zoonotic diseases which are a major concern for public health. Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is a potential source for the emer¬gence of human influenza pandemics (Fouchier et al., 2005; Olsen et al., 2006; Webster et al., 1992). The outbreaks of Avian Influenzas are usually associated with various factors e.g. do not wash hands after handling sick poultry and mortality, do not use of PPE’s (personal protective equipment), no dipping area, eating and drinking during working with poultry, confinement of birds, mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and poultry fecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short intermittent temperature changes and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets. Hypothesis: Avian Influenza A, H9 virus was prevalent and potential risk factors are associated with AIV disease. Parameter/Methodology: A cross sectional survey in poultry farm workers of district Lahore and Kasur would be conducted in order to determine seroprevalence of Avian Influenza. A study population was the apparently healthy poultry farm workers/handlers of District Lahore and Kasur of Province Punjab. Stage one cluster sampling technique was adopted and with the help of formula and 525 blood samples of poultry workers were taken from 38 selected clusters. Blood sample from apparently healthy poultry workers were collected from brachial veins. Blood (4-5ml) was collected in vacutainers and allowed to clot for separation of serum. Collected sera were stored in freezer at -70°C for further laboratory analysis. Haemagglutination assay (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test was applied on samples as per protocol of world health organization (WHO, 2013). I had to work on H5, H7 and H9 strains according to my topic but due to the non-availability of H5 and H7 live viruses I could not perform lab analysis. So, I worked only on H9 strain of AIV. Statistical Design: The proportion estimate with 95% Cl (Confidence Intervals) of the overall seroprevalence would compute by using “R” software. Descriptive analysis was conducted by using SPSS (version 20). Logistic regression (univariable and multivariable) was conduct to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000). Outcomes: The current study had provided useful estimates of risk factors related to AIV. The finding of above study will be published. These findings could be utilized by the policy maker to control the epidemics of AIV in population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2585-T] (1).

16. Prevalence Of Influenza Virus Among Children Of Tehsil Kot Radha Kishen

by Shamsa Rafique | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din-Ahmad | Dr. Amir Ghafoor Bajwa.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Influenza belongs to orthomyxoviridae with single stranded RNA genome. Influenza has three types namely A, B and C with further subtypes on the basis of hemaglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins that are H1, H2, H3, N1 and N2. Influenza infection causes headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sneezing and often fever with cough. Nose, lungs and bronchi are affected by it. Human influenza infection usually follows a period of 10-14 days with no residual effects. However, sometimes it may cause serious respiratory illness and rarely involve other body organs. On the other side, newly evolve strains of influenza have little immunity against them so these may cause serious illnesses and even lead to death. Various strains of influenza have caused epidemics, pandemics and zoonotic diseases at different times all over the world. This cross sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rate of influenza in Pakistan. Study period was 12 months. A cross sectional survey of Kot Radha Kishen, district Kasur was undertaken in children less than 15 years from 35 localities. Data was collected through two stage cluster sampling techniques. After a written consent, questionnaires were filled up. Total sample size was 245. In this study, Child aged less than 5% were 46%, 5-10 year were 40% and 10-15% were 14% including 50.8% female and 49.2%male children. Vaccination was completed in 86.4% and continued in 4.8%. However, 4.4% children were not immunized at all. These families were mostly shifted in that area after migration. During the survey 22% community showed their knowledge about seasonal influenza vaccination while 78% were ignorant of it. About 40.8% of community kept bird and 51% kept animal at home. Among those children, 33.2% children suffered from influenza like illness within the week of surveillance. Summary 53 Influenza contact history was positive in 33.2% of these cases. In case of illness 24.4% regularly took medicine from hospital While 34.8% population moved to traditional doctors for medicine and 17.2% took medicine from pharmacies without any doctor’s prescription. Prevalence estimates of human influenza were generated; associated risk factors were identified through this study. Results were shared with international community working for the control and eradication of human influenza Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2634-T] (1).

17. Evaluation Of Factors For Refusal Of Polio Vaccination During Immunization Campaigns In Aziz Bhatti Town, Lahore

by Fatima Majeed | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansour-Ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Polio is acute and devastating diseases. It has only human host. Joint efforts of international agencies will be very helpful for achieving the target of Global Polio Eradication. We are still lagging behind, as 3 countries of the world including Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria are polio endemic countries. In poliomyelitis 90-95 % cases have no symptoms, 4-8 % has minor illness, 1-2 % has meningitis, while paralytic poliomyelitis is seen in only 0.1-0.5 % of cases. Polio virus is member of entero virus subgroup of family Picornaviradae. Picorna viruses are small ether-insensitive with RNA genome. There are 3 polioviruses serotypes (p1, p2, p3). Unskilled workers, lack of commitment of polio workers, inadequate training, non-professional attitude of polio team and too frequent campaign are common causes for refusal to give polio vaccination to children. The parents of less than 5 years age children of Aziz Bhatti town, who were approached for the vaccination of polio during immunization campaign, were included in the study. A sample of 260 children‟s was included. The study conducted for a period of one year. The data was collected from the parents / guardian of the children who were approached for vaccination during the immunization campaign in Aziz Bhatti, town, Lahore. The consent was taken from them Data was compiled in Excel and entered and analyzed through SPSS. The data was represented through charts, graphs. Rate, ratios and frequencies were calculated. Chi square 69 Summary test was applied and the test of significance was applied at P values of 0.05. Any value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. The result of study will be forwarded to health authorities to be used in future to make active measure for successful polio vaccination so that refusal can be brought to zero, and target of polio elimination can be achieved in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2633-T] (1).

18. Targeted Survey Of Avian Influenza (H5, H7, H9) In Backyard Poultry In High Risk Area Kasur District

by Shumaila IQbal (2009-VA-83) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Avian Influenza is the most feared disease of poultry and other birds throughout the world. The segmented, negative strand RNA viruses that form the family Orthomyxoviridae are divided into three types of influenza virus, A, B and C. Only influenza A viruses have been reported to cause natural infections of birds. The outbreak can be mitigated by applying biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movement, using inactivated vaccines and initiating an AI surveillance network throughout the country. A targeted survey was conducted for a period of 3 months in order to determine prevalence of Avian Influenza H5, H7 and H9 in the villages of Kasur district. Two stage cluster sampling without replacement was adopted in this study. Thirty clusters were selected and in each cluster, seven elementary units (chicken) were sampled, i.e. a total of 210 birds. Tracheal swabs were collected from live and apparently healthy backyard birds then swabs were stored properly at 4°C (24-48hours) until processed. Data were collected from the owner in a face to face interview. A detail predesigned questionnaire was filled after taking written consent from the owner. The sample was collected during the survey of backyard poultry in villages of Kasur district was processed for laboratory analysis. Polymerase chain reaction for Avian Influenza virus isolation was conducted to diagnose sample for AIV. The weighted proportion estimate with 95% Cl (confidence intervals) of the overall prevalence was computed by using “R” software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome. Variables with significant univariate relationship at p <0.25 was selected for inclusion in the final model. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% Cl (confidence intervals) were calculated (Hosmer and Lemeshow, 2000). CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Discussion 53 The management practice risk scores provide a means to quantify the level of risk to avian influenza across villages. However, the utility of such a measure cannot be assessed until these are related to AI status form clinical tests. Nevertheless it is useful to assess what factors are associated with these scores. In particular, specific profiles of farms can be identified with potential high risk and control resources allocate accordingly. For example, this study has found amongst other things that farms with mixed poultry breeds, which have reported diarrhea, or reported high mortality have high risk scores, and these might be targeted for intervention. Prevalence estimate of Avian Influenza was generated. Potential risk factors associated with this prevalence was identified and will be communicated to concerned persons through publication. The poultry birds reared completely outdoor have more chance to contact with wild birds which increase the occurrence of AIV. A strong association between source of water and AIV was found. Water source can play a vital role in transmission of AIV. Another strong association was found in unethical disposal of dead birds and waste poultry farm near to houses with increase the chances of infection. Presence of live bird market stall and visiting of poultry farm vehicle to villages can increase the chances of AIV infection. Elimination or reduction of above mentioned risk factors, use of disinfectant for cleaning and regular vaccination against AI could significantly improve backyard poultry production system in villages. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2655-T] (1).

19. Case Control Study Of Brucellosis And Its Associated Risk Factors At Commercial Dairy Farms

by Amna Riaz (2008-VA-257) | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Brucellosis, is a febrile, zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. It is a second most important zoonotic disease after rabies. (WHO, OIE, FAO). Brucella is gram negative, aerobic, non-spore forming and non-motile coccobacilli. (Gull and Khan, 2007).The main signs are abortion after fifth month of pregnancy, still births, birth of weak calves, infertility, placentitis in females and in male’s epididymitis and orchitis. Due to its zoonotic nature farm labors, butchers, veterinarians and slaughter house workers are at high risk. Signs in human brucellosis are highly variable i.e., flu, rising and falling of temperature and causes many other complications in the body. (Baba et al.2001; Grillo et al. 2006; Shimol et al. 2012). Standard tests for brucellosis are Rose Bengal Precipitation Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) (Memish et al, 2002). Its control is very difficult due to its variable incubation period, long survival time in both extracellular and intracellular environments, asymptomatic stages and resistant to the treatment, co-mingling, increasing population size and nomadism (Rahman et al. 2006). The case study was conducted on the commercial dairy farms situated in the catchment area of University Diagnostic Laboratory, UVAS Lahore which were located Lahore, Kasur and Sheikhupura districts in Punjab. The data about positive and negative farms was obtained from university diagnostic lab, UVAS, Lahore. A predesigned questionnaire was filled from that farm workers in face to face interview. The sample size was calculated by the formula given by Schlesselman, 1982. The parameters for calculation of the sample size were power of study kept at 80% with 95% confidence interval. Total 90 samples were included (cases= 45, controls=45). Data was analyzed using chi-square. All statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 0.05. In this study, absence of the calving pens at the farm, feeding and water practices, presence of streams and lakes near the farm and breeding practices show the strong association with this disease,by controlling the above factors and improving management at the farm can low the occurrence and spread of the disease in animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2664-T] (1).

20. Application Of Euroscore To Predict Risk Of Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting In Pakistani Population

by Ali Naeem (2014-VA-780) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Ammar Hameed Khan | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Coronary artery bypass surgery has become the standard of care for advanced coronary artery disease. It is one of the most audited and closely monitored operations in the history of surgery. Morbidity and mortality associated with this operation is also very closely monitored by surgeons, hospitals, professional bodies and governments at large. Based on the preoperative clinical information available about patients preparing to undergo coronary artery bypass surgery various predictive models for assessment of mortality risk have been developed over the last two decades in various regions across the world. Euro SCORE is one such predictive model which can accurately predict the risk of mortality for large groups of patients for the population in which it was developed. A large number of Pakistanis and nationals from South East Asian countries reside in different European countries and form part of the population on which this score has been developed and validated. We intend to find out the predictive accuracy of this model in our patients living in Pakistan. Euro SCORE accurately predicts operative mortality in patients from Pakistani population. This study will be conducted at the Department of Cardiac Surgery Shalamar Hospital Lahore. One hundred consecutive patients admitted to hospital for coronary artery bypass surgery will be enrolled in study. A total of 18 variables as included in EuroSCORE (Appendix 1) will be collected and entered into database. The expected mortality risk will be calculated by the EuroSCORE Calculator software ( Actual or observed mortality and morbidity will also be recorded. Statistical analysis will be performed using SPSS version16. Continuous numerical data will be presented as mean ± Standard deviation, the Student t test will be used to compare means of normally distributed data. The qualitative data will be analyzed using chi square test. The relationship of the observed and the expected rates of mortality will be assessed using ROC curves for the accuracy of prediction of the Euro-SCORE. This study will indicate how accurately Euro SCORE can predict the risk of mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting in our population and more over it may indicate other patient related variables that can contribute to operative mortality other than Euro SCORE. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2713-T] (1).

21. Assessment Of Food Safety Practies In Various Bakries Of Central Punjab Pakistan

by Muhammad Arslan Tahir | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Mr. Harpon Jamshed Qazi | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The bakery occupies significant market share among food processing industry and consumer goods. At the sale points, sale persons usually wear hand gloves to give the impression of adherence to food safety and hygiene principles whereas under a typical scenario the production unit of the same sale point might not have even have a soap for hand washing in the worker’s toilet. Through this study we assessed the level of food safety practices at production plant and sale point of the bakery items. Along with this, the level of awareness in employees regarding to food safety and personal hygiene were also assessed. The present study was conducted to evaluate the current food safety practices at bakeries from all towns of district Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Qasur. Data was collected from different districts of Central Punjab as Lahore 60%, Faisalabad 20%, Gujranwala 10%, Sheikhupura 5% and Qasur 5%.A modified questionnaire was used as study tool, consisted of 90 questions. These questions belong to food safety practices related to manufacturing, storage, personal hygiene, packing material, raw material, working environment and plant layout. The results of present study showed that there is urgent need of taking steps for implementation of food safety regulations and training of concerned food handlers. All the stakeholders in food supply chain plays important role at different stages of the process. So every stakeholder involved in this chain is required to be equipped with the proper training regarding safe handling practices and safe production of food. The present study showed that there is urgent need of improvement in different areas of production. The present study showed that there is urgent need of improvement in 22.5% bakeries for food safety training, 29.5% for sanitation, 15% for personnel health, 27.5% for personnel hygiene, 22.5% for processing plant layout, 19.5% for premises management, 26.5% for pest management, 21% for food production and 20%for storage. There are also such bakeries which require major improvements, which are 26.5% for food trainings, 17% for sanitation, 18% for personnel health, 37.5% for personnel hygiene, 19.5% for processing plant layout, 17% for premises, 38% for pest management, 33.5% for food production, 40% for storage. Some bakeries require improvements, which are 21% for food trainings, 32% for sanitation, 35.5% for personnel health, 19.5%% for personnel hygiene, 34% for processing plant layout, 34% for premises, 19% for pest management, 31% for food production, 24.5% for storage. There is very little percentage of the bakeries which maintain good standards of safety and hygiene. Which is 12.5% for food safety training, 19% for sanitation, 22.5% for personnel health, 10% for personnel hygiene, 12.5% for processing plant layout, 19% for premises, 10% for pest management, 8% for food production and13% for storage. These results clearly represents the poor condition of bakeries in central Punjab. This is due to lack of government interest in this sector, involvement of illiterate food handlers and lack of awareness of consumers. This situation can be handled with the implementation of government regulations and food laws, systematic monitoring of bakeries, trainings of the concerned stakeholders and spreading awareness in consumers. These steps are very necessary to be taken to overcome malnutrition and foodborne diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2741-T] (1).

22. Prevalence And Associated Risk Factors Of Needle Stick Injuries Among Health Care Workers In Government Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Lahore

by Gurdeep Singh (2014-VA-957) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Ali Ahmad sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In present study, seventy six percent (n=228) of respondents were involved in sharp injuries and twenty four percent (n=72) were not involved. This study concluded there was high occurrence of needle stick sharps injuries among healthcare workers in tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. There are several risks associated with handling healthcare sharps among healthcare workers which include, needle prick that could be contributed to cases of occupational infections such as HIV/AIDS. Majority of reported cases were due to following reasons , inadequate supply of barrier products ,unsafe practice such as recapping of needle In paramedical staff due to failure in standard guide lines to handle medical sharps and lack of reporting of sharps incidents and very lower ratio utilization of post exposure prophylaxis. It was observed that risks of needle stick injuries were reduced with the experience. Those who have work experience of 5 years or less had higher ratio of sharp injuries than those who had work experience five to eight years. Respondents with nursing profession and laboratory technicians were at high risk; their exposure to handle sharps is greater and due to failure in precautionary measure risk of needle stick injuries in this category is higher compared to other. While Females were at high exposure risk of sharp injuries at tertiary care hospitals than male. Respondents with education level of diploma were more exposed to needle stick injuries as compared with degree holders in paramedical staff. It was observed that shift of eight hour work is absolute and healthcare workers were normal with it. If work load increased and time was exceeded then it was difficult to manage such injuries .while training on infection control and prevention has no effect in government hospitals of Lahore to decrease the risk of sharps injury among healthcare workers. Several recommendations which need to be implemented at the hospitals were identified as discussed below. and special attention need to be given to nurses , cleaners , the critical care section and the department of medicines There is need of fully trained Summary 38 health care workers in critical care units , medical and surgical ward Momentary to developed infection control department in every government and private hospital of Lahore and give them special training about the handling of medical sharps. adequate supply of barrier products (gloves, masks, lab coats etc) Check and balance on proper use of barrier product , there is need of timely collection of used medical sharps in puncture proof containers such as safety boxes that should be ¾ full when emptying .Need of safe transportation in a covered vehicle for incarnation .Administration of hospital need to developed polices for reporting of needle stick injuries by designing a log form that capture information on demographic data of the employee. Data and time of injury, type of sharp, procedure involved, part of body involved where it occurred. So it’s important to analyzed enter data in an order to understand root cause. It’s important to conduct surveillance and prevent further injury. Infection control department should need to check post-exposure prophylaxis status in health care workers go through counseling and are followed up to enhance post exposure prophylaxis in health care workers it’s not up to individual effort it’s a team work by involving administration and health care workers.. In government hospitals of Lahore there is many factors which contribute to needle stick injuries it might be reduced by strengthening of reporting system is necessary. The responsibility of government is to strengthen the check and balance on use of barrier products (gloves, pads, lab coats etc.) and create awareness on standard guidelines on handling of medical sharps. Thus rate of needle stick injuries could be reduced to acceptable level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2748-T] (1).

23. Comparative Evaluation Of “Onlay” Versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” Novel Polyester Meshplasty In Ventral Hernia Of Rabbits

by Bilal Ahmed Shah (2010-VA-196) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Dr. Ayesha Safdar | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with the body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of two placement techniques “Onlay” versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” polyester meshplasty for the treatment of ventral hernia. Polyester is a non-absorbable mesh. Polyester mesh is not available in Pakistan and was acquired from a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brand name of (Parietex®, Covidien, France). The experimental study was conducted on 24 (twenty four) healthy rabbits presented for massive ventral hernia repair. All rabbits were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before the study. The rabbits were allocated into two different groups, viz. group-A and group-B with 12 rabbits in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) a placement technique that was used for the treatment of ventral hernia in group-A. The rabbits of group-B were treated with “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) placement technique. Ventral herniorhaphy was performed in both groups using Polyester mesh with two different placement techniques. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both techniques were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation. SUMMARY 47 During the experiment, it was observed that “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fiber. It was observed that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” showed remarkable advantages over “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” placement technique is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2809-T] (1).

24. Comparative Efficacy Of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol Combination With Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac Tromethamine In Dogs

by Ameer Hamza Rabbani (2009-VA-58) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The study was designed on the premise that use of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol combination was more efficacious in providing better depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia than the combination of Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine. Two separate combinations of anesthetic cocktails i.e. ketamine-xylazine-tramadol and ketamine-xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine were tested for their comparative efficacies. A total of 8 mongrel adult clinically healthy male dogs between 1 to 2 years of age which were presented to clinic for castration, were managed in to two groups comprising 4 (n=4) individuals in each. These groups were designated as group A and B. General and clinical examination of the animal, LFT and RFT were performed prior to surgery. Atropine was administered at dose rate of 0.04mg/kg SC twenty minutes prior to the surgery. Both anesthetic regiments were used respectively in either groups and their efficacy was tested based upon the depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. In case of group A ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and tramadol at a dose rate of 2mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia was monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. In case of group B, ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and ketorolac tromethamine at a dose rate of 0.5mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia were monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. Surgical procedure for castration was SUMMARY 58 performed as surgical plane of anesthesia was acquired. Postoperatively, Intramuscular antibiotics were injected for 5 days to avoid secondary bacterial infections to wounds. Cleaning of the wound with good antiseptic solution and excellent hygienic measures were adopted to minimize infection. Balanced diet was given to improve health of animals. LFT and RFT were performed preoperatively (baseline), and one hour postoperatively in each dog. The measurements were analyzed as change from baseline in each dog. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05), using statistical analysis software Statistica. The results of temperature, pulse and respiration were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05). Observations pertaining to depth and quality of sedation were analyzed by using t-test with statistical analysis software Statistica. Statistical significance was assigned at p≤0.05. This study was helpful in determining efficacy of tramadol an opioid against ketorolac tromethamine which is an NSAID. This study emphasized upon discovering the most efficacious adjuvant to anesthetic combination of ketamine and xylazine. This study aimed to reduce the dose of xylazine without compromising the anesthetic effect of the combination while mitigating its side effects as well. This study provided us with a viable analgesic agent which may be administered peri-operatively to provide analgesia during immediate post-surgery period. Furthermore magnitude of improvement in depth of anesthesia helped determine an effective and cheap adjuvant to ketamine-xylazine combination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2807-T] (1).

25. Burden Of Respiratory Illness Related To Influenza Among Oupatient And Inpatients Healthcare Facility Centers District Sheikhupura

by Ayesha Mukhtar (2014-VA-1052) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected person or infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments.Globally the annual attack rate with influenza viruses ranges between 5 to10% in adults and 20- 30 % in children. The WHO estimates that 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness occur every year resulting in 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide, with most influenza deaths occurring among adults over 65 years of age. Influenza is the cause of outpatient visits and inpatient hospitalization among population of District Sheikhupura. A prospective study for duration of 3 months (September to october) was performed in Tehsil Muridke District Sheikhupra. Population of Tehsil Muridke is 4, 52,009. We selected Tehsil headquarter hospital randomly as sentinel sites .Our Target population was cases of ILI and SARI. All cases of influenza like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) who meets the inclusion & exclusion criteria was enrolled. Data was obtained by the face to face interview. A detail investigation form was filled after taking written consent form. Throat swab was collected from patient. The sample was stored at -70°C for further laboratory procedure. We will use Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of type of the influenza virus. RT-PCR allows viral template RNA to be reversed transcribed producing complementary DNA (cDNA) which can then be amplified and detected. So in our Study we used RT-PCR for influenza virus detection. Data analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence interval. Chi-square test used to measure the association of risk factors (age, sex, occupation, exposure, healthcare worker, travelling etc) and the rate of morbidity and mortality was calculated by using standard formulae. We identified ILI and SARI cases associated with outpatients and inpatients & also provided data to identify and monitor groups at high risk for influenza and will measure trends in morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2805-T] (1).

26. Phylogenetic Analysis And Gis Mapping Of Boophilus Species Of Ticks Of Bovine And Buffalo Of District Peshawar

by Zulfiqar Ahmad (2015-VA-11) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Muhammad Oneeb | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Livestock is playing a major role in the uplift of our national economy in terms of revenue from milk, meat and hides. In spite of this major contribution this sector is facing hurdles in its development. The infectious diseases and their vectors have occupied a mainstay in posing the uplift of this sector. Boophilus is an important biological vector for various protozoan and bacterial infections in animal as well as human. To date the identification of these ticks mainly rely on the morphological basis which have many variations among different identification keys. To make the identification more accurate at species level, the use of molecular tools is very necessary. Ticks were collected from the various areas of district Peshawar through random convenient sampling method. Briefly, 50 cattle and 50 buffaloes were sampled through forceps. Various ticks spp. were stored in 70% ethanol for further processing. Among the species Rhepicephalus microplus (Boophilus microplus) was the most prevalent specie (25.64103%) followed by Rhepicephalus annulatus (5.413105%) Rhipicephalus decloratus (5.128205%) Rhipicephalus distinctus (4.273504%), Rhipicephalus arnoldi (3.988604%), Rhipicephalus evertsi (5.698006%), while in Heamaphysalis species Heamaphysalis aciculifer highly prevalent (5.128205%) followed by Haemaphysalis parmata (4.843305%), Haemaphysalis excavatum (3.988604%) and Haemaphysalis houyi (3.988604%), so far Hyalomma species is concerned includes Hyalomma anatolicum (3.988604%), Hyalomma trancatum (4.843305%), Hyalomma detritium (5.982906%), Hyalomma egyptium (4.273504%), Hyalomma impeltatum (0.854701%) Hyalomma rufipes (1.709402%), Amblyomma pomposum (4.273504%), Dermacentor rhinocerinus (2.849003%), D. circumguttatus (3.703704%), and Summary 44 Dermacentor marginatus (2.564103%) are highly prevalent in cattle. Among the buffalo, Rhipicephalus 173 (43.25 %) followed by Haemaphysalis 82 (20.5 %), Hyalomma 54 (13.5 %), Dermacentor 26 (6.5 %) and Amblyomma 9 (2.25 %). The species prevalent in Rhipicephalus are Rhipicephalus microplus 74 (42.78%), Rhipicephalus annulatus 15 (8.68%), Rhipicephalus decloratus 19 (10.99%), Rhipicephalus distinctus 14 (8.10%), Rhipicephalus arnoldi 16 (9.25%), Rhipicephalus evertsi 17 (9.84%) and Rhipicephalus kochi 18 (10.40%) followed by Haemaphysalis aciculifer 18 (21.96%), Haemaphysalis parmata 15 (18.30%), Haemaphysalis excavatum 23 (28.05%), and Haemaphysalis houyi 26 (31.70%), so far Hyalomma species is concerned, Hyalomma anatolicum 10 (18.52%), Hyalomma tranctum 7 (12.96%), Hyalomma detritium 9 (16.67%), Hyalomma egyptium 7 (12.96%), Hyalomma impeltatum 10 (18.52%), and Hyalomma rufipes 11 (20.37%) and Dermacentor rhinocerinus 9 (34.62%), followed by Dermacentor circumgutattus 8 (30.76%) and Dermacentor marginatus 9 (34.62%) and Amblyomma is concerned Amblyomma pomposum 9 (2.25%). DNA was extracted from the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks through phenol-chloroform method. The extracted product was then run by gel stained ethidium bromide. The gel was visualized and examined bands on UV illuminator. Different sequences were retrived from database and genus specific primer were designed for the amplification of ITS-2 gene of Rhipicephalus genus of hard ticks. A consensus sequence was retrieved, a set of primers were designed by using Bioedit softwere version 7.2.6. DNA was extracted from 100 ticks and then run by PCR. Specific primers were designed for ITS2 gene. Phylogenetic tree based on the DNA sequences amplified from extracted from all the comparison with ticks and determined Genus Rhipicephalus area that are ITS2 Rhipicephalus ITS2 ribosomal RNA gene sequence 18s, thus obtained from Genebank. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2848-T] (1).

27. Study On The Effects Of Antibiotics And Vaccine Administration On The Tissue Tropism And Shedding Pattern Of Local Isolate Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Enteritidis In Commercial Broiler Chicken

by Qurat ul Ain (2011-VA-405) | Dr. Arfan Ahmad | Dr. Muhamad Nawaz | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The poultry sector is one of the most organized and vibrant segments of the agriculture industry of Pakistan. Food borne diseases are growing public health problem worldwide with Salmonella being the most common and widely distributed causative agent. Poultry and poultry products served as vehicle for transmission of this organism. In this study efficacy of two commonly used antibiotics and locally prepared vaccine against Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated. A total of 100 (one day old) broiler chicks were purchased and divided into 3 groups A, B and C (A& B comprised of 40 birds while group C comprised of 20 birds). Group A and B were sub divided into A1, A2 and B1, B2 comprising of 20 birds each. Birds in sub group A1, B1, B2 and C were inoculated orally with Salmonella enteritidis (105 CFU/ml) orally, while birds in sub group A2 was kept as control group (un-inoculated). Birds in sub group B1and B2 were administered with Ciprofloxacin and Florfenicol respectively 24 hours post inoculation of Salmonella enteritidis. Birds of group C were administered with vaccine at 1st day and at 11th day of birds age. At the same day of booster oral inoculation with Salmonella enteritidis was given. To evaluate the shedding pattern of organism and effect of antibiotics and vaccine administration cloacal swabs were taken after every 24 hours till 10 days post inoculation bacteria. After taking swabs, 2 birds in each group were slaughtered and organs like liver, spleen and ceca were collected and processed to see the tissue tropism of bacteria by culturing following biochemical confirmation and PCR. Summary 64 In this study, in control group, CFU count was very high as compared to antibiotic treated groups. Both antibiotic were found efficient in clearing the bacteria from birds and stopped shedding of bacteria. In our study it was further observed that regarding reduction of bacterial load, florfenicol proved more efficient as compared to ciprofloxacin (p<0.05). Vaccinated groups also showed lesser bacteria load in tissues and faeces as compared to intentionally inoculated group, however vaccine failed to stop bacterial shedding. When results obtained in antibiotic treated group were compared with vaccinated group, antibiotic were accepted better (p<0.05). Based on this study results, it was concluded that florfenicol proved better and may be used for the treatment of Salmonella enteritidis infection in Poultry flocks Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2832-T] (1).

28. Descriptive Epidemiology And Risk Factors Of Antenatal Depression Among Women Visiting Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore

by Gulshan Umbreen (2015-VA-415) | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Mental health is an important but neglected component of reproductive health. Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group (15–45 yrs.) contributes to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. During pregnancy prevalence of depression ranges from 4% to 20%. Women with perinatal depression experience full-blown major depression during pregnancy or after delivery (postpartum depression). The feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that accompany perinatal depression may produce or create difficulties to perform daily care activities for themselves and for their babies. Several risk factors predispose to depression during pregnancy are poor antenatal care, economic deprivation, previous history of psychiatric disorders, previous events during pregnancy like previous abortions, and modes of previous delivery like past instrumental or operative delivery age, marital status, gravidity, whether pregnancy was planned. Antenatal depression was the strongest indicator of postnatal depression. A hospital based cross sectional survey for duration of 4 months (December 2016 to March 2017) was performed in Lady Aitchison hospital Lahore. Pregnant women who visited to the obstetrics and gynecology departments for routine prenatal or perinatal care. Woman belongs to lower middle class was included and women with physical disabilities such as deafness and dumbness as well as those with a history of or ongoing mental illness/retardation was excluded in this study. Sampling was done by using convenience sampling technique and sample size was 300. Information regarding risk factors of antenatal depression was collected by using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh postnatal Depression Scale to assess depression after taking written consent. Data was obtained by face to face interview. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence 85 interval. Descriptive analysis was conducted in terms of who, when and where. Frequency distribution and graphs were be made. Chi- Square test was applied to see the association of risk factors. Depression and various risk factors have been identified among pregnant woman. Association found among various risk factors like age, education of woman and husband, occupation of husband, Husband income, Family type, number of persons living in home, number of children’s, number of daughters, trimester of pregnancy, mode of delivery, pregnancy status, fear from childbirth, Bitter experience/Complication in current /previous Pregnancy and Family Support. Through assessment provide an opportunity in need of intervention to safeguard the well-being of mother and baby and reduce the impact of antenatal depression on the mother, her baby, and her family. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2903-T] (1).

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