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1. Effect Of Virginiamycin And Zinc Bacitracin On New Castle Disease Virus Vaccinated Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Sohail Azhar | Prof.Dr. Muhamamd Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The project was designed to study the effects of Virginiamycin and Zinc bacitracin on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccinated broilers. Two hundred broilers were divided into four groups comprising fifty in each. These groups were treated with Virginiamycin (Stafac-500), Zincbacitracin (Albac) and Cyclophosphamide at the dose rate of 20ppm/50kg, 25 gm/50kg and 0.3ml/bird, respectively. Effect of the treatments on weight gain, lymphoid organs and humoral immune response was evaluated. The virginiamycin treated group had higher body weight than the Zinc bacitracin and Cyclophosphamide treated or untreated control groups. Both virginiamycin and Zinc bacitracin treatments did not adversely affect the weights of bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver of the birds. Cyclophosphamide treatment of birds in early life induced the bursal atrophy and slight depression in splenic weight gain. As compared to Cyclophosphamide treated and non-medicated control groups, the sera of virginiamycin / Zinc bacitracin treated groups had higher anti-NDV antibody titres at 42 days of age. The post-challenge sera of NDV vaccinated birds fed virginiamycin and Zinc bacitracin also had higher antibody titre as compared to NDV vaccinated Cyclophosphamide treated birds. The NDV vaccinated birds fed on virginiamycin / Zinc bacitracin medicated rations and those on non-medicated rations did not have any significant post-challenge mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0875,T] (1).

2. Standardizaion Of Indirect Elisa For Detection Of Antibodies Against Newcastle Disease Virus

by Muhammad Imran Najeeb | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Azhar | Dr. Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: An Indirect ELISA was developed to detect Newcastle disease virus antibodies in chicken sera. Out of solid phases used flat bottom 96 well microtitration polystyrene plates proved best. Out of four types of antigens tested, crude antigen and alcohol precipitated antigen gave inconsistent results. An ultracentrifuged virus passed through sucrose gradient prepared from infectious allantoic-amniotic fluids (AAF) was proven best for ELISA antigen. However, an ammonium sulphate precipitated antigen prepared from AAF was also satisfactory. A comparison was made between the HI titers of chicken sera and the corresponding ELISA values. The ELISA is much more sensitive than the HI test. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0876,T] (1).

3. Standardization Of Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay For Detection Of Antibodies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Sdrotype "O"

by Yasmeen Siddique | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An indirect ELISA was standardized for titration of anti-FMD-serotype-specific antibodies. In this test polystyrene plates were coated with known FMD serotype "O" virus using carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The blank spaces were blocked with horse serum. The immunoplate was coated with anti-FMD "O" virus specific serum from vaccinated calves. After washing, the plate was coated with rabbit anti-bovine-Ig-specific-antibodies-horse radish peroxidase conjugate. After washing, the plate was coated with HRP specific substrate. Development of color was recorded in form of OD value using ELISA reader. During the standardization of ELISA, flat bottom ELISA plates among all types of plates, 1:10 diluted virus among different dilutions of FMD "O" type virus, 1:10 diluted serum from buffalo calves vaccinated with FMD "O" type specific vaccine, 1:4000 dilution of conjugate and incubation of 4º C for coating the virus showed good results. In each experiment, plateau region, test back ground and plate back ground was recorded. Results of the study will help in establishment of an economical, sensitive, reliable indirect ELISA that subsequently be helpful to understand the percent prevalence of FMD serotypes in Pakistan and efficacy of FMD vaccines. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0879,T] (1).

4. Propagation Of Hydropericrdium Syndrome Virus In Laboratory Host Systems

by Basharat Mahmood | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Azhar | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Hydropericardium syndrome primarily affects the broilers between the age of 2-7 weeks. A vaccine prepared from infected liver extract treated with formaldehyde is being used to protect the broilers from the disease. The current study was carried out to propagate the hydropericardium syndrome virus in various laboratory host systems i.e. embryonated hen eggs, primary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells, chicken embryo kidney (CKC) cells, chicken embryo (CEF) fibroblasts and BHK 21 cell line. The protocol for cultivation of primary chicken embryo liver cells, chicken embryo fibroblasts, chicken embryo kidney cells were standardized under local conditions. Liver samples were collected from HPS affected birds were processed and propagated in embryonated hen eggs, chicken embryo liver cells, chicken embryo kidney cells, chicken embryo fibroblasts and BHK-21 cell line. The comparative sensitivity to hydropericardium syndrome virus was studied. Five field samples were recovered out of seven after reproducing the disease in susceptible healthy broilers. These five liver samples were propagated in all laboratory host systems. It was recorded that hydropericardium syndrome virus could be propagated in chicken embryo liver cells and chicken embryo kidney cells. Hydropericardium syndrome virus could not be detected in AAF of embryonated hen eggs inoculated through allantoic, chicken embryo fibroblasts and BHK-21 cell line. Microtitration technique was used to determine the titer of the propagated virus. The serological techniques used to confirm the presence of HPS virus in cell culture supernatant and the allento- amniotic fluid were AGP test and serum neutralisation. Polyclonal antisera was raised using formalized liver homogenate vaccine and oil- based cell culture propagated vaccine. Polyclonal antiserum against HPS virus using oil-based cell culture propagated vaccine was found to Specific against liver homogenate collected from HPS affected birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0880,T] (1).

5. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Flumequine And Enrofloxacin On Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccinated

by Waseem Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted to determine whether Flumequine and Enrofloxacin supplementation has any immunomodulatory effects on broiler chicks. A total of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 48 chicks. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups of 24 chicks. The chicks in group 1st were administered Flumequine, those in group 2 were treated with, Enrofloxacin and those in group 3 were treated with cyclophosphamide. Chicks in group 4 were not given any treatment. The parameters of investigation included the effects of Flumequine and Enrofloxacin treatment on live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, effect on various lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen and liver) and immune response of treated chicks to NDV-vaccination, post field NDV challenge mortality. Data presented in this study indicated that the Flumequine treated chicks had higher mean body weights, better FCR, higher NDV HI antibody, lesser overall mortality, no NDV post challenge mortality and no detrimental effects on their lymphoid organs, compared to the cyclophosphamide treated, and untreated chicks. The overall findings of this study clearly demonstrate that the use of Flumequine has good effect on growth and performance of the treated chickens. (Key words: Flumequine, Enrofloxacin, Immunomodulation, Broiler) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0881,T] (1).

6. Comparative Efficacy Of Five Diffrent Brands Of Commercial Newcastle Disease Lasota Viurs Vaccines In Broilers

by Tariq Abbas | Prof. Dr. Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The aim of the study was to compare five major commercial NDV (LaSota strain) vaccines being used in Pakistan with respect to potency, efficacy, thcrnioslability and influence on production performance in briolier chicks. The representative vials of the live NDV LaSota strain vaccines namely A, B, C, D and E were procured from local market. The vaccines were assayed for 50% infectivity (BID50) and Haemagglutinative ability (HA). A 3-log10 difference oF EJD50 and two- to-eight fold difference of HA activity was found was found among the various vaccines. Onc hundred and fifty day- old broiler chicks were divided into six groups and managed separately. The birds in group I, II, Ill, IV and V were actively immunized against ND on day 7 and 21 using vaccines A, B, C, D and E respectively. The birds in group VI served as unvaccinated control. The serum 1-Il antibody response of the different vaccines was determined 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-vaccination. The birds (n= 15) in all tile groups including unvaccinated control was challenged at day 35 with local virulent field isolate. The HI serum antibody profile and post-challenge mortality pattern revealed a dose- response relation between the virus content, humor-al antibody response and clinical protection. To compare the heat stability, the vaccines were incubated at 4C, 25CC and 40C for a period of 24 hours. There was no remarkable reduction in I IA liter, however slight dips (less than 2 logarithmic units) in LID50 values were found in all the vaccines. All the vaccines caused siginifcant suppression in weight gain leading to a poor performance in terms of Feed Conversion Ration (FCR) and European Efficiency Factor (EEF) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0909,T] (1).

7. An Epidemiological Study Of Nosocomial Infections At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tayyaba Ijaz (Phd) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the Prevalence of Etiological Agents of Nosocomial Infections in Mayo Hospital, Lahore-Pakistan of the 32,620 patients studied during 1997-2001; a total of 4502 (13.80%) patients acquired various types of nosocomial infections during their stay at Hospital. Clinical samples collected from various types of patients consisted of 1040 samples of Pus & Wound Swabs, 109 samples of blood; 115 of Pleural Fluids, 286 of Ascetic Fluids, 37 of Cerebrospinal Fluid, 1398 of Urine, 988 of Sputum; 329 of Burn Swabs, 99 of Patient Body Devices and 101 of Fecal and Drainage Material. The routine techniques for isolation. Identification through Biochemical, Serological and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing were used for studying the Bacteriology of the selected samples. The present findings revealed that from a total of 4502 samples, 1287 Strains of Staphylococci, 429 Strains of Streptococci, 328 Strains of Enterococci, 781 Strains of Pseudomonas, 349 Strains of Enterobacter, 41 Strains of Acinetobacter, 26 Strains of Klebsiella, 140 Strains of Proteus, 1031 Strains of Escherichia, 67 Strains of Serratia, 93 Strains of Haemophilus, 119 Strains of other types of Gram Positive Bacteria, 13 Strains of other types of Gram Negative Bacteria, and 189 Strains of Yeast and Fungi were found as Etiological Agent for Nosocomial Infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0912,T] (1).

8. Studies On Antigenic Homogeneity Of Fowl Adenoviruses Causing Hydropericardium Syndrome In Broilers

by Muhammad Tariq Iqbal | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Irshad Hussain | Dr. M. Sarwar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Babesiosis is a highly important disease in the world, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. A wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally man are affected by this disease, which is transmitted by ticks and has a worldwide epidemiological distribution. While the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections also occurs in other domestic animals , including horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. The present study targeted the carrier cattle infected with Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, as they are difficult to detect because of the low numbers of parasites that occur in peripheral blood. However, diagnosis of low-level infections with the parasite is important for studying the transmission and standardizing epidemiological studies. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of the gene from the parasite, and tested the ability of this method to detect carrier cattle. A study was conducted to detect the. Babesia in blood samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis by using specific primer in carrier cattle. Blood samples of 100 cattle were randomly analyzed with PCR assay 29 (29.0%) out of 100 blood samples were positive for babesiosis in which 18% were positive for Babesia bigemina and 11% were positive for Babesia bovis, While the Light Microscopy detected only 18 (18%) out of the same samples. The samples found positive by LM were reconfirmed during the PCR assay but no sample was found to be having both Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis infections simultaneously. Thus it is concluded that PCR is a reliable molecular diagnostic technique to detect low level of infections in carrier animals in a population and thus could be used as an effective screening tool for the control and eradication of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0928,T] (1).

9. Standardization Of An Indirecto Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Elisa For Measuring Antibodies Of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

by Faisal Amin | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This project was conducted to make an attempt to develop an in-house ELISA to measure antibodies against IBDV. ELISA is the most commonly used serological test for evaluation of IBDV antibodies, but the cost of imported ELISA kit is usually very high and not affordable by the average farmer. The present study was designed with an aim to develop a cost effective ELISA kit under local conditions. Various steps involved in the development of ELISA were standardized. Two types of antigens i.e. "A" and "B" were used. Antigen "A" was prepared by propagating the live IBD virus (D-78, Intervet) in CEF cells and further concentrated by dialysis against PEG-6000. Antigen "B" was the reconstituted live IBDV vaccine. Both the antigens produced acceptable and comparable results but antigen "B" is conventional due to ease of preparation and to avoid a time consuming and costly procedure of cell culture. The optimum dilution for antigens "A" and "B" were found to be 1:300 and 1:600 respectively. The optimum dilution of conjugate was selected as 1:2000 and incubation time was standardized as 30 minutes at room temperature (25-30°C) after addition of ABTS as substrate. Standard curve (two fold dilution of the positive sera up to 1 1th dilution) was constructed and 3 standards were selected to cover the range of strong reactor with non-reactor sera. The in-house developed ELISA was evaluated with field chicken sera samples of different age groups. The sera samples of different groups (A, B, C and D of 1-day-old broiler breeder chicks, 1-day-old broiler chicks, 13 weeks old vaccinated layer breeder bird and 30 weeks old vaccinated broiler breeder birds respectively) were evaluated with in house ELISA and its efficiency was compared with commercially available ELISA kit. The samples that were either positive (strong or weak) or negative with commercial ELISA kit also had similar pattern with in-house ELISA. Groups A, C and D were strongly positive while group B was found negative for IBDV antibodies. It is concluded that in-house developed ELISA is comparable with the commercially available kits. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0930,T] (1).

10. Immmunobiolotical Observations On Avian Influenza Virus Types H7 And H,

by Shahid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was designed to 'find the prevalence of Avian Influenza disease in and around Lahore in commercial and household poultry. A total of 1000 blood and 500 cloacal swabs were collected from Broilers, Broiler-Breeders, Ducks, Pigeons, Sparrows, Quails and Desi Chickens. The blood samples from all the flocks showed non-significant titers while vaccinated flocks showed protective titers. All the cloacal swabs were negative for virus isolation. The final conclusions from this study were the following.i.e. - Avian influenza caused by H7 & H9 type is not prevalent in broiler and broiler breeders in and around Lahore. - The vaccinated poultry flocks showed higher titers of antibodies as compared to non-vaccinated flocks which means that vaccine can play a vital role in protection of bird from H7 & H9. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0963,T] (1).

11. Seroprevalence Of Bovine Brucellosis In District Quetta, Balochistan

by Muhammad Shafee | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The sero-epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis was carried out to observe the incidence of brucellosis in slaughterhouse and Government and private dairy farm, (GDF, PDF) Quetta, Balochistan. The prevalence of this disease out of 780 serum samples of cattle and buffalo in slaughterhouse was recorded 3% by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and 3.20% by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA), respectively. The zoonotic natures of this disease was also checked by screening 20 serum samples of slaughterhouse workers butchers and veterinarians and were found (5%) 01 positive out of 20 by RBPT but no positive case was found by i-ELISA. Similarly the disease was also checked in 200 milk samples of Government and Privatly owned Dairy Farm, Quetta. The overall prevalence observed in the area by screening 1000 serum and milk samples of the target human, cattle and buffalo, was 4.2 % through i-ELISA. The prevalence observed in Government Dairy Farm (GDF), Quetta was 14.8% (11 positive out of 74) while the Private Dairy Farm (PDF), exhibited 4.76% (6 positive out of 126 milk samples) by screening through i-ELISA. At GDF, Quetta, out of total of 74 cattle, no case were found positive by MRT, although 03 cases were found doubtful while i-ELISA show 11 positive cases in cattle (14.8%) while in private dairy farm 4 out of 15 cattle (26%) were found positive and 01 was considered doubtful by MRT and ELISA detected 06 cases of cattle out of 15(40%). Similarly 2 out of Ill (1.8%) buffalo were positive and 02 were doubtful by MRT but ELJSA did not detect any positive case and the prevalence of bovine brucellosis was higher in animals with reproductive disorders especially in cases of abortion. The present study also revealed that the disease is more prevalent in cattle than buffalo both in slaughterhouse and organized dairy farm (Govt and private). In slaughterhouse 12 out of 23 cases were found positive by RBPT and 22 out of 23 were found positive by i-ELISA while in organized dairy farm all of the 17 milk samples were found positive from cattle population. The efficacy of the i-ELISA both for milk and serum samples was found higher than other two conventional tests (MRT and RBPT), as it detected higher percentage of brucellosis cases both in serum and milk samples in comparison to other two tests. The results of this study have revealed an alarming situation of bovine brucellosis in our dairy animals, which needs an emergent response from policy makers, as the disease is a potential threat to the human and animal health. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0964,T] (1).

12. In Vitro Production Of Aflatozin (B1), Its Purification, Estimation And Biodegradation

by Muhammad Hanif Khan | Dr. Irshad Hussain | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: In this study a toxigenic strain of A. parasiticus was used for the production of the aflatoxin Eli. This strain of the fungus was taken from naturally growing fungal samples such as bread, rice, vegetables, fruits, maize etc. from various locations in and around the university. The unpurified sample was culture-purified on Sabouraud Agar through repeated culture technique. This strain was maintained on Sabouraud agar slants at 4 °C. The purified sample of this fungus was harvested with 0.01 % Tween 80 then inoculated to the autoclaved broken rice. The rice was incubated at 28 °C in a dark room for a period of' 7 days and shaken two times a day. After 7 days of incubation the rice as autociaved at 121 °C in order to inactivate the fungus. The rice was dried and crushed to powder in a blender. The toxins were extracted through chloroform methpd and evaporated to dryness in water bath at 6 °C. The toxins were again dissolved in I ml ehiorokrm and stored at 4 °C for further use in the study. The toxins were then purified on silica gel plate in order to get the AFBI only through comparison with the AHII standard. 'l'he aflatoxin BI band was scratched from the silica gel plate and subjected to centrifugation in order to remove the silica gel. The purified Bi toxin was then dissolved in chloroform for further use. The AFB1 was then identified and qilani i lied through the fol lowing three methods namely, 1)High perlirmance Liquid chromatography 2) Thin layer chromatography 3) Spectrophotornetry The sensitivity of the above three methods was determined and compared which was 1 .3 ng/ml for HPLC. 6.3 ng/ml forTLC and 40 ng/mI for Spectrophotometry. The purified AFBI was then estimated by HPLC the amount of which was 238 ± 9.8 jig / ml. however the toxins estimated through TLC were 127.8 ± 24 jig/mi and spectrophotometry were 26 ± 4jig/ml ml. The HPLC method was proved to be the most sensitive method for detection and estimation of the aflatoxin as compared to the other two methods. The HPLC, estimated toxins were then checked for their biodegradation for this purpose the AFBI were kept at three different temperatures and dissolved in three different solvents. As the toxins had previously been dissolved in the chloroform so 400 jil of the chloroform was evaporated to dryness in order to dissolve them in their respective solvents. The toxins were dissolved in 400 j.tl of chloroform, acetone and methanol and kept at 25, 4 and -20 °C. These toxins were then stored for a period of four weeks and the tested for their biodegradation after four weeks by HPLC. The temperature at which the toxins showed less degradation was determined. That temperature at which the toxins showed less degradation was - 20 °C and the amount of the toxin at this temperature after four weeks of storage was 197 jig/ml. The solvent in which the toxins exhibited less degradation was acetone at all the three temperature conditions (25, 4 and -20 o() I lowever chloroform at 25 °C was exhibiting less degradation as compared to the other two solvents. Methanol was proved to be the least good solvent because the toxin was showing degradation in this solvent. The acetone at -20 CC was the most appropriate solvent for toxins storage. In second experiment the fresh toxin was dissolved in acetone and tested fbr their degradation on weekly basis by HPLC. The toxin level at the beginning of the experiment was 447 ± 9 ug/mI which when detected after a weak was 398.67 ± 9.8 jig/mI. The same toxin when tested after 2 weak period storage exhibited a level of 295.9 ± 20 ug/mi followed by 265.7 ± 3Ojig/ml. after the end of the third weak indicating that there was an appreciable level of toxin degradation. The toxin tested on the fourth week of storage were 267± 31 ig/ml which exhibited no degradation as compared to the degradation of the third week. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0977,T] (1).

13. Factors Affecting Hemagglutination Potential Of Avain Influenza Viuruses (H5, H7, H9 Subtypes)

by Mubashir Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The objective of this study was to standardize hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests for AIV H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. These subtypes were propagated in 09-day old chicken embryonated eggs and after 72 hours post incubation the allantoic fluid (AF) was harvested and confirmed by spot agglutination test and by AGPT. While standardizing HA test maximum titers were recorded using 1% RBCs of chicken, human blood group Qe and dog using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a diluting agent for washing suspension of erythrocyte and by incubating the micro titer plates at 22c or 37C for 30 minutes or 40 minutes time period. The AIV subtypes eluted rapidly with increase in temperature with maximum elution observed within the time period of 8 hours. The live AIV provided much higher HA titer when compared with the titers obtained from AJV subtypes inactivated with formalin or Binary ethylene imine (BET). The BET was found to have little effect on HA activity as compared to formalin. While standardizing the HI test the best titers were obtained using 4 HA units of AIV antigen as compared to 1 HA and 8 HA units of antigen and by incubating the micro titer plates for 60 minutes period (time given for antigen-antibody reaction before the addition of erythrocytes suspension). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0984,T] (1).

14. Electrophoretic Profile Of Normal And Hydropericadium Virus-Infected Liver

by Shahid Khan | Prof.Dr.Irshad Hussain | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Hydropericardium syndrome primarily affects the broilers between the ages of 2-7 weeks. 1he vaccine prepared from infected liver extract treated with formaldehyde is being used to protect the broilers from the disease. The current study was carried out to check the presence of immunogenic proteins in commercially available HPS vaccines Hyper immune serum was raised in 60 (3 weeks old) broiler birds using different commercially available HPS vaccine. The sera were subjected to AGPT for screening out HPS positive serum samples. The HPS infected livers were homogenized and loaded in alreadv prepared agar gel plates. The plates were incubated for 48 hours at room temperature in humid plastic box. Only 5 liver samples were found positive .The HPS autogenous vaccines,HPS positive liver samples normal liver samples were subjected to homogenization, sonication, chloroform treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation, mixed with equal volume denaturing buffer and then boiled for 3 minutes to extract total proteins of Sample. . Large variations in the protein loading of samples in adjoining lanes lead to distortion. Spectrophotometer determination of protein concentration assay were used to quantitate the known protein samples (bovine serum albumen is commonly used standard or this method) to standardize protein concentration. A28o were used to determine protein concentration and a calibration curve was created by plotting and performing regression analysis of A28o versus concentration of the standards and absorbance of the sample were used to determine the concentration from the calibration curve by using the formula. (concentration =Standard Factor* Dilution Factor* Optical Density. Total protein analysis was carried out by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting technique. A typical gel of 9% acrylamide composition was used to nicely separate polypeptides of samples to analyze the entire profile of a fraction that contains heavy and light polypeptides. Best results were obtained when 30 pi of a 20-30 mg/mi final concentrations of denatured protein sample were loaded per sample well .Each sample was repeated twice on gel. The gel was cutted at the centre vertically. 0.1% Coomassie Blue dye in 50% methanol, 10% glacial acetic acid were used to stain half of the gel for detecting protein while half of the gel was subjected to western blotting. Relative molecular weight (MW) of each protein fraction was determined by plotting a standard curve. The western blot analysis of proteins of hydropericardium syndrome virus infected liver and HPS autogenous vaccine, separated on 9% gel showed one immunogenic protein, molecular weight 15-20 kDa. However, further studies are needed to establish its immunogenic nature and feasibility for its use as vaccine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1005,T] (1).

15. Clinico-Epidemiological Features Of Dengue Fever In And Around Lahore

by Abdul Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of veterinary science.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1187,T] (1).

16. Microbial Evaluation Of Raw Meat At Abattoirs And Retail Outlests (Lahore)

by Abid Sarwar | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of meat. The present study was planed to determine the aerobic plate count on meat obtained from the abattoirs and local market. A total of 90 meat samples that were collected for determining the microbiological quality of meat. Half of the meat samples (n=45) were collected from various abattoirs and half of the meat samples (n=45) were collected from retail outlets in Lahore City to get an idea of contamination from slaughtering point to retail outlets. These samples were processed for Aerobic plate counts, E.coli, S.aureus and Salmonella counts. Overall, this study revealed that the level of contamination on meat carcasses was higher in retail meat shops compared to the abattoir. However, the microbial contamination in the abattoir were high if we compare these results to the reports from developing countries like India, Iran and Bangladesh. Bacterial isolates identified and counted from this study were Staphylococcus aureus (44) out of 90 samples was the most abundant as 48.88%, followed by E. coli (43) 47.77% and Salmonella (26) 28.88%. Statistical analysis revealed that analysis of variance between various abattoir and the retail meat shops for E.coli, Salmonella and S.aureus showed significant differences with some exceptions. E.coli counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the meat shops and abattoirs. For E.coli most of the data were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05) with some exception in case of beef and goat samples taken from abattoirs which were non significant because of the unhygienic environments. Analysis of variance for Salmonella between various abattoir and the retail outlets were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05). For S.aureus between various abattoir and the retail outlets showed non significant at 5% level (P > 0.05) with some exceptions in case of beef abattoir and goat retail outlet samples taken which were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of microbial load in fresh meat obtained in this study might be attributed to unhygienic and improper handling of animals during slaughter, dressing, evisceration, transportation and unhygienic environments at the retail shops. The usual practice of washing the carcass with the same water in which intestines and offal had been washed was considered as one of the predominant reasons for increased microbial counts of the carcasses. A complete ignorance on the part of the meat handlers/ butchers in hygienic handling of carcasses during slaughter and retailing processes might be the main factors for producing meat with high microbial load. Levels of microbial contamination in Pakistani abattoirs and traditional retail meat shops reflect the hygiene status of meat production in the developing world. Education of the meat retailers' community which runs the traditional meat shops, in terms of the importance of hygienic and sanitary precautions would go a long way towards providing wholesome and safe meat to the consumers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1196,T] (1).

17. Detection Of Hazardous Organism In Raw And Pasteurized Milk With Particular Reference To 3Enterobacteriaceae

by Ayesha | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to detect the hazardous organisms in raw milk from public health point of view. In total one hundred twenty (120) milk samples were collected from milk retail shops in and around Lahore. Out of these 120, one hundred samples were of raw milk and rests of the twenty samples were of pasteurized milk. Their microbiological quality was studied by performing standard plate count (SPC), coliform count and identification of hazardous bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The micro flora of milk was also studied for the prevalence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Milk supplied in Lahore city was found to have poor microbiological quality. Bacterial load was determined by SPC and coliform count. The standard plate count (S.P.C) of the raw milk ranged from 4.2x106 to 7.7xl07 c.f.u/ml. The coliform counts ranged from 3.4x 104 c.f.u /ml to 6.9x105 /ml. A total of 81 isolates were identified from raw milk samples. These included Yersinia (3 strains), Klebsiella (16 strains), Escherichia coli (14 strains), Enterobacter (11 strains), Shigella (3 strains), Salmonella (19 strains) and' Proteus (15 strains).The standard plate count for pasteurized milk ranged from 1.45x104 c.f.u/ml to 3.8x 105 c.f.u/ml. The minimum and maximum coliform count was 7.2x102 to 8.4xl03 c.f.u/ml respectively for pasteurized. All samples were outside the international standard for coliform bacteria. A total of 13 isolates were identified from pasteurized milk samples. These included Yersinia (2 strains), Klebsiella (1 strains), Escherichia coli (6 strains), Enterobacter (2 strains), Shigella (1 strains) and Proteus (1 strains). All the isolates showed multiple drug resistance to various commonly used antibiotics in veterinary practices. Escherichia coli were resistant to all antibiotics used except Gentamicin (10µg). Enterobacter was sensitive to all the antibiotics used except to Ampicillin (10µg). Shigella was sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg), Kanamycin (30µg), Choloramphenicol( 25µg), but showed resistance to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg)., Salmonella was resistanct to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg). But sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg). .All the isolates showed greatest resistance to Penicillin (10 ug.) whereas, most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentamycin, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol. Finally, it is recommended that the members of the public should always boil raw milk before consumption because of their microbial content. Therefore, it is highly recommended that hygienic practices and regulations, such as on-site pasteurization and implementation of HACCP following established standards, should be introduced to facilitate the production of raw milk of high quality and safety. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1219,T] (1).

18. Epidemiological Study Of Hepatitis C Viral Infection And Its Association With Socioeconomic And Other Risk Factors

by Bilal Munir Ahmad | Prof.Dr.M.Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1263,T] (1).

19. Descriptive Epidemiological Study Of Cancer Patients Registered At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tamseela Naseem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The objective of this study were to report the distribution and pattern of various cancers in Mayo hospital of Lahore over a period of last 5 years and to determine the age and gender distribution of the various reported Cancer cases in the above mentioned teaching hospital of Lahore. This research project was planned to study the epidemiology of various types of cancer among population of Pakistan. For the design of study a descriptive study based on passive surveillance system was planned. The data of cancer patients were collected from the Mayo Hospital a Teaching Hospital of Lahore. To meet the objective of this study we took data from Mayo Hospital, based on previous five years (from 2006-2010). Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 16 by researcher herself. Quantitative variable like age was presented in form of mean ± SD with respect to type of cancer and year. The qualitative variable like gender, type of cancer etc were presented in form of frequency tables and appropriate charts. Chi square analysis was used to see the association between qualitative attributes. Analysis of variance was used to see the mean age of different types of carcinomas. Independent sample t-test was used to see the mean age in different gender. In this study there were total 12096 cancer patients registered at Mayo hospital Lahore in period of last five years from 2006 to 2010. Out of which, 2305(19.1%), 2182(18.0%), 2293(19.0%), 2315(19.1%) and 3001(24.8%) patients were registered in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Out of total 12096 cancer patients, there were 5766(47.87%) males and 6330(52.13%) females. Of the 12096 patients diagnosed with malignant cancers, nearly 11827 (98.5%) belonged to the province of Punjab and approximately 45 (0.4%) to the NWFP, 111 (0.9%) belonged to Azad Jammu Kashmir, 27 (0.2%) belonged to Karachi and 13 (0.1%) belonged to Quetta. There were 2988 patients of breast and female genital carcinomas registered, out of which 592 patients were registered in 2006, 487 patients were registered in 2007, 583 were in 2008, 611 in 2009 and 715 were registered in 2010. Registered patients with carcinoma of digestive organs were 2071 in which there were 374 were in 2006, 385 were in 2007, 374 in 2008,418 in 2009 and 520 in 2010. Lymphoid heamatopietic were 1589 in which 293 were from 2006,322 were from 2007,302 were from 2008, 284 were from 2009 and 388 were from 2010. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1370,T] (1).

20. Descriptive And Therapeutic Trial Of Iron Supplements (Standard Drug And Herbal) In Anemic Pregnant Women

by Maria Ikram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This study was carried out in two phases; in first phase descriptive epidemiologic study was done in pregnant females living around district Okara. List of a total 101154 pregnant females was obtained from Health office OKARA. Hemoglobin level of each subject was assessed and prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was observed 42.15%. From village 1141., 88 44%) pregnant women were enrolled, from 25 GD village 74(37%) pregnant women were enrolled and from 36/2L village 38 (19%) pregnant women were enrolled. in phase II, experimental epidemiological study was conducted to compare the efficacy Sharbat- e-Iolad (Treatment groups) with Ascifer (standard group). Sample Size of 200 patients was enrolled with 100 subjects in each group. SPSS 16.0.2 was used for data entry and analysis. Mean ± S.D was used to present the data. Two way repeated measures ANOVA was used to see the effects of treatments in the significance of Hemoglobin levels at different follow ups. Mean age of the mothers in group A was 27.16 ± 4.97 years and in group B it was 26.07 ± 4.78 years. The age range of the patients was 17 to 38 years. Mean Hb level in Group-A was 6.89 & 6.87 in Group-B at base line. Mean Hb level after first follow up (after 3 weeks from base line) in Group-A mean Hb level was 7.34 and in Group-B it was 7.26. After second follow up (after 6 weeks) mean Hb level in Group-A was 8.81 and in Group-B it was 8.50. In both Groups Hb level was significantly improved (p-value = 0.000). I-Ib level was significantly improved in both study groups with equal effects. In future any of the treatment may be used for the treatment of anemia but Sharbt-e-Folad is recommended due to its cheap cost and accessible availability in rural areas. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1371,T] (1).

21. Epidemiological Trends, Clinical Profile And Risk Factors Associated With Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever In Quetta, Balochistan

by Khushal Khan Kasi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an important disease in suburbs of Quetta in particular, and other cities of Balochistan in general. The cases of this disease are brought to the public hospital for treatment purposes. The study was carried out to understand the descriptive nature of the disease with respect to geographic, temporal and personal distribution. The second part of study comprised of cross sectional as well as case-control study for the identification of different risk factors in patients as compared to their control admitted in the same hospitals. The highest numbers of CCHF cases were from Quetta i.e. 35, 82 cases were male and 19 cases of female, small scale sheep and goat farmer has highest number of cases i.e, 59. Mean age for male patients was 30.82±15.47 years, while for female patients mean age was 29.17±16.40 years with a p-value= 0.685. Mean platelet count for male and female patients was 450n.29±35934.14 and 35388.89±18081.96 respectively with a p-value= 0.270. Mean Hemogobin level for male and female patients was 11.52±2.78 and 9.80±3.23 respectively, and with a p-value=O.023. Among the patients, 5 patients were positive for IgG and IgM antibodies, 9 patients were having A+ blood group, 44 with B+, 16 with 0+, 1 with AB+ and 29 was not reported, 21 patients died and the remaining patients discharged, and the highest number of cases were between April and September. A significant association exist between platelet count with respect to cases who suffered from CCHF (p-value= 0.000), male were 1.157 times more prone to CCHF as compared to female (OR=1.157), (p-value=0.629) and (CI=0.641-2.089), and animals at home have has more susceptibility to CCHF cases (OR=3.538), (p-value=O.OOO) and (CI=2.219-5.642). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1377,T] (1).

22. Socio-Demographical And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With The Diseases Of Senior Citizens of Jhelum City

by Muhammad Shahzad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Research on geriatric diseases is scarce in Pakistan. This endeavor was planned to establish a baseline data for common geriatric diseases found in lhelum, Pakistan. This study reveals the prevalence of geriatric diseases in elderly people in lhelum, Pakistan. Our first objective was to collect and interpret the baseline data about prevalent diseases among the old aged people. Our second objective was to describe the socio- demographic and epidemiological risk factors associated with the diseases of elderly population of lhelum city. In order to study the risk factors associated with geriatric diseases, a geographical cluster of lhelum was selected. The study area was Tehsil lhelum which comprises of 400,000 individuals. Tehsil lhelum is further divided into 16 union councils. In this epidemiological study, multistage sampling was performed. At first step by purposively sampling, union council number 14 of Tehsil lhelum was selected which was comprising of all socioeconomic classes of our community. At second step, by using random sampling technique, home-to-home visits were done. The data was collected on pre-tested questionnaire. The data was collected by face-to-face interviews. The pre- tested questionnaire contained variable factors and questions regarding age, gender, socio economic status, education level, exercising, smoking, marital status, walk before the age of 60 years, walk after the age of 60 years, present and past employments, financial status, use of edible oils in the past, number of children and social life. Futhermore, Information was collected regarding working of different body systems like Central Nervous system, Cardio-vascular system, Digestive system, Urogenital system, Respiratory system, ENT system, Musculo-skeleton system etc. Along with system-information, name of disease of the impaired system was also asked. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS-version 16. This present interview based study reflects the prevalence of geriatric morbidities in geriatric population of Jhelum city. In the current study, impairment of digestive system (28%), cardio-vascular system (23%) and musculo-skeletal system (21 %) was on the top of the list. Impairment of digestive system was found in a good proportion among senior citizens followed by Cardio-vascular system, musculoskeletal system, centra nervous system, respiratory system, uro-genital system and E.N.T. system. Diabetes mellitus, blood pressure related problems and arthritis are the most frequent diseases. So, vwe should try to educate the people about these diseases. As compared to other studies around the globe, our geriatric population is possessing comparatively better health. Walk before the age of 60 years and walk after the age of 60 years is helpful for health. The people who used to walk more than five kilometers usually remained healthier in theelderly. Economic status, use of edible oils and social life is also associated with health of elderly people. So, there is need to promote the habit of walk in the elderly population and in young population. Disease prevention is the most cost-effective method for the maintenance of optimal level of health in elderly population. We should understand that many of the geriatric diseases are preventable. Preventive measures can be applied during the various stages of disease progression in order to either slow or stop the process of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1404,T] (1).

23. Epidemiology Of Major Transbuondary Diseases Of Livestock In Nomads Herds Of District Buner

by Farman Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The research project was carried out in the livestock of nomads in District Bunere to study the epidemiology of major trans-boundary livestock diseases including foot and mouth diseases 9FMD) in buffaloes and cattle and Peste des Petite Ruminants (PPR) and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in sheep and goats. A questionnaire was designed for collecting data regarding morbidity, mortality & case fatality rate in different seasons in the animals of nomads migrate from Afghanistan to Pakistan. Serosurveillance was also conducted by collecting 600 blood samples from the apparently healthy sheep and goats, cattle and buffaloes in the summer season. A total number of 100 nomads were interviewed by systematic random sampling method and sera were collected to test the antibodies against FMDV and PPRV. The serum samples in labeled eppendorph tubes were stored in deep freezer till the sent to lab in ice container. These samples were transported to National Veterinary Laboratory Islamabad, where cattle and buffalo's sera were examined by using 3ABC-ELISA & sheep and goat's sera were analyzed by C-ELISA to detect antibody ofPPRV, respectively. Similarly 60 nasal swabs of sheep and goats collected and examined in Veterinary Research Institute Lahore, by culturing method. The data were collected and analyzed statistically by using SPSS (16.00). Means, Chi square values, P-Vlues and percentages were calculated. The overall prevalence of CCPP was 18.3% while individually 3.3% in sheep and 15 % in goats. The prevalence in goat (15%) was higher than that of sheep (3.3%) with insignificant difference and no significant association between CCPP disease and species of sheep/goat of nomads. Similarly age wise prevalence of CCPP in young (sheep and goats) was 10% which was higher than that of adult (8.3%) with significant association between CCPP disease and age of sheep and goat. Similarly gender wise prevalence was 6.66% in male and 11.6% in female (sheep and goats) with no significant association between CCPP disease results and gender of sheep and goats. The peculiar signs of CCPP were recorded retrospectively, including pneumonic coughing, mucopurulent nasal discharges, fever and abortion in sheep and goats in autumn season in Pakistan and in winter season in Afghanistan respectively. The 10.5% mortality rate, 82% morbidity rate and 12.8% case fatality rate of CCPP in autumn season were recorded in sheep respectively. While 92% morbidity, 12.5% mortality and 13.5% case fatality rate were recorded in goats in autumn, respectively. The mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate were 6.5%, 66%, and 9.8% in sheep in winter season. Similarly mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate in goats due to CCPP in winter season were8%, 89.5% and 8.97%, respectively. The prevalence in both the species were higher in autumn season than that of winter season and zero prevalence were recorded in rest of the seasonsretrospectively. The night stay with crowding of livestock near streams and springs, night fog, morning dew, cold seasons and common travelling and grazing premises were recorded as risk factors for CCPP. The serosurveillance for FMD was conducted and overall seroprevalence of FMD was 32% and individually 12% in buffaloes and 20% in cattle respectively with no significant association and both the species were equally susceptible to FMDV. Gender wise seroprevalence in male and female cattle and buffaloes were 12% and 34 % respectively with no significant association between FMDV antibodies and gender of the animals. Age wise seroprevalence of FMD in adult cattle and buffaloes was higher (24%) than that of young (8%) cattle and buffaloes with a significant association between the age of cattle, and buffaloes and FMDV antibodies. The survey results indicated that all the cattle and buffaloes were in mixed herds and the peculiar signs including stomatitis, lameness, abortion, fever and dysphonia were recorded retrospectively. The mortality rate was 0% in cattle herds of all ages and in both the genders while the morbidity rate was 52.5%. The death rate of l.1%, 75.5% attack rate and 1.41% case fatality rate in buffaloes were recorded retrospectively in the humid rainy season of late summer in Shangla, Besham & Chitral districts. The serosurveillance for PPR in sheep and goats was conducted by using competitive ELISA, dand 42% overall seroprevalence while individually 27% in goats and 14.8% in sheep were recorded with a significant association. Gender wise seroprevalence of 38.8% in females and .3.2% in males of sheep and goats with significant difference and with a significant association to PPRVantibodies were recorded. The age wise seroprevalence of37.8% and 4.2% in adult and in young of both the species with a significant association to PPRV antibodies were recorded. No clinieal signs of PPR were observed by nomads because the infection was subclinical and survived previously because they had not practiced vaccines for last many years. Zero % morbidity and mortality rates were therefore recorded retrospectively in sheep and goat flocks. The four routes at the border areas of Khyber Pakhton Khwa were recorded for the seasonal and cyclieal entrance of livestock of nomads, which act as abridge for diseases transmission between Afghanistan & Pakistan. The outbreaks of CCPP occurred in winter season in Afghanistan and in autumn season in Pakistan (Gilgith, Chitral, Kohistan, Besham, Shanglapar and Buner). Also the FMD outbreaks occurred in Buner and Shangla in late summer while the PPR was subclinical and animals survived. Cross borders as well as district wise trade and movement restrictions are of utmost importance for control the diseases. Similarly serosurveillance of the disease in the local and as well as in nomad's livestock's population necessean appropriate scheduled vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1408,T] (1).

24. Assessment Of Knowledge And Practice Of Food Handlers About Food Safety In University Hostel Kitchen Employees

by Qurra-Tul- Ain | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cigarette butts are found at crime scenes as potential evidence. Saliva is present on the cigarette butts that can be detected and DNA can be isolated from nucleated cells present in saliva for quantification and typing. In past, research has declared that cigarette butts are useful source for saliva detection, DNA extraction and profile generation. Difference of saliva accumulation on cigarette butt paper and filter was compared in the present study. On smoked cigarette butts, gender based comparison of saliva detection and DNA quantification was performed. Agarose gel assay was used for amylase enzyme detection. All samples showed positive results for saliva detection. Cigarette butt filter and filter paper were processed separately and analyzed. Results showed more saliva detected at cigarette butt paper. Then gender based comparison on cigarette butt samples smoked by males and females was done for salivary amylase. By using student t-test, no significant difference was found on basis of gender. For extraction of DNA, phenol chloroform extraction method was used. Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit was used through RT-PCR for quantification of DNA isolated from cigarette butt papers. SDS software analyzed the data and gave results of quantified DNA in ng/µL. Gender based comparison in DNA quantity was done by using statistical method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation value was calculated between detected saliva and quantified DNA of samples. Weak positive results of correlation were obtained between saliva and DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1424,T] (1).

25. Clinico-Epidemiological Study Of Toxocariasis In Pet Cats In Lahore

by Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study was conducted at the pet clinic UVAS to check the prevalence of Toxocara Cati in pet cats and awareness of the pet owners about the zoonosis. Prevalence of Toxocara was checked by conventional laboratory techniques. A survey was conducted to check the awareness of zoonotic diseases among the pet owners using a questionnaire. A total of 40% were found to be infected with Toxocara cati. Overall high prevalence was recorded in cats less than one year of age which was significant. There was also significant difference of prevalence among cats in which deworming was not done as compared to the dewormed cats. Prevalence was also high in cats in which the fecal consistency was not normal. There was no significant difference in prevalence of Toxocara between male and female cats. There was also no significant difference of prevalence among the different breeds of cats. The results of the survey revealed that out of the total of 100 pet owners only 39% had idea of pet zoonosis, while the majority of the owners had awareness about rabies. Only 18 % of the owners were informed by the veterinarians. The total of 98% suggested that the vet should inform the owners about pet zoonosis. Among the total 56% replied that they will leave their pet if a zoonotic problem was diagnosed the remaining were not willing to leave their pets even if a zoonotic problem diagnosed. Most cases of human toxocariasis and zoonotic hookworm infections are preventable by simple measure such as careful personal hygiene, eliminating intestinal parasites from pets through regular deworming and not allowing the children to play in potentially contaminated environments. Despite the fact that some of the pet owners dispose of their pet feaces however,, owners should be educated on proper disposal methods of pet feaces. Disposal methods like using pet feaces as garden manure, can predispose children playing in the lawn to infective eggs and larvae. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1428,T] (1).

26. Geographical Distribution Of Dengue Fever Infected Patients And Its Related Risk Factors In And Aroun Lahore.

by Muhammad Usman Zaheer | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Dengue fever is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection of humans worldwide and is a major public health concern, especially in tropical and subtropical regions (Mackenzie et al., 2004). This life threatening disease is caused by a specific virus (ARBO-Flavivirus) transmitted by the bite of a female mosquito (Aedes aegyptii and Aedes albopictus) which is identified by the white bands and scale patterns on its legs and thorax. Trans-ovarial transmission of dengue virus has also been reported in different studies. The mosquito may bite at any time but the probability of bites increase at dusk and dawn (WHO 2009). Dengue fever has emerged as a significant public health problem in Pakistan. In Pakistan, the first epidemic of dengue fever was reported in 1994 in Karachi (Anaari et al., 2001). Several years later, in 2006 another epidemic was reported in the southern part of Pakistan, predominantly caused by DENV-2 that led to 58 deaths (khan et al., 2008). In 2007, 22 people died of disease and in 2008 only five people were reported to die from it. Between October 2006 and January 2008, there were 3,242 laboratory confirmed cases of dengue fever in Pakistan. Since January 2009, 224 suspected cases were reported in Sindh province, of which 135 were the confirmed cases. During the epidemic of dengue fever in 2010 more than seven thousand cases were reported in Pakistan, of which 5 thousand cases were from Punjab and resulted in 63 deaths. The mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic diseases are prevalent throughout the world. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the most important diseases widely distributed in the tropics of South East Asia. It is an infectious malady of human beings characterized by fever and non-specific constitutional symptoms. The virus is transmissible to human beings by the bite of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The disease is spreading like a geometric rise of cases in a wide range of geographical regions. The geographical factors and locality of patients may be a contributing factor to the outbreak of Dengue Fever. Climate change is likely to increase the area of land with a climate suitable for dengue fever transmission, and that if no other contributing factors were to change, a large proportion of the human population would then be put at risk. The data on address of patients were collected from all the patients admitted in tertiary care hospital from August 01, 2011 to November 30, 2011. The geographical risk factors studied in this project were presence or absence of parks, trees, ponds, swimming pool, service station, tyre shop, source of stagnant water, pond and municipality garbage tank in vicinity of house of the cases and controls. For the study of risk factors we made 2 groups i.e. cases and controls; each comprising of 300 subjects and then data on presence or absence of various hypothesized risk factors in the vicinity of house (400 meters) and area (800 meters) were collected through a well structured and pre-tested questionnaire (Harrington et al., 2005; Honório et al., 2003; Schatzmayr 2000; Muir and Kay 1998; Reiter et al., 1995; McDonald 1977; Hausemann 1971 and Bond et al., 1970). The statistical analysis of data was done by using SPSS 16.0. Qualitative data were presented in form of tables, bar charts, column and pie- charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association between dengue fever and various hypothesized risk factors. P-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Odds ratio was calculated at 95% level of confidence (CI) for various hypothesized risk factors of dengue fever. The results of present study revealed that the season of dengue fever in Pakistan is from August to November and the period prevalence of dengue fever to be 0.11%. Males (59%) were mainly the victim of dengue fever. The main affected age groups were 16-30 year (37.33%) and 31-45 years (29.67%). As far as the geographical distribution of dengue fever infected patients is concerned, it was concluded that dengue fever cases were reported from all the ten towns of Lahore metropolitan, however, most of the cases were reported from Ravi town followed by Data Ganj Baksh town and Cantt. The results regarding various hypothesized risk factors are as follows: parks/trees/plants in vicinity of house OR=8.81, p-value <0.05; swimming pool in vicinity of house OR=5.O3, p-value <0.05; source of stagnant water in vicinity of house OR=8.25, p-value <0.05; fogging in your area OR=0.50, p-value <0.05; service station in the area OR=5.98, p-value <0.05; tyre shop in the area OR=6.11, p-value <0.05; municipality garbage tank in the area OR=5.88, p-value <0.05; any pond in the area OR=5.69, p-value <0.05. From the results of this project we concluded that dengue fever is most prevalent from August to November and it is a disease of mainly male gender and mostly affects people of age group 16-45 years. Besides this, dengue fever is almost equally distributed in all the towns of Lahore metropolitan. Also we concluded that presence or absence of parks, trees, plants, swimming pool, stagnant water, pond, service station, tyre shop and municipality garbage tanks in vicinity of house are the risk factors of dengue fever. Fogging proved to be a deterrent to dengue fever. On the basis of results of this project there is need to implement a control program in which vector control and minimizing the exposure of people to risk factors should be the key points that need to be addressed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1444,T] (1).

27. Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Milk, Milk By- Products And Food Handler At Retail

by Kanwal Hafeez | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to check the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk, milk products and food handlers at various dairy retail shops in Lahore. A total of 100 samples, 30 samples of raw milk, 30 samples of pasteurized milk, 20 samples of yogurt, 10 samples of butter and 10 hand swabs samples of dairy handlers were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 54% (54 out of 100) samples. Overall high prevalence was recorded in raw milk, followed by hand swabbing samples of dairy handler, butter, pasteurized milk and yogurt. The results indicated unhygienic practices during milking and handling of milk at different critical control points such as transportation, storage, and post-pasteurization contamination. Overall high prevalence of ampicillin and amoxicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were recorded in all the samples of milk and milk products and the hand swabbing of dairy handlers, followed by resistant against chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin respectively. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by resistance against amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin which were 92.6%, 37%, 33.3%, 24.1% and 22.2% respectively. The antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk and milk products indicated the widespread use of these antibiotics in treating different types of infections associated in either livestock or humans which results in selection pressure of these antimicrobials and results in the emergence of these antibiotic resistant bacteria in different environmental conditions. The risk associated with human health as a result of ingestion of these antibiotic resistant bacteria can be prevented by adopting hygienic measures during milking, transport, storage and hygienic handling by the handlers so the human health can be assured. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1520,T] (1).

28. Sero And Viro Surveillance Of Influenza Virus Sero Types Circulating In Equine Species

by Muhammad Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1526,T] (1).

29. Detection Of Carrier And Subclinical Infection Of Babesia Ovis Trough Pcr At Government Farms Of Punjab

by Haider Noor | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Haemoprotozoan infections in ruminants are of significant importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Diseases are transmitted through ticks thus a number of epidemiological factors/risk factors are involved. Ovine Babesiosis is one such disease posing problems in Pakistan which is an agricultural country and livestock plays an important source of income for farmers. The economic losses in small ruminant production are significant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Carrier sheep infected with Babesiosis are challenge to current diagnostic methods and are difficult to detect because of the low number of parasites in circulation. However diagnosis of carrier animals in herd is important for preventing outbreaks by transmission through vector ticks to healthy animals and for obtaining epidemiological data of disease. The work done on Babesia ovis is negligible. For this purpose a study was conducted at two farms to measure the prevalence and optimization of PCR for Babesia ovis. Blood was collected into an anticoagulant containing vacutainer. First thin smears were formed and stained with Giemsa stain for microscopic examination of Babesia ovis. For DNA extraction Puregene DNA purification system, Gentra, was used. Extracted DNA was amplified in a thermolyser using B. ovis primers and then analyzed using electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel. Microscopic examination demonstrated a prevalence of 16 % while PCR results revealed prevalence of 29% for B. ovis. Results displayed that the efficacy of PCR is more sensitive than Light Microscopy. Data on infection rate between male and female and between different age groups was statistically non-significant. Herd wise prevalence was 36% and 22% in Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadarnagar, Okara and Small Ruminant Training and Research Center,Ravi Campus, Pattoki respectively. Common sites of attachment for the ticks were under the tail, perineal region and underneath ears.The data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1534,T] (1).

30. Epidemiology Of Brucelosis In Sheep And Goat In District Quetta, Balochistan

by Abdul Wahab Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prf. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Brucellosis is one of the chronic infectious bacterial diseases of farm animals and man caused by Brucella specie and has a wide host range including bovine, ovine, caprine, canine, equine and man. It causes heavy economical losses in livestock holdings by resulting abortion and infertility while from public health point it is a bacterial zoonotic diseases causing undulant fever in man. In the modern world it is still a challenging health ailment to livestock and public health. In Pakistan it is prevalent in livestock holdings and human population. Keeping in view the importance of Brucellosis the present study was designed to investigate its status in District Quetta of Balochistan province. In this study sheep, goat and their concerned (farmers, veterinary assistant, veterinarian, butchers) were included. Govt. farms, private farms and slaughter houses were used as a source of samples. Information about risk factors in man and animals were gathered by separate structured questionnaires. To investigate Brucellosis, blood and milk samples were collected and serum from blood samples was isolated. Serum and milk samples were screened with Rose Bengal Plate test and Milk Ring Test respectively, and positive cases from RBPT were further tested on Polymerase chain reaction for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in animals was 2.40 %, 3.80 %, and 2.22 % in sheep, goat and livestock owners respectively by RBPT and this result was confirmed by PCR, while prevalence of brucellosis was 1.6% by MRT achieved. The seroprevalence of brucellosis from Lahore was 3.91% by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed through PCR. Among the risk factors in human significant association was found between the occupations of the person. And brucellosis is a serious threat to man. Therefore, routine surveillance of farm flocks is essential, to know about the brucellosis and local infected areas, before implementing a wide scale national programme of brucella control and eradication. There is an increasing need of educating farmers and farm managers about brucellosis and its public health significance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1535,T] (1).

31. Isolation, Characterization Of Chondroitin Sulphate And Its Efficacy In Osteoarthritis

by Humaira Majeed Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and Glucosamine sulphate (GS) are two main components of articular cartilage. It is believed that these molecules slow down wear and tear of cartilage. Moreover, if administered exogenously as drugs, these may initiate synthesizing capacity of cartilage. Among these, GS promotes the formation and repair of cartilage, whereas CS promotes elasticity and prevent cartilage breakdown by inhibiting degradative enzymes. Concurrent use of both structural units of cartilage as drugs in osteoarthritis (OA) may lessen the progression of disease. The present study was conducted to elucidate the chicken keel cartilage as an alternate and potential source for this endogenous component that may be used exogenously to repair or prevent damage to joints. Chicken keel cartilages were collected from healthy broilers. CS was extracted using MgCl2 solution (3M), dialyzed and digested with papain. The extracted material was purified by ethanol precipitation, centrifugation and then freeze dried. Proximate analysis of semi-purified polysaccharides revealed the presence of carbohydrates (65.49±0.10), crude protein (12.82±0.26), ash (11.12±.56), moisture (9.88±0.32) and fat (0.69±0.14). Fiber contents were found to be nil in the processed samples. Dimethylmethylene blue binding (DMMB) assay was performed for determination of percent contents of CS in extracted semi-purified samples and mean concentration was found to be 70.77±2.35. Semi-purified polysaccharides were further characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer) technique and characteristic Peaks of CS molecules were recorded at 854, 854 and 853 cm-1 and then compared with spectrum of standard CS. Protein content being a major impurity in extracted samples was determined by Bradford method quantitatively (4.64±0.29). Two protein impurities having 77.8 and 50.5 kDa molecular weights were revealed by SDS-PAGE. Efficacy of semi-purified CS from chicken keel cartilage, standard CS from shark source and GS, alone and in combination in experimental OA rat model was evaluated. To develop OA similar to spontaneous OA, 10mg papain/0.5mL (Sigma, Cat # P 3125) in buffered solution of 0.05 M sodium acetate pH 4.5 was injected intra-articularly in each right knee joint of fifty five albino rats (pre-anesthetized with anesthetic ether). Ten rats (n= 10) were injected with 0.5mL of normal saline (0.9%) in right knee joint that served as control group. Then from fifty five papain injected rats, twenty five were divided into five groups (n=5) for development and assessment of OA model (OA groups). Progression of disease was monitored by clinical scores, histopathological scores and concentration of CTX-II as biomarker in sera samples of experimental rats by ELISA using a commercial kit (serum preclinical CartiLaps ® ELISA kit) for control and OA groups (n=5) on day 0 (control group) and days 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post papain injection (OA groups). Highest mean clinical score (10.38±1.1) was observed on 1st day and least on 28th day post papain injection i.e. 5.00±.34. Highest mean histopathological score and CTX-II concentration was recorded on 28th day i.e. 12.82±1.64 and 36.82±3.81. Values of clinical scores, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentration reached to maximum on 21st day and then sustained thereon. Second phase of experiment is comprised of evaluating and comparing the efficacy of extracted CS samples (chicken keel cartilages), standard CS (shark source) alone and in combination with GS. For this purpose, remaining five rats out of ten injected with normal saline intra-articularly served as control groups along with treated and non treated groups of experimental rats. Remaining thirty OA induced rats were divided into six groups (five rats /group). Group 1 (n=5) called non treated group received only placebo till 60th day and served as negative control group. Treated Group 2 received GS alone, Group 3 CS (standard) and Group 4 were given extracted CS. Group 5 was treated with combination of GS plus CS (standard) and Group 6 with GS plus CS (sample). Doses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were administered as 1.2g/kg/day CS and 1.5g/kg/day GS alone and in combinations. Drugs were offered early in the morning in bolus form with feed (10g) after overnight fasting while non-treated group received only placebo (without any drug). Anti-arthritis activities of CS standard and extracted alone and in combination with GS were assessed clinically, analyzed statistically by using one way ANOVA. Level of significance (P<0.05) was recorded by using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Post hoc Test. Mean scores of clinical, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations observed at 60th day in control rats (without OA) were 0.00, 0.00 and 2.55, respectively. OA induced untreated group showed mean score for clinical signs, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations 4.15, 12.24 and 36.70 and GS treated group 3.19, 3.96 and 6.12 at 60th day of treatment, respectively. For CS (standard), mean scores of clinical signs, histopathological lesions and CTX-II concentrations were recorded as 2.64, 2.44 and 4.48 and for CS (extracted) were 2.26, 2.28 and 4.40 in sera correspondingly at 60th day of treatment. The lowest mean values of clinical signs, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations in sera of treated group with standard CS plus GS were found to be 0.94, 0.94 and 2.62 followed by extracted CS plus GS treated groups 01.05, 1.27 and 2.74, respectively. Clinical, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations in group of rats treated with combinations were found to reverse the diseased condition after 60th days of treatment as the values were close to that of normal rats and far away from OA rats. It is concluded that extracted CS from poultry has comparable efficacy with CS standard from shark source alone and in combination with GS. Poultry by-product (keel cartilage) is found to be an alternate and cheap source for CS (chondroprotective agent) as compare to expensive, less available and religiously prohibited source for Islamic countries particularly. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1544,T] (1).

32. Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasmosis In Goats And Their Attendants In Dort Minro (D.G.Khan), Punjab (Pakistan)

by Shams-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease of cats, however all warm blooded animals comprising mammals, birds and human beings can be infected with it. The disease is manifested by abortion, resorption, neonatal loses, birth of weak kids, birth defects and mummification of fetuses in pregnant animals. Global seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis is continuously evolving in animals and human beings. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis, the present study was conducted, in Fort Minro, to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of Toxoplasmosis in goats and their attendants. A total of 52 pastoral goat herds with herd size of "?20 - ?40" animals per herd were selected by convenient sampling technique. Out of these 52 pastoral herds, 237 goats were selected by systematic sampling method i.e each 5th unit was selected for sampling. The goats were sampled if the age of goats was ?6 months. Most common breeds of these herds were, Pahari and Hairy goat breed. A total of 92 herd attendants were also selected to determine the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasmosis in Farm workers / attendants. All serum samples were screened by LAT. For this purpose, the commercial Latex agglutination kit (Wiener Laboratorios S.A.I.C. Riobamba 2944, 2000 Rosario Argentina) was used for detection of specific antibodies of T.gondii in serum of goats and their attendants. A herd was considered as a positive, if at least one goat was found to be positive in that specific herd. Out of total 52 goat herds, 36 herds presented at least one or more than one seropositive animal. The number of positive animals in each herd, ranged from 1-10 animals. Out of 237 goats, 64 goats were positive for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Thus overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats was 27%. The seroprevalence was significantly high in female goats (21.5%) as compared to males (5.5%). Kajli/Pahari goat breed was more positive (14.8%) as compared to Hairy goats (12.2%). An increase trend of seropositivity was observed in goats with increase in age. Age group of "?3 years" of goats had highest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence of Toxoplasmosis, followed by age group "?1-<3 years", while age group "?6 m-<1Year" had lowest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence. Prevalence in males had 5.5% share in overall prevalence (27%) while prevalence in females had 21.5% share in overall prevalence. Data analysis of various risk factors determined that natural reservoirs of water, pastoral grazing and presence of cats and dogs were major risk factor of Toxoplasmosis in goat herds. Access of cats to drinking water and food resources and eating medium cooked meat were major risk factors for goat attendants. High prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats and Farm workers, suggests that Toxoplasmosis is endemic in the study area and further epidemiological studies should be focused on goat meat, milk and milk products. It is concluded that Toxoplasmosis can be reduce in human beings and animals by reducing risk factors and maintaining proper hygienic measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1710,T] (1).

33. Studies On Risk Factors Associated With Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157: H7 In Abattoir Environment

by Samiullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1711,T] (1).

34. Association Of Antimicrobial Resistant Campylobacter With Poultry Meat At Retailer Shops In Lahore Through Cross-Sectional Study

by Abdul Moeed | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: 6.1 Background Antimicrobial resistance is an under-appreciated threat to public health in nations around the globe. With globalization booming, it is important to understand international patterns of resistance. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are considered to be the most frequent cause of human acute bacterial enteritis worldwide, furthermore, numerous transmission vehicles are known, but raw milk, untreated surface water and especially poultry meat are major sources of human infections. In Pakistan studies reveal that among meat samples, the highest prevalence (48%) of Campylobacter was recorded in raw chicken. Therefore, the increasing level of resistance to the antibiotics among Campylobacter spp. is recognized as emerging public health problem. 6.2 Hypothesis " Campylobacter spp. was present in the poultry meat at retailer shops. " Unhygienic measures concerning to meat handling had a considerable effect on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter. 6.3 Methodology A cross sectional study of 3 months duration was carried out in the Lahore city of Punjab, Pakistan. Using the standard microbiological techniques and statistical analysis, the prevalence of Campylobacter and its pattern of antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Furthermore, through premeditated questionnaires, public awareness regarding meat-borne diseases, food safety and inappropriate usage of antibiotics were assessed as well. 6.4 Statistical design Data will be analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Quantitative variable were presented by using mean ± S.D. Qualitative variable were presented with help of frequency tables, pie charts and bar charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association among different variables. P value <0.05 was be taken as significant. 6.5 Outcome Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence and pattern of the antibiotic resistant campylobacter was assessed; moreover public awareness with special reference to food safety, knowledge of meat borne diseases and usage of antibiotics wereevaluated. Furthermore, one could play an influential role in public health by dissemination of awareness among the masses about the proper usage of antibiotics and food safety measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1728,T] (1).

35. Nosocomial Infections At Intensive Care Unit In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore City

by Ajmal Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1729,T] (1).

36. Immunobiological And Molecular Characterization Of Pasteurella Multocida From Buffaloes

by Muhammad Kamran | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute bacterial disease of buffaloes and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida. In the present study, 400 samples (200 from carriers and 200 from sick animals) from Sargodha division were collected. Among four districts of the division, 15 samples were positive by API Kit, 13 by conventional biochemical tests and eleven were found positive for P. multocida through serological and molecular characterization. Biochemical profile index obtained with API kits had lesser accuracy than conventional and serological profiles for the identification of P. multocida. Passive mouse protection test and AGPT were used for serological confirmation. Different molecular techniques like SDS-PAGE, PCR and RFLP were used to investigate variation at the molecular level in field and vaccinal strains. There were no significant variation between field isolates and vaccinal strain in sick animals and carriers, or in isolates of different districts. Five major and three minor polypeptide bands were observed by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relatedness among the isolates was assessed by cluster analysis using Fingerprint Analysis of Missing Data (FAMD) of 12 isolates. The12 isolates clustered into 5 groups namely I, II, III, IV and V. Group I and II consisted of only one isolate in each (8.33%) of the total designated BKC-01 (S5) and KBO-01 (S1), respectively. Group III composed of 2 isolates (16.67%) namely KBC-02 (S4) and MNO-01 (S2). Group IV had the highest numbers of isolates (50%) designated as KBC-02 (S3), MNO-01 (S6), BKO-02 (S7), MNC-02 (S8), SGO-02 (S9) and V. Only two isolates were typed in group V (16.67%) named as SGO-01 (S10) and BKO-01 (S11). The size of amplified gene was 460 bp. HindIII I endonuclease cleaved bacterial genome at four sites as compared to other four enzymes (DNase1, PstlI, EcorI and BamHI) change the writing of these enzymes which cleaved at two sites. The isolates were also subjected to ten routinely used antibiotics for sensitivity testing and found enrofloxacin as drug of choice with 90.91% sensitivity, followed by gentamycine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacine and norfloxacine (72.73%), ampicillin and amoxycillin (45.45%), amikacin (36.36%) and lowest to sulfadiazine and erythromycine (18.18%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1767,T] (1).

37. Risk Factors Associatede With Calf Mortality In Smallholder Dairy Farms In Per-Urban Area Of Lahore

by Muhammad Sohail | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhary | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A case control study was conducted to confirm association of hypothesized risk factors like age, sex, breed, colostrums ingestion time, feeding practices, season, housing, hygiene status of the farms and tick infestation. This study was conducted in Rakh Chandra dairy colony the biggest dairy colony situated in periphery of Lahore, rich with dairy animal. 10% sample size was taken of the total population consisting of young calves' cattle and buffaloes of 90 days age. The overall mortality rate was (31.88%) while the crude mortality rate was found to be higher in the cattle calves that was of (35.76%) than in the buffalo calves (28%). Amongst all risk factors in the form of diseases and other health related conditions point of view calf diarrhea (54.7%; p=0.000) significantly associated with calf mortality and was found to be the leading cause of death followed by the respiratory diseases (28.5%) and other several risk factors were also seen to be associated with calf mortality. Ticks infestation was found to be (p=0.000: OR=13.618) strongly associated with calf mortality rate. While season was found to be associated (p=0.04: OR=1.21) with calf mortality rate in dairy farms. The major cause of death recorded was diarrhea accounted 54.7% of total deaths. The higher mortality rate was recorded in the first month of age mostly in the 3rd week of life. Therefore it was concluded that age, sex, breed, tick infestation and colostrums were all associated with calf mortality. Further research work is needed to identify the individual magnitude of each risk factor associated with mortality in calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1838,T] (1).

38. Identification Of Multiple Drug Resistant (Mrd) Mastitis Causing Bacteria In Dairy Goats

by Muhammad Faisal najees | Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum | Prof. Dr. mansur-ud-Din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1852,T] (1).

39. Prevalence Of Salmonelia Ennteritidis In Hatcheries And Broiler Retail Outlets In Rawalpindi Punjab

by Abdul saeed | Dr. Muhammad Hassan mushtaq | Prof Dr. Mansur-ud-din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1868,T] (1).

40. Seroprevalence Of Brucella Canis In Dogs In Disteict Lahore0

by Muhammad Adnan aslam | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1994,T] (1).

41. Case Control Study For The Quantification Of Risk Factors Associated With Infected Catheter Patients

by Kinza Shabbir | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad | Dr. Muhammad | Muhammad hassan mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1997,T] (1).

42. A Cohort Study On Surgical Site Infectuins (Asnosocomial Infections) In Animal And Human Side

by Atia noreen | Dr. Mamoona chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2021,T] (1).

43. Detection Of Vivax Malaria And Under Local Climatic Conditions

by Sarwat naz | Prof.Dr. Azhar maqbool | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2060,T] (1).

44. Clinico-Epidemiology Of Giardiasis In Children And Their Association With [Et Dogs

by Noor-ul-Ain | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2118,T] (1).

45. Retrospective Study Of Fatal Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever In Lahore City

by Shumaila Abdusattar (2012-VA-523) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dengue fever is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases of human beings. It has become a major reason for public health concern internationally over the recent years because of disease morbidity and mortality. Globally around 2.5 billion people are living in areas where dengue viruses can be transmitted. Spread of mosquito vectors & viruses in geographical distribution are two main reasons of rise in incidence and prevalence of dengue fever & appearance of dengue hemorrhagic cases. Urban areas of the tropics have been identified to be highly endemic. According to estimates made by WHO around 50–100 million infections of dengue are prevalent every year globally. (Deen et al. 2006) In Pakistan first dengue outbreak was reported in Karachi in 1994 as environmental conditions are conducive to Aedes mosquito breeding. Economic and security related migration introduced virus to Lahore as well. According to Punjab Health Department 590339 suspected cases were reported in Lahore & 21685 confirmed by serology. It has been observed that 5-10% of these cases develop DHF.(Mahmood et al. 2013) Dengue is mainly transmitted by mosquito vector i.e. Aedesaegypti and can also be transmitted by A.albopictus to a lesser extent. Virus that causes dengue has four different types that are closely related to each other.Infected female mosquitoes transmit this virus to human beings through bite.An infected mosquito can transmit this virus to humans for the rest of its life. Symptoms of dengue range from very mild fever to very high fever including intense headache, retro-orbital pain, muscular and joint pain, and rashes. There is no vaccine or any specific medicine to treat dengue. Patients having dengue fever are advised to take rest and drink ample fluids. They are advised to use paracetamol in order to reduce high grade fever or visit the physician if fever persists. Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that serotype but confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection by the other three. There have been enough proofs showing that subsequent infection increases the risk of severity of disease which can result in DHF (WHO). Leaking of plasma, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, and intense bleeding and organ impairment makes severe dengue a fatal complication. Warning signs includes decrease in temperature (below 38°C/ 100°F), severe abdominal pain, rapid breathing, bleeding gums, malaise, and restlessness,continuous vomiting and hematemesis. These can occur three to seven days after first symptom recognition. In order to prevent complications and minimize the risk of death adequate and timely health care is required in next 1-2 critical days.(Halstead 1980) In 1950s when dengue epidemics occurred in the Philippines and Thailand then Dengue hemorrhagic fever was first identified. Till 1970 nine countries had encountered epidemic DHF and this number has increased more than four times and keeps on rising. Today rising number of DHF cases are causing increased dengue outbreaks in the Americas, and in Asia, where all four dengue viruses are endemic. DHF has turn out to be a prominent reason of hospitalization and demise among kids in several states.In Asia, widespread DHF has enhanced geologically from Southeast Asian regions to west China. Various regional states of the South and Central Pacific have encountered significant or slight DHF outbreaks.In previous twenty years deterrence and management has come to be more immediate with the escalating geographical spreadof dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever and higher ailment occurrence (Gubler 2002). In the absence of bleeding or organ manifestation, DHF is medically challenging to diagnose, and the numerous etiologic agents can barely be distinguished by clinical tests. The specified diagnosis of DHF depends mainly on laboratory testing.(Drosten et al., 2002) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2211,T] (1).

46. Epidemiological Investigation And Risk Factor Analysis Of Brucellosis In Large Ruminants And Their Attendants At Govt. Livestock Farms In Punjab

by Muhammad Raashid (2007-VA-496) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Pakistan has been renowned as an agricultural country. It is rich in livestock sector having fairly large populations of domestic animals. Among these, populations of cattle and buffalo are 38.3 and 33.7 million respectively. The importance of cattle and buffalo cannot be denied at any level as these are the principal farming animals and milk and beef are widely consumed locally in the country. The estimated annual milk production of cattle and buffalo include 17.372 and 30.462 million tonnes respectively and a combined 1.829 million tonnes beef for human consumption during 2012-2013 (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-2013). Brucellosis, a worldwide bacterial zoonosis, is one of the most serious diseases causing huge loss to national economy and human beings among developing countries (Wu et al. 2013). The disease is endemic in Middle East, Central Asia, Africa, Mediterranean region and parts of Latin America (Gwida et al. 2010). Brucellae are Gram-negative bacteria, facultative anaerobic and intracellular pathogens. These show a wide range of host specificity. These coccobacilli measure from 0.6 to 1.5 µm long and 0.5 to 0.7 µm wide. Eight species have been identified in the genus Brucella such asBrucella abortus(B. abortus affecting cattle and buffalo), B. melitensis (sheep and goats), B. ovis (sheep), B. suis (swine), B. canis (dog), B. neotomae (desert rats), B. ceti (cetaceans) and B. pinnipedialis (pinnipeds) (Blasco 2010). This wide range of species covers almost all domestic animals however cats have found resistant. Generally it is considered as a reproductive problem in both male and female animals (Ficht 2003). Brucellosis has been listed as the second most serious zoonotic disease in the world after rabies by OIE (OIE 2009). B. abortus, the primary cause of Brucellosis in large ruminants, (cattle and buffalo), remains not only a significant threat as a source of human illness but also risks economy of the country (Makita et al. 2011). Present estimates of economic loss in meat and milk production resulting from Brucellosis are $800 million annually in the United States(OIE 2009). The incidence of the disease can be correlated to several factors including demographic and geographic factors(Soomro et al. 2014). Seroprevalence of the disease has been reported in different regions of Pakistan and ranges 3.25 to 4.4%(Naeem et al. 1990). Brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes can be recognized clinically by an abortion usually occurring form 6 months and onwards i.e. last trimester of pregnancy (Soomro et al. 2014). Brucellosis is principally a disease of sexually mature animals as it affects mainly the reproductive system and fertility of the animals. It significantly reduces the survival rate of newborns and also the milk yield (Sikder et al. 2012). Greyish white mucoid or mucopurulent discharges from the vagina, prior to parturition of cow, may show the clinical patterns of disease along withnormal patterns of parturition like swelling of the vulva, relaxation of pelvic ligament, enlargement of udder and discharge from the vulva (Shafee et al. 2012). Human infections as a result of Brucellosis range more than 500,000 annually round the world (Abo-Shehada and Abu-Halaweh 2011). Brucellosis can cause a wide range of symptoms similar to the flu and may also include fever (39-40°C), night sweats, headache, back pain and physical weakness. Severe form of infection may result in involvement of the central nervous system or the lining of the heart (Soomro et al. 2014). It is one of the principal public health problems for an agricultural country like Pakistan, where majority of the population is engaged in livestock farming (Shafee et al. 2012). Brucellosis in humans is a severely debilitating condition that usually requires prolonged treatment involving a combination of strong antibiotics. The treatment results in permanent and disabling sequel, and also in significant medical expenses along with loss of income due to loss of working hours. Brucellosis can be transmitted to humans by ways of inhalation, direct contact with infected animals or contaminated products of conception and ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat or meat products (Gwida et al. 2010; John et al. 2010). Brucellosis can also be transmitted from infected animals to human beings who are in close contact with animal secretions like infected vaginal secretions, blood, urine, feces, aborted fetus, or those who consume unpasteurized milk or other raw milk products. Shepherds, milkmen, butchers, knackers, veterinary assistants, and abattoir workers are at high risk (Agasthya et al. 2007) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2245-T] (1).

47. Prevalence Of Newcastle Disease In Backyard Poultry In District Mardan

by Muhammad Saeed (2013-VA-439) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Abdul Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Newcastle disease (ND) is very important viral diseases of poultry industry in the rural areas of Pakistan It is caused by Avian Paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) of the genus Rubulavirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. The outbreaks of ND are usually associated with various factors e.g. confinement of birds, mode of disposal of diseased birds, cadavers and poultry fecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short irregular temperature changes and the refilling of farms with chickens from the markets. The present study was conducted in randomly picked 30 clusters in three Union councils of Tehsil Takht Bhai District Mardan to investigate the seroprevalence of Newcastle Disease virus and its potential risk factor in non-vaccinated chicken raised under backyard management system. Serum were observed through Haemagglutination inhibition test for the confirmation of prevalence of Newcastle Disease. 165 were found seropositive and 45 were seronegative (antibody titres of 4 or less) for ND out of 210 sera samples. Overall weighted seroprevalence was found as 76.836%, 95% Cl (66.238-87.433) using R software. This means that NDV was circulating in backyard poultry of district Mardan, while data on risk factor were obtained through a detail predesigned questionnaire from the owner in a face to face interview translated into local language (Pushto) after taking written consent from the owner. To identify the risk factors for Newcastle Disease seroprevalence, multivariable logistic regression were performed. The result showed that live birds market stall near houses was strongly associated with NDV seroprevalence. Source of water from both type (public water supply and street channels) were also found strongly associated. A strong association was also observed between NDV seroprevalence and water source of street channels. Result also showed that cleaning of backyard premises was a protective factor against NDV with OR < 1. Another Summary 38 strong risk factor was live birds market stall near houses (OR 33.64, 95 % Cl: 6.49-174.28). The largest confidence interval showed less precision which could be due to less no. of samples. The identified estimate of seroprevalence of ND and its associated potential risk factor will be communicated to concerned persons through publication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2292-T] (1).

48. Isolation And Characterization Of Avian Isolates Of Lactobacilli Species And Their Antisalmonella Activity

by Anum Shaukat (2009-VA-220) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Prof. Dr. Mansur-Ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is second largest industry of Pakistan. Poultry industry is cheaper source of protein and provides jobs for more than 1.5 million people. It is facing several problems due to microbial diseases. Salmonella is one of the leading causes of diseases in poultry. These are being treated with antibiotics but misuse and overuse of antibiotics result in antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms. We need some alternatives for treatments. Lactobacilli are one of the alternatives to antibiotics used as probiotics. It has been found that the Lactobacilli of poultry origin have antimicrobial activity against Salmonella. Lactobacilli was isolated from the droppings, cloaca and caecum of rural poultry birds using deMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium. The isolates were screened for anti-Salmonella activity against S. enterica along with their properties to resist low pH and bile acids, antibiotic sensitivity, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation. The isolates showed anti-salmonella activity were identified using microscopic characters and biochemical profile. The isolates were confirmed by PCR using species specific primers and sequencing 16S rRNA gene. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA at significance level P value <0.05 by using the statistical software Graph Pad Prism version 5.3. The study was conducted on a total of 60 samples including caecal swabs (n=20), cloacal swabs (n=20) and dropping (n=20) of indigenous poultry. From these samples, five isolates were Summary 57 selected based upon the tests performed. Isolates namely CLB-41, CLB-45, PDL-13, PDL-26 and PDL-33 showed best results. Further characterization was done by PCR and sequencing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2313-T] (1).

49. Biological Studies on Various Avian Influenza Virus Types In Poultry

by Tariq Mahmood Shaukat (2003-VA-189) | Prof. Dr. Akram Muneer | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2390-T] (1).

50. Poultry Waste Management And Its Impact on Public Health In Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

by Muhammad Nauman Akhtar (2006-VA-150) | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2383-T] (1).



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