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1. A Study On The P;Revalence Taxonomy And Bionomics Of Genus Oesophagostomum In Sheep And Goats

by Sattar Zafar Rana, A | Dr. Mohammad Afzal | Dr. Tufail | Dr.Mubasher Saeed Main | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0135,T] (1).

2. Sero-Epidemiological Study Of Brucellosis And Leptospirosis In Cattle And Buffaloes

by Arshad, M | Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Mohammad Naeem | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Serum samples were coil collected from 400 buffaloes & 400 cattle maintained at Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadurr.aqar Okara The serum samples were subjected to serological test to detect the presence of antibodies against brucellae and leptospirae.. An over all 7.75 percent animals were found to harbour the antibrucella antibodies. The incidence by R8PT was 5.75 percent & 6,5 percent in cattle and buffaloes respectively whereas 7.0 percent and 8.5 percent samples were found positive to brucellae in cattle and buffaloes respectively by SAT. The incidence of leptospirosis in cattle and buffaloes was recorded to he 9.75 percent and 10.0 percent respectively with an over all incidence of 9.38 percent. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0354,T] (1).

3. Comparative Efficacy Of Single And Booster Foot And Mouth Disease Vaccination In Buffaloes

by Amir, M | Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman Rizvi Chairman | Dr. Mohammad Amin Sheikh Nember | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the duration of immunity conferred in buffalo-calves by locally prepared cell culture (BHK-21 cell line) FMD vaccine both in response to single dose vaccination as well as to booster dose vaccination. The cell culture bivalent FMD vaccine, having 0 and Asia-I serotypes, was prepared on BHK-21 cell line and inactivated with forma-line. The virus was adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide gel. The virus culture having the titre not less than io6 TCID50 per ml was used for preparing the vaccine. Safety, sterility and potency of the vaccine was thoroughly checked before its use in the trial. Eighteen buffalo-calves, aged 1-2 years, were used in the experiment. Their freeness from FMD and susceptibility were tested by performing the serum neutralization test in cell culture, which indicated the absence of neutralizing antibodies in their sera against the vaccine virus types. Their faecal examination was negative for any internal parasite after deworming twice. Twelve buffalo-calves were vaccinated subcutaneously with the field dose i.e. 5 ml and 6 animals were re-vaccinated on 28th day of primary vaccination while other 6 buffalo-calves were left as unvaccinated control. The vaccinated animals showed slightly rise in temperature 'and developed a walnut size swellings at the sites of injection otherwise they looked to be healthy. Serum samples were collected at 0 day to 26th week from once vaccinated animals and upto 36th week from the booster vaccinated and control animals. Almost all the vaccinated animals developed antibodies against FMD on 1st week, but all the vaccinated animals developed protective levels of neutralizing antibodies against FMD on 2nd week of primary vaccination. The single dose vaccinated buffalo-calves maintained the protective level of antibodies upto 16 weeks while booster vaccinated animals remained protective for 24 weeks against both the vaccine virus types (0 and Asia-I), to which booster vaccination was done on 28th day of primary vaccination. It was concluded from this study that the buffalo-calves of this age group should be re-vaccinated after 18 weeks of primary vaccination to protect them for further 24 weeks against F'MD i.e. booster vaccination is must for scheduling at least the biannual vaccination. Subsequent re-vaccination will increase the time span for repeating the vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0355,T] (1).

4. Inter-Relationship Of Haemagglutination Inhibition (Hi) Titres Against Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Mukteswar Straom) Of Dam's Serum, Egg Yolk And Serum Of The Chick

by Masood ul Hasan Javed | Dr. Mohammad Naeem | Dr. Sheikh Mohammad Amin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: The studies were conducted to determine the inter-relationship of HI titres against Mukteswar strain of NDV in the serum of dam, egg yolk and serum of day-old chick. These studies, helped not only to find out an agreement between the results of HI test of dam, egg yolk and day-old chick, but also for the suitability of the egg yolk for monitoring the immune stauts of laying flock. Four spaced injections of NDV vaccine were given to the experimental birds. The birds which did not receive 4th vaccination were referred as un-vaccinated control. At 21st day post-vaccination1 the antibody titre in yolk was lower than serum but from third week onward, comparable results were obtained with both the samples. Haemagglutination inhibition titre of dam's serum was comparatively stable throughout the experiment where as HI titre of egg yolk slightly fluctuated. Yolk, pepared by chloroform extraction and low-speed centrifugation, performed well in HI test for NOV. Maternal antibody level in day-old chick was related to the titre in dam and egg yolk. The GMT-HI titre of day-old chick fluctuated nearly in the same pattern as GMT-HI titre of egg yolk. Overall it was observed that both egg yolk and day-old chick serum HI antibody titres were slightly lower or equal to dam's serum HI antibody titre and a definite inter- relationship is present among HI titres of dam's serum, egg yolk and day-old chick. The results of this study also proved the suitabilty of egg yolk for HI antibody determination to NOV. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0363,T] (1).

5. The Incidence And Pathology Of Neoplasms Of Cattle In District Mirpur Azad Kashmir

by Ahmad Rafi | Dr. Shakeel Akhtar Khan | Dr shahzada khurram Ashraf | Dr. Mohammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: A survey was conducted in Bhimber, Sammani and Iftikharabad areas of District Mirpur, Azad Kashmir to record the incidence of neoplasms among the cattle. One hundred and thirty tissue specimens (suspected neoplasms) were obtained either by biopsy or from slaughter houses. The tissue specimens were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Out of total tissue specimens, 100 samples (43 biopsy samples and 57 morbid samples) proved neoplasms. Neoplasms accounted for 74 malignant and 26 benign. These neoplasms included 34% Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma, 16% I-Torn Cancer, 6% Carcinoma, 2% Adenocarcinoma, 16% Lymphosarcoma, 14% Papilloma, 6% Melanoma and 6% Fibroma. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0366,T] (1).

6. Studies On Haemorrhagic Septicaemia In Cattle With Particular Reference To Characterization Of Isolates From Clinically Normal & Infected Animals

by Uzma Majeed | Dr. Mohammad Amin Sheikh | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Mohammad Akram Munir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present project was planned to characterize Pasteurella multocida isolates from apparently healthy carrier and infected cattle. A total of 500 animals (live 250 and slaughtered 250) of different age groups and both sexes were examined for the evidence of harbouring Pasteurella multocida in their respiratory tracts. The samples were collected from the live animals through a sterilized cotton swab passed in their nasal cavity. In slaughtered animals the cotton swabs were smeared directly to laryngeo-tracheal region approached from the cut part of the trachea. In infected animals citerated blood of live animals was processed for isolation of the organisms; whereas a long-bone was collected and processed for bacteriological examination in slaughtered/dead animals. The primary isolation of the organism was attempted in tryptic soya broth/tryptic soya agar: The identification of the isolated strains was carried out on the basis of their cultural characteristics on arious media, morphology and staining reaction, sugar fermentation and other biochemical tests. Of the 500 healthy animals examined for their carrier status, none proved positive for the Pasteurella multocida organism in their respiratory tracts. Of the 10 outbreaks investigated, only 6 cases yielded Pasteurella multocida strains which proved highly virulent both for rabbits and mice. All the six strains were quite uniform in their various characteristics. All fermented glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, sorbitol and sacharose, producing acid only and n gas. None of them fermented arabinose dulcitol maltose, lactose, raffinose and salicin. All the six strains gave a positive reaction for catalase, oxidase indole production, nitrate reduction and H2S production tests, and negative reaction for methyle red, voges prausker, urease activity and gelatin liquefaction tests. None of the strains exhibited motility examined through hanging drop technique. All the 10 outbreaks occurred during the rainy months of August and November. All the infected animals were in the age group of 1 to ½ years. The course of the disease was 1-2 days. The clinical signs observed included dullness, depression, inappetance, tympany and a high rise of temperature upto 106°F. The swelling of the throat, which of course developed at an advanced stage of the disease was also observed. In this study conducted on limited number of animals the role of carriers in epidemiology of haemorrhagic septicaemia was observed to be quite insignificant. The outbreaks of the disease occurred during summer/winter rainy seasons necessitating the prophylactic vaccination of our cattle and buffaloes before these period of the year Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0375,T] (1).

7. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Against Experimentally Induced Mycoplasmosis In Quails

by Ayaz Issac J.S.Lall | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Hajid | Dr. Mohammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0377,T] (1).

8. A Comparative Study On The Immunogenicity Of Sonicated Pasteurella Multocida And Formalized Broth Culture (Bacterin) Of Organism In Buffalo Calves

by Habib ur Rehman | Dr. Mohammad Amin Sheikh | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Dr. S.A.R. Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0391,T] (1).

9. The Host Reaction To Experimentally Induced Eimeria Infections In Broilers Chicks

by Ata ur Rehman Awan | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The experiment was designed to study the host reaction to the experimentally induced Eimeria species in broiler chicks. For this purpose two hundred and twenty, one-day-old chicks were reared. At the age of day 3, they were divided randomly in four groups each comprising of 55 birds. They were named as A, B, C and D. The group A was kept as un-infected control, while group B, C and D, at the age of day 3, received a primary dose of 1000 virulent sporulated oocysts, through oral, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes respectively. The challenge doses of 50,000 virulent sporulated oocysts each were adminigtered to the members of each group B, C and D on days 13, 28 and 43 of age. The OPG counts in group A remained nil throughout the experiment the maximum OPG counts 65,500 were recorded in group B by the day 21. On the same day OPG counts of group C and D were also on the peak found to be 40,500 and 54,500 respectively. Three mortalities occurred in group B, 4 in C and 6 in group D. Similarly the maximum weight was attained by the members of group A (Control) i.e. 1750 gm, secondly by group B (oral) i.e. 1530 gm, thirdly group D (S/C) i.e. 1410 gm and fourthly group C (I/P) i.e. 1280gm. The difference in B was of 220gm, in C 470 gm, and in D 340 gm lesser as compared to group A. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0404,T] (1).

10. Estimation And Correlation Of Protein, Differential Leukocyte Count (Dlc) And Total Leukocyte Count (Tlc) In The Blood And Milk Of Sub Clinically Mastitic Buffaloes

by Fakhar uz Zaman | Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: One hundred milk samples from mastitic buffaloes brought for treatment to outdoor Ward of the College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and adjacent areas were examined for their total blood protein, total blood leukocytic count, blood differential leukocytic count, milk whey protein, milk total leukocytic count and milk differential leukocytic count. Total protein, total leukocyte count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in blood gave their average as 6.84 gm/100ml, 4036 cells/mi, 48.17%, 48.32%, 2.34%, 0.69% and 0.48% respectively. Total whey protein, total leukocytic count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in milk showed their average values as 1.02 gm/l00ml, 4665000 cells/mi 70.42%, 24.19%, 3.45%, 1.30% and 0.37% respectively. Correlation between blood and milk protein, total leukocytic count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were estimated as -0.929, 0.962, 0.952, 0.985, -0.203, 0.060 and 0.284 respectively, which gave an increase of total whey protein, neutrophils in blood, neutrophils in milk and milk total leukocyte count and decrease of total blood protein, total blood leukocytes and lymphocytes in milk and blood. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0406,T] (1).

11. Use Of Matri As Vegetable Protein Source In Broiler Ration

by Saleh, M | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Dr. Jaweeed Ahmad Qureshi | Dr. Mohammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A study was undertaken to find out the appropriate level of matri (Lathyrus sativus linn) as vegetable protein source in broiler ration. Seven experimental rations containing 0, 10, 15 and 20 percent treated and untreated matri were tried on two hundred and ten day old broiler chicks for the period of 50 days. The chicks were randomly divided into seven groups of thirty chicks each. The birds reared on starter ration upto 28 days of age and on finisher ration for rest of the experimental period. The results showed that the starter ration A (control) containing no matri was best in promoting weight gain, feed consumption and feed utilization. The ration B containing 10% matri (autoclaved) gained more weight and consumed more feed and was better in feed efficiency. Finisher ration A (control) containing no matri was the best in promoting weight gain and the ration B containing 10 percent matri (autoclaved) stood second in number as for as weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency was concerned. At the end of the experiment dressing percentage and economics of different rations were also calculated Dressing percentage values were statistically non-significant so far as the cost per Kg live weight wasconcerned, ration B was cheaper while ration A was the cheaper while ration A was the cheapest as compared to all other rations. It was concluded that the ration containg 10% matri can safely be used in broiler ration without showing any deleterious effect on growth and feed consumption. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0418,T] (1).

12. Comparative Evaluation Of Esophagotomy In The Equine With And Without Pharyngostomy Tube

by Safdar Hamid, Bhatti | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Muhammad Younis h | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: The esophagus is one of the important parts of gastrointestinal tract of the animals. It is a specialized organ, serving to carry food from pharynx to the stomach. There are so many anomalies associated with esophagus like obstruction due to foreign bodies, tumors, strictures, diverticula and stenosis. Esophageal obstruction (choke) in equines can occur as a result of food impaction, orally administered caustic or corrosive medicinal agents and trauma to the neck. Choke is most commonly caused by food impaction, which can result in circumferential mucosal damage and subsequent esophageal strictures. The mega-esophagus may lead to pneumonia as a result of aspiration of ingesta. The diagnosis is based on the history and clinical signs. In all such cases esophagotomy is the only solution to the problem, as the conservative treatment does not help the animal. To carry out this experimental study 15 donkeys were divided into four groups. Group-I comprised of seven animals, Group-IT and III had three animals each and group-TV consisted of two animals. In group-I, the esophagus was incised longitudinally and closed in two layers. After closure of esophagotomy the pharyngostomy tube was passed for feeding purpose. In group II and III the esophagotomy procedure was the sam as in group I, but the animals were fed without pharyngostomy tube after surgery. The animals of group II, were kept on intravenous therapy for the first 72 hours and then shifted to the liquid diet per orum. Whereas the animals of group III were kept on liquid diet for the first seven days and then to the pelleted diet till 15th post-operative day. From then onward they were fed solid food orally. The esophagotomy incision in group IV was not sutured. These animals acted as control and were allowed to eat solid food orally from the very first post-operative day. The animals of each group were closely watched during the experimental period for seroma, leakage and infection. The tabulated and graphic results indicated that the animals of group II showed better results than the animals of group I, III and IV because: i) The esophagotomy incision healed through first intention. ii) No signs of dehiscence or leakage were noticed. iii) As the animals were kept on parenteral therapy for the first 72 hours, it helped in good mucosal healing and no leakage was seen. iv) The necropsy finding revealed, that the mucosal and muscular layers healed excellently. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0427,T] (1).

13. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Amprolium 20% And Sulphaquinoxaline In Broilers Chickens

by Nighat Yasmeen | Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mohammad | Sh. Muhammad Amin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: This study indicated that Amprolium 20% (Amidiostat) when used at recommended dosage levels (0.5 Kg/ton of feed did not interfere with the body weight gains of birds; did not have adverse effects on weights of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus, liver; did not interfere with the development of serum antibody in vaccinated or non-vaccinated and challenged birds; Amprolium 20% medication in feed had beneficial effects on serum antibody development; did not result in higher post-challenge mortality of vaccinated birds as compared to the non-medicated vaccinated control birds. however Sulphaquinoxaline when used at recommended dosage level (125 gm/ton of feed) did partially interfere with the weight of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus, liver and also interfere with the development of serum antibody in vaccinated or non vaccinated and challenged birds. The injection to baby chicks on first 4 consecutive post- hatching days with cyclophosphamide resulted in lower body weights, destruction of the bursa of Fabricius, poor antibody response of birds to vaccination against ND, and very high post-challenge mortality, UOfl challenge with virulent NDV. The weight gain studies indicated that vaccinated and non-vaccinated birds on Amprolium 20% and suiphaquinoxaline medicated feeds had non- significantly higher body weights than those on non-medicated ration at 42 days of age. Amproliurn 20%, at recommended dosage level, had more beneficial effects on the body weights than the suiphaquinoxaline. These studies further indicated that vaccinated birds kept on Amprolium 20% medicated feed had significantly higher serum antibody titres on (lay 42 than the vaccinated non-medicated control birds. The serum antibody titres of vaccinated birds on Amprolium 20% medicated feed were significantly higher thai-i those fed sulphaquinoxaline at recommended dosage levels. From the results of this study it is concluded that long term use of Suiphaquinoxaline at recommended dosage levels moderately suppress the immune system of the birds. It is also observed that Amprolium 20% (Amidiostat) is not immunosuppressive drug when used at recommended dosage levels. It has rather beneficial effects on growth performance and immune response of birds. However there is a need for further investigations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0466,T] (1).

14. A Clinico Pathological Examination And Treatment Of Experimentally Induced Salmonella Infection In Goats

by Baig Muhammad Kakar | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Salmonellosis is common problem for goat population of the country which is therefore, a constant threat for the farming community of the country during the summer season. The present study was undertaken to study the course of disease with relevance uo environmental factors and the efficacy of various antirnlcroblal drugs available in the market. Salmonellosis was clinically manifested by acute enteritis, dysentery, abdominal cramps, where as temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate were raised upto 2- 3.4°F, 16-23 times/minute and 10-16 times/minute respectively. Predominant postmortem lesions were dehydration, petechiation of the intestinal mucosa occasionally with the accumulation of reddish fluid in t1e intestinal lumen, thickening of the urinary bladder and Pale carcase along with decreased serum sodium concentration in such animals. Among the various antimicrobial drugs used invitro, Gentamycin and chloraphenicol were highly sensitive where as Oxytectracycline, trimethoprim apicillin and kananycin were quite sensitive. Results of in vivo traits for oxytetracycline, tribrissen, gentamycin were 0.00%, 80%, 80% and 100% respectively, whereas 100% mortality was recorded in untreated control group of animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0494,T] (1).

15. Influence Of Varying Levels Of Protein With Constant Level Of Energy On The Performance Of Japanese Quails At Different Stages Of Growth

by Arif, M | Dr. Nisar Ahmed Mian | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Protein level in the ration of quails is considered as an important factor for the efficient growth. But recent studies have shown that besides the protein level, the amino acid profile of feed is more important The present study was conducted to Investigate the optimum dietary protein levels by providing adequate amounts of lysine, methionine, according to the requirements on the performance of quails Three hundred day old quails were randomly divided into five groups of 60 quails each. Then each group was further subdivided into three replicates of 20 quails each .Five rations A, B, C, D and E containing 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26% protein respectively with Constant Metaholisable energy 2900 Kcal/Kg ration were prepared. The average total weight gain of chicks fed on experimental rations A, B, C, D and E was 133.89, 133.37, 132.49, 131.73 and 131.49 gms. espectively Apparentlyo the chicks fed on ration A containing 22 percent protein gained more weight. Non-significant difference among weight gain of chicks fed on experimental rations containing various protein levels was observed. The average total feed consumption per chick on experimental rations A, B, C, D and E was 403.04. 395.92, 392.39, 386.81 and 382.38 gms. respectively. The total feed consumption of the chicks fed on ration A containing 22 percent protein was highest. When data was subjected to statistical analysis non-significant difference was noticed among feed consumption of the chicks fed on different experimental rations. The average commulative feed eHicienc on experimental rations A, B, C, D and E was 3.01, 2.97, 2.96. 2.94 and 2.90 respectively. The chicks fed on ration E containing 26 percent protein consumed less feed per unit weight gain as compared to other experimental rations. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant difference among feed efficiency of the chicks fed on experimental rations containing different levels of protein. The averige values of dressing percentage of birds fed on rations A, B, C, D and E respectively were 70.35, 70.17, 69.90, 68.34 and 68.24 respectively The dressing percentage of chicks fed on ration A containing 22% protein was highest. Non-significant differ ence was noticed among dressing percentage on five protein levels. Results also showed that. dressing percentage of females was comparatively higher than males. The cost. per 100 grams of live weight excluding the cost of day old chicks for the rations A, B, C, D and E were Rs 2.30, 2.29, 2.33, 2.36 and 2.40. The results of the present study indicated that Japanese quails can be reared efficiently and economically on ration containing 23% protein and 2900 Kcal/Kg M.E under local conditions with better weight gain and feed efficiency. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0548,T] (1).

16. Comparative Efficacy Of The Latest Antibacterial Drugs Against Experimentally Induced Pullorum Disease

by Dr . Khalid Omran, M | Dr . Khalid Pervaiz | Dr . Khushi | Dr . Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: A total 210 birds were reared upto the age of 4 weeks and the divided into 7 groups viz A, B, C, D, E, F and G, comprised of 30 birds in each group. At the age of 28 days the groups A to E were experimentally infected with Salmonella pullorum inoculation intraperitoneally with the dose rate of '/2 ml. The group F was infected but non-medicated and the group G was kept as control (non infected and non medicated). The groups A, B, C, D, E and E were treated with Anflox, Inoxyl, Triquine, Flumiquine and Gentamycine respectively. All the groups were kept under close observation to record clinical signs, mortality rate, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Postmortem of dead birds was also conducted. The blood parameters TEC, TLC, and DLC were also estimated post medication on 1st, 3rd and 5th day. The mortality before medication in groups A, B, C, D, E and F was 10%, 16.67, 6.67%, 13.34%, 13.34% and 6.67% respectively. While the mortality during treatment in each group was 25.92%, 32%, 39.28%, 19.23%, 46.16%, 64.28% respectively. The mortality in control group was 6.66% during these days. According to this trial Flumiquine provided maximum protection against Salmonella pullorum infection and proved best in relation to weight gain and FCR. Anflox stood second in the list while Inoxyl was the 3rd drug which provided protection against the infection, whereas Triquine and Gentamycin were the least effective drugs. The signs which appeared after 18-24 hours post infection were listlessness, ruffled feathers, droopy wings, loss of appetite, poor growth, depression, increased thirst and severe diarrhoea of chalky white color. The post mortem findings were enlarged spleen, congested liver with streaked haemorrhages, congested and distended kidneys, grey hepatization in lungs and enlarged heart. The total erythrocytic count decreased in infected non-medicated birds while in medicated groups it remained in normal range. The same was true of total leucocytic count. However, in DLC the heterophil indicated increased percentage after inoculation of infection while the lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes remained within range after the infection. The findings of the present study elucidate the disease and help in diagnosis and treatment of this malady. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0688,T] (1).

17. Effect Of Different Fasciolicides Against Fascioliasis In Buffalo Cows

by Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Mohammad Irfan | Iqbal Ahmad | Mubashar Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1981Dissertation note: A total of 275 buffaloes in and around Lahore showing chronic debility were examined for the presence of liverfluke infestation. Fascioliasis was confirmed by faecal examination in 183 animals, of which 80 showed heavy infection. These animals wre divided into four groups A, B, C and D, each having 20 animals. Animals in group A, B and C were treated with Zanil, Fascol super and Trodsax respectively. Group D was kept as control. Most of the animals cleared up after the first treatment whereas others were given a second dose on 21st day after the first treatment. The efficacy of the drug was calculated on the basis of reduction in the number of ova discharge in the faces after medication as confirmed by faecal examination on 3rd, 7th 18th, 28th and 35th day after treatment. Zanil, faxcol super and Trodax caused 85.7 percent 82.8 percent and 80 percent reduction it he number of ova when used as a signle dose and 100 percent, 97.1 perecent and 95.7 percent reduction respectively after the second dose. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0752,T] (1).

18. Comparative Efficacy Of Intramedullary Pinning With Full Cerclage Wires And Screwing For The Repair Of Mid Shaft Long

by Muhammad Siraj | Dr. Mohammad Arif khan | Dr. Mohammad | Mr. Hamad bin rashid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The principles of fracture treatment have always been the anatomical reduction and rigid immobilization of the fracture segments. There are different methods of external and internal implants for the stabilization of fracture. The external implants include Plaster of Paris (POP), Thomas Splint, Kirschner Ehmer (K.E) apparatus and Simple Bandage, whereas the internal implants include Intramedullary Pinning, with or without wiring, Rush Pins, Half Pin Splintage, Transfixation Screws and compression or conventional neutralization plates. The present project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different established techniques of internal implants such as intramedullary pinning with multiple full cerclage wires and cortical screws alone for the repair of mid shaft long oblique tibial fracture in dogs. The study was carried out on 12 mongrel dogs of either sex, irrespective of breed and age which were divided into two groups, Group-A and Group-B, comprising 6 dogs each. In Group-A, an iatrogenic long oblique mid shaft tibial fracture was induced which was then reduced and immobilized with conical screws alone after taking lag effect, while in Group-B, after the induction of fracture similarly, intramedullary pins with multiple full cerciage wires were used for rigid immobilization of the fracture segments. The dogs were kept for a period of 100 days and the efficacy was judged on the basis of physical examination, radiographic evaluation and postmortem findings. The results of the study clearly revealed that intramedullary pinning with multiple full cerclage wires were the better method/technique for the repair of mid shaft long oblique tibial fracture in dogs as compared with screwing alone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0906,T] (1).

19. The Influence Of Floor Space On Growth Egg Production And Hatchability Of Coturnix Japonica

by Dr. Bashir Ahmad Khawaja | Dr. Mohammad Saleem Chaudhary | Dr. Asaf | Dr. Mohammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of various floor spaces on growth rate, egg production and hatchability of quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica) in cac7es. One hundred and eighty, one day old quail chicks were purchased from a local commercial hatchery and were divided into four equal groups of 45 chicks i.e. A, B, C, and D. These groups were further sub divided into 3-replicates of 15 chicks each providing floor spaces of 144, 165, 186 and 206 sqcm/bird respectively. The chicks were fed ad-libitum on a commercial ration. The other managemental and environmental conditions iiere similar for all the groups. Experimental chicks were weighed individually at one day old and on weekly basis upto the age of 8-weeks. The average wt. gain observed/quail upto 8-weeks of age for groups 4, B, C and D was 120, 135, 144 and 150 gins respectively. Average feed consumption/quail was found to be 433, 478, 496 and 515 gms respectively. The feed conversion ratio (F. C.R.) was 3.60, 3.54, 344 and 3.43 in groups 4, B, C and D respectively. The total number of eggs produced by the birds of respective groups were 9, 10, 10.5 and 12 eggs/hen in 14 days of laying period. Total number of chicks hatched on 17th day of .incubation in groups A, B, C and D wet-e 120, 130, 138 and 144 respectively. The mortality percentage was 8.88, 4.44, 2..22 and 0.00 in groups A, B, C and D respectively. The average dressing percentage for birds in groups A, B, C and P was 67.45, 67.47, 67.97 and 69.42 respectively. Average heart wt. was apparently more in the birds of group C than those of 4, 8, and P. Similarly group P birds exhibited apparently maximum wt. of liver than the other three groups. The average wt. of gizzard was maximum in group P than rest of the groups. Statistical analysis of the data revealed highly significant effect of floor space on wt. gain, feed consumption, F.C.R., egg production and hatchability. However floor space effect on dressing percentage and giblet weight (liver, heart and gizzard) was statistically non significant. The monetary return per 100 gm of live body wt. was Rs. 1.43, 1.84, 2.07 and 2.18 in the birds of groups A, B, C and I) respectively. Finally it was found that quails can be reared in cages at a density of 206 efficiently and economically without any detrimental effect on growth rate, F.C.R., feed consumption, egg production and hatchability in quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1120,T] (1).

20. The Effect Of Feeding Different Vegatbale Protein Supplements As The Cause Or A Predisposing Factor Of Hydropericardium

by Muhammad Shoib Noor | Dr. Mohammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr. Ehtesham | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Since last two years broiler industry in Pakistan is facing a devastating disease named "Hydropericardium Sncirome". The disease causes 30 to 7 mortality. Many possible causes of this disease like Ascites, Oedema, Round heart disease, Fat toxicity, Excess of Sodium and also in Bacterial and Viral infections have been reported, in which nutritional cause is one of these. The present work has been conducted to study the effect of different indigenous vegetable protein supplements as the causitive or predisposing factor for "Hydropericardium" in broiler chicks. Two experiments were conducted and five experimental rations were prepared containing different indigenous vegetable protein supplements (Corn gluten meal, Rice polishing, Rape seed meal, Cotton seed meal and Sunflower meal) as a major source of protein and were fed to both the experimental chicks throughout the experimental period. In both the experiments chicks were divided into five groups. In the first experiment, at 18th day each group was further divided into three subgroups i.e. control, treatment-I and treatment-II (inocculated with 105 and 107 dilutions of freez dried Hydropericardiuin inocculum respectively). Similarly in the second experiment, at 18th day each group was further divided into two subgroups i.e. control and treatment ( some chicks were inocculated with 102dilution of the fresh Hydropericardium inocculum and rest of them were kept as incontact). During the conduct of the experiment the weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, mortality, postmortem changes, histopathological changes and immunity of the experimental chicks were studied. In the first experiment non-significant differencewith respect of weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks amongst control and treatment-I (inocculated. with 10-5 dilution of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) and treatment-II (inocculated with 10-7 dilution of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) subgroups were recorded. There was no mortality due to itllydropericardiumit in any of the five experimental groups of chicks. This indicated that 10-5and 10-7 dilutions of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum were ineffective in causing any change in weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency. As such these findings could not help in establishing any of the five egetab1e protein supplements (Corn gluten meal, Rape seed meal, Rice polishing, Cotton seed meal and Sunflower meal) as a predisposing or causitive factor for"Hydropericardium"in the chicks. Similarly in the second experiment, non-significant difference with respect of weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks between control and treatment ( some chicks were inocculated with i02 dilution of the fresh Hydropericardium inocculum and rest of them were kept as incontact) subgroups of the five experimental groups were recorded. This indicated that 1o2 dilution of fresh Hydropericardium inocculum was ineffective in causing any change in weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks. These results also could not establish the nutrition as a predisposing or causitive factor for "Hydropericardium" in the chicks. Only three mortalities of the chicks in different experimental groups after the inocculation of io_2 dilution of fresh Hydropericardium'inocculum were recorded. Postmortem examination of the dead birds showed watery fluid in pericardial sac, swollen liver and kidneys and enlarged heart. Ilistopathological study of the liver and heart collected from the dead birds revealed intranuclear inclusion bodies in the liver and degenerative changes in the heart. Although the postmortem changes were almost similar to the "Hydropericardium" but only three mortalities could not be attributed to nutrition as a predisposing or causitive factor for "Hydropericardium" in the chicks. Similarly the results of indirect haemagglutination test showed haemagglutination of erythrocytes at 1:128 serum dilution and even at very weak dilution i.e. 1:1024 serum dilution, which indicated that the chicks were alreadr immuned and the immunity of the chicks increased after the inocculation of the fresh Hyd.ropericardium inocculum. In the light of the findings of the first experiment, which were non-significant with regard to weight gain, feed. consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks amongst control, treatment-I (inocculated with 1O dilutionof freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) and treatment-Il (inocculated with 10' dilution of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) subgroups of each of the five experimental groups fed on five different experimental rations, it might be concluded that the freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum had lost its virulency during freezing process or during its long i.e. six months, of storage or was not the causitive agent in producing the "Hydropericardium" in the broiler chicks. Similarly in the second experiment, non-significant results of weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks between control and treatment (some chicks were inocculated. with io_2 dilution of fresh Hydropericardiun inocculum and rest of them were kept as incontact) subgroups and the results of indirect haemagglutination test, indicated that the chicks were already iinmuned. The findings of both the experiments could not help to establish the nutrition as a predisposing or causitive factor for "HydropericRrdium" in the chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1124,T] (1).

21. Studies On The Chick Growth Inhibitory Factor In Sunflowr Oil Meal

by Muhammad Zubair | Dr. Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and total particulate matter ('1PM) of cigarette smoke is sternly toxic to health and may produce several pathologies. In our study, we have focused on the toxicological effects of CSC and '1PM on different events of angiogenesis using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). CSC and 1PM from four different commercial filtered cigarettes were applied to the CAMs on day 4 of incubation. Macroscopic vascular transformations were evidently observed among all treated CAMs. Applications of CSC disk caused sturdy obliteration of main blood vessels, while whole architecture of the secondary and tertiary vasculalure was completely destroyed. Likewise, application of '1PM from all brands of cigarette caused disproportionate thinning of all primary and secondary blood vessels. Reduction in the total area and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels were observed after treatment with CSC and TPM. 1-listological evaluations revealed loss of ectodermal and mesodermal integrity in botl'i types of treatments. Scanty capillary plexuses formation, deterioration of extracellular matrix and delayed migration of blood vessels were prominent findings among all treated groups. Results obtained from CSC treated groups were more localized, while generalized results were prominently recorded in 1PM treated groups. Special considerations of CSC and 1PM should he given while smoking during pregnancy and after surgery because it may severely affect the process of angiogenesis, which is vital in maintenance of pregnancy and wound healing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1137,T] (1).

22. Comparative Nutritive Value Of Corn Gluten Meal And Meat Meal In Broiler Rations

by Syed Tayyab Waqar Bokhari | Dr. SAghir Ahmad Jafri | Dr. Mohammad Yaqoob Malik | Mrt. Mubasher.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: The experiment was conducted in the Animal Nutrition Section, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore on completely randomized design. One hundred and twenty, day-old broiler chicks were reared for eight weeks period, These were divided into four groups of 30, and each group was further divided into three replicate of 10 birds. Four experimental rations A, B, C and D were fed to the four different groups. There rations contained 0, 10,15 & 20% levels of corn gluten meal with 18, 9. 5,5 & 0% levels of meat meal as sole source of protein. Watering and feeding was done a libitum. At the end of experiment, the results showed that average body weight gain of individual bird fed on rations A, B, C and D was 322.2, 263.8, 352.7 and 252.8 grams with F.C.R. of 2.35, 2.61,2.30 & 3.04 respectively. The data regarding the body weight gain and F. C. R. was subjected to statistical analysis - using the analysis of variance and further more to find out the difference in treatment means. Student Newman Keul's Technique was applied. The results showed the highest gain in body weight in birds of group C (15% corn gluten, 5% meat meal and 0. 5% L-Lysine) and the least gain in weight in group D (20% corn gluten and 0.5% L-Lysine. Similar results in case of F. C. R. were obtained as well. The data on dressing percentage of birds fed rations A, B, C and D were 74.5, 72.1, 71.6 and 72.4 percent. Statistically these results found to be significant and the maximum dressed body weight was observed in group A. The gizzard weight of the birds kept on rations A, B, C and D was 126. 0, 08.3, 120.7 and 105.7 grams with 123.7, 92.7, 100.0 and 94.3 grams of liver weight respectively were observed. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference. Improved weight of gizzard and liver were gained by the birds maintained on ration A. The data on heart, spleen and pancrease weights on analysis revealed a non- significant difference. The data on economics of the experimental rations indicated that the cost per Kg. of gain in body weight was Rupees 10. 52, 8.73, 8.57 and 11.16 respectively. The ration C was comparative by more economical, ration B being second the best. It is evident from the data that 15% corn gluten with 5% meat meal helped in making the ration most economical. Based on the observations cited above it was inferred that corn gluten meal could be successfully incorporated in broilers ration without any deteriorating effect o growth rate, feed consumption or feed efficiency, provided it is supplemented with animal protein source to make up the limiting amino-acids. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1140,T] (1).

23. Prevalence Of Caprine Mycoplasmosis In Different Areas Of Pakistan

by Waseem Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007. For this purpose a total of 1440 different samples such as nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung piece, synovial fluid, and milk samples (1180), and 260 serum samples were collected from clinically affected goats of different breeds, age and sex. These samples were collected from twelve districts including Mansehra, Peshwar, Swabi, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Pishin, Jhang, Sargodha, Lahore and Faisalabad with 6 union councils (UC) in each district. Twenty samples of different nature were collected from each of union council. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, Growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One twenty one samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth whereas out of these 121 samples 58 grew on PPLO agar. All 58 field isolated organisms showed positive reaction to GIT. None of the serum sample showed a positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five samples out of 1180 prior to culturing were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing, whereas 58 samples were positive with this technique after culturing. Prevalence of mycoplasmosis in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5 % respectively) is not significantly higher as compared to semi desert and sub hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9 % respectively) which may be due to chance alone. Furthermore, the adult group-3 (age > 1 year) has significantly lowest prevalence (2.7 %) of Mmc as compared to age group-1 (age < 181 days) with 5.1 % prevalance and age group-2 (age: 181 to 365 days) with 4.4 % prevalence. This difference may be due to chance but not areal difference. Similarly prevalence (4.7%) of mycoplasmosis in female goats is not significantly higher as compared to males (3.2%). Beetal, Piamiri, Beetal teddy cross, Baltistani and Desi breeds of goats showed higher prevalence only by chance as compared to other breeds in the areas under study. Saponin inactivated vaccine was prepared from this field strain and found to be effective against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goats. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4+, CD8+, and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 ºC, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsintreated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1188,T] (1).

24. Preservation And Developemental Study Of Bloody Fingerprints From Buried Substrates At The Crime Scene

by Shahid yousaf | Mr. Muhammad Akhtar Ali | Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Tahir | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1751,T] (1).

25. Level Of Amylase From Human Saliva Deposited On Fruit First Bite Mark

by Umar Draz | Ms. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Tahir | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Saliva is colorless fluid which consists of epithelial cells, enzymes, non enzyme protein and inorganic components. Saliva is secreted by three glands in mouth. One is parotid gland, second is submandibular gland and third is sublingual gland. There are two types of amylases in human. One is salivary amylase, while other is pancreatic amylase. The salivary amylase is secreted by salivary gland while pancreatic amylase is secreted by pancreas. The salivary amylase is present in saliva, perspiration and breast milk. Pancreatic amylase is present in blood, feces and urine. Saliva stain is very important at crime scene for forensic investigation. Majority of techniques used for detection of saliva are based upon the presence of salivary amylase. Human saliva can serve for identification. One can extract DNA from saliva stain and generate DNA profile, whereby individual can be identified who is a source DNA profile that is generated from saliva stain. In present study level of salivary amylase was determined from human saliva deposited on fruit with first bite mark. Apple, peach and apricot were selected for this experiment. Ten males and ten females were selected to bite on fruits. The time interval was used as variable for determining the level of amylase. The time intervals were 0 hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours and 48 hours. Samples were collected from bite mark area on fruit. The samples collected from apples and apricot pits were positive for amylase activity till 48 hours. The samples collected from peach were positive till 12 hours. The samples collected from peach were negative after 24 hours. This research indicates that salivary DNA could be found on bite mark area on apple and apricot pit till 48 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1755,T] (1).

26. Study Of Canine Parvovirus In Dogs And Its Chemotherapy

by Saeed Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: There were one hundred cases of dogs showing the clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection like bloody diarrhea, vomiting and emaciationwhich were selected randomly. All the cases were confirmed by HA and HI test. Disease occurrence was found to be 55%. There were 55 samples found to be positive and 45 samples were found to be negative for canine parvovirus. The incidences of the disease in German shepherd was highest (38%) followed by other breeds Labrador, Rottweiler, Pointer, Cross, Russian and Local breeds which were 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4% and 3% respectively. Similarly, disease occurrence in non-vaccinated dogs was higher thanvaccinated.The disease was more prevalent in non-vaccinated dogs as compared to the vaccinated dogs. So, vaccination provides sufficient immunity against canine parvovirus. Male dogs were more affected by canine parvovirus than female dogs. Occurrence of the disease in the age of 1-3 months was the highest. Pups were more affected than the older dogs. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in the male and female were found to 60% and 43.5% respectively. Disease occurrence of canine parvovirus in September, October and November was found to be 55%, 52.5% and 56% respectively. Blood samples were collected at day 0(before the treatment) and on the day 5 (after the treatment) and analysis was done in UDL, Lahore. Four different kinds of treatment protocols were compared on the basis of hematological improvement, days of hospitalization and the cost of treatment. Of the four groups hyperimune serum when used with normal saline was found to be more effective. It was found that improvement in the leucocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocytes and platelets with P <0.05. SAFI syrup with supportive therapy was the second effective treatment with P >0.05. Supportive treatment alone was not effective for hematological recovery P > 0.05. It had also increased the cost of treatment, and duration of treatment for canine parvovirus infection. So, hyper immune serum and normal saline is the effective treatment for canine parvovirus infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1757,T] (1).

27. Serodiagnosis, Epidemiology And Economic Improtance Of Hypodermosis In Goats In Balochistan

by Saadullah Jan | Dr. Mohammad Lateef | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Hypodermosis is an endemic infestation of cattle and goats in Pakistan. It is caused by H. lineatum and H. bovis in cattle and P. silenus in goats and is commonly existed species in Pakistan which belong to order Diptera, family Oestridae. The larvae of these flies are obligatory parasites of their hosts and are economically very important causing severe damage to the skins/hides effecting leather industry. Goat warble fly infestation has severe economic impact on tanning industries and it also causes growth retardation, carcass depreciation and production losses of milk and meat. Keeping in view the importance of this infestation, studies were designed on serodiagnosis, epidemiology and economic importance of hypodermosis in goats in northern uplands of Balochistan, Pakistan, with the objectives to diagnose warble fly infestation at early stages through serology for better control and eradication strategies, to study different epidemiological factors (age, sex, breed, temperature, humidity and rain fall) contributing goat warble fly infestation in the study areas, to compare seroprevalance over the prevalence based on clinical examination and to study the economic importance of hypodermosis in Loralai, Ziarat and Pishin districts of Balochistan, Pakistan. The duration of the study was one year commenced from April 2011 to March 2012. The most prevalent breed of goat i.e. khurasani breed in uplands of Balochistan was involved in the study which was compared with the Non-descriptive breed of goats. It is expected that the result of this study will be helpful to plan better control and eradication measures of warble fly by providing the base line data for further improvement in livestock sector in Balochistan. Serological studies for an early diagnosis and seroprevalence of hypodermosis were carried out by commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX hypodermosis serum antibody test) method. A total of 1440 blood samples were collected during the study. Sera were separated and stored at - 20 °C until further use. The infestation was detected in May and June (summer) where as the infestation is usually detected clinically in the months of October until February (winter) when warbles appear on the back and flank regions of the animals. ELISA based seroprevalence showed the highest mean percentage (48.45 %) of goat warble fly infestation in all the three districts, while the mean percentage by clinical palpation method was 15.94 % in all the three districts. In the slaughter house and skin market studies the mean percentages of goat hypodermosis were 9.07 % and 7.16 %, respectively. In the study of epidemiology, a total of 8640 number (2880 number per district) of goats of different age, sex and breed were examined on monthly bases by hand palpation clinico-parasitological method for the presence and prevalence of hypoderma infestation in the field animals. The mean prevalence percentage was 15.94 % i.e. 10%, 21.25% and 16.59% in Loralai, Ziarat and Pishin districts, respectively. In the study conducted in slaughter houses of all the three districts, a total of 4320 number (1440 number per district, 120 animals per month per district) of goats of different age, sex and breed were examined and the prevalence was recorded. Three age groups were selected for both the studies i.e. < 1year, 1-2 year and > 2 year old. The larvae were collected from naturally infested animals for identification. The mean prevalence percentage of hypodermosis in the slaughtered animals was 9.07 % i.e. 4.86%, 12.56% and 9.79% in Loralai, Ziarat and Pishin districts, respectively. Analysis of data by Pearson Chi-square test (?2) revealed highly significant difference (P<0.05) in the overall prevalence of hypodermosis district-wise in the fields and slaughter houses. Results were processed using Microsoft Excel 2007. In comparison of the fields and slaughter houses, the prevalence was significantly higher in the field animals as compared with the slaughterhouse animals in all the districts. In the study based on examination of the infested skin in the skin markets, a total of 3600 numbers of skins of goats (1200 numbers per district, 100 skins per month regardless of age, sex and breed) were examined by making monthly visits to the skin markets of each district. The intensity of the infection was also recorded by counting the number of holes in each infected skin. The overall district-wise mean prevalence percentage was 7.16 % and the mean intensity was 16.19 holes per skin. Analysis of data of the skin market by Pearson Chi-square test, using SPSS version 16, revealed highly significant differences (P< 0.05) in the prevalence of hypodermosis district-wise. Month-wise prevalence in the field animals showed that the highest prevalence was during January and lowest during October in Loralai, Ziarat and Pishin districts. In the slaughter house study, highest prevalence was observed during October and the lowest during July in Loralai district, highest during January and the lowest during July in Ziarat district whereas the highest prevalence was during the month of November and the lowest during July in district Pishin. Month-wise analysis of data by Pearson Chi-square test, using SPSS version 16, revealed highly significant differences (P< 0.05) in the prevalence of hypodermosis both in the field as well as in the slaughter house studies. Age-wise prevalence in the field as well as in the slaughter house animals showed the highest prevalence in the age group of 1-2 years as compared to the age groups of < 1 year and > 2 years. Analysis of data by Pearson Chi-square test, using SPSS version 16, revealed highly significant differences (P< 0.05) in the prevalence of hypodermosis amongst age groups both in the field as well as in the slaughter house studies. No significant difference was observed sex-wise and breed-wise in both the studies of fields and slaughter houses of the study areas. The life cycle pattern in naturally infested goats with warble fly was studied in the fields and slaughter houses of the study areas from April 2011 to March 2012. All the observations regarding the life cycle stages were recorded. First instars larvae (L1) were observed in subcutaneous tissues from mid of May to mid of July in slaughter houses of the study areas. Second instars larvae (L2) were observed in the slaughter houses from mid of July to November. Third instars larvae (L3), as well developed warbles on the back and flank regions of the goats, were palpated in the field animals and observed in the slaughter houses from December until the end of February. The pupal period was observed in early spring in the months from March to mid of April. No larvae were observed in the slaughter houses and fields of the study areas during this period while the adult fly activity season (Oviposition period) was observed in early summer from mid of April to mid of May. The estimation of economic losses due to skin damages were determined by multiplying the estimated infested numbers of skins with the value of loss per skin. The overall losses due to warble fly infestation in the study areas were calculated as Pak. Rupees 7578625.49 (Pak. Rs 7.57 million = US$ 77530.69, US$ 1= Rs. 97.75) annually. Based on the early detection studies, it is concluded and recommended that the best time for the treatment of goat warble fly infestation in uplands of Balochistan is in the months of June and July when first larval instars are still in migratory stage and not yet have reached their final sites on the back and flank regions of goats to cause damage to the skin, where as the farmers usually treat their animals against warble fly in the winter season when they observe the warbles on the backs of the animals but at that stage the larvae have damaged the skins of the animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1771,T] (1).

28. Effect Of Bst On Mid Lactation Milk Production And Composition In Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Mashhood Ahmed | Dr. Jalees Ahmed Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Background:Agriculture sector being the backbone of economy in Pakistan contributing 21 %to the GDP in which major share of livestock is 55.1 % in the agriculture value added and 11.6 % of the National GDP with an annual growth rate of 4 percent. Livestock wealth in Pakistan is comprised of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, camel and other animals. Buffaloes are contributing a major role in livestock sector of Pakistan with a population of 32.7 million heads producing 29,565 metric tons of milk. At present the demand of milk is increasing day by day in Pakistan but our production per animal is much alarming as compared to animal strength. Milk production enhancement through different techniques especiallymodern bio-technologies are thought to be important for the developing countries. Synthetic Bovine Somatotropic Hormone is one of bio-technological product which is helping researchers and scientists in increasing the production of animals. Response to milk yield is noticeable after the administration of Somatotropic hormone in all dairy breeds of different parity and genetic potential. Hypothesis:Effective use of bio-technological products (bST) can enhance the buffalo milk production. Methodology:Keeping in view the importance of bST administration for milk production a study was conducted to determine the effect of bST on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, blood metabolites, weight gain, feed efficiency and production economics in Nili-Ravi buffaloes at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. Twenty four early lactating buffaloes in 3rd and 4th lactation and approximately of same body weight were selected from the herd allocated to bST and control injected subcutaneously on fortnightly interval under Completely Randomized Design. Buffaloes were offered green fodder ad-libitum and concentrate was given @ 1 kg per 3 liter of milk produced. The daily dry matter intake, daily milk production (twice a day), fortnightly milk composition, weekly weight gain, hematology and bio-chemistry were collected and analyzed. Milk samples were analyzed using Lacti-check® in the laboratory of Dairy Technology Department, UVAS Ravi Campus Pattoki. Blood sampleswere taken from twelve buffaloes each by puncturing the jugular vein in 10 cc sterilized disposable syringes for hematology and bio-chemistry analyzed at WTO Quality Control Laboratory UVAS Lahore. Statistical Design:The data obtained were statistically analyzed under Completely Randomized Design through one way analysis of variance. The difference among treatment means were tested through t-test. Outcome:Mean daily DMI regarding green fodder and concentrate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes was higher than control. Mean daily DMI on overall basis in buffaloes under bST treatment was higher (14.291 ± 1.425 kg) as compared to control (13.651 ± 2.174 kg). The differences in daily dry matter intake of concentrate was significantly (P<0.05) different between treatments in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Mean daily milk production was 8.739 ± 1.115 and 7.573 ± 1.562 lit in buffaloes on bST treatment and under control, respectively. Nili-Ravi buffaloes on bST treatment produced 15.397 % higher milk yield than under control. Significant (P<0.05) difference was recorded in daily milk production among treatments inNili-Ravi buffaloes.Mean daily milk production trend during different weeks in Nili-Ravi on bST treatment indicated increasing trend during the week 4 to 8 and then showed decreasing order during the weeks 9 to 13, respectively.Mean weekly weight gain of buffaloes under bST treatment was 0.321 ± 0.052 kg and 0.241 ± 0.067 kg under control.Mean feed efficiency values in Nili-Ravi buffaloes on bST were comparatively higher as compared to control. Milk composition regarding solids not fat, fat and proteins showed significant (P<0.05) difference between treatments in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Mean blood Hemoglobin, RBC, WBC and PCV in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes on bST and control was 13.297 ± 0.344 10/dl, 7.510 ± 0.269 million/µL, 12.755 ± 0.284 thousand/µL and 33.577 ± 0.607 % and13.358 ± 0.328 10/dl, 7.428 ± 0.336 million/µL, 13.433 ± 2.686 thousand/µL and 33.858 ± 0.489 %, respectively. Mean blood glucose, cholesterol, total protein, urea, albumin and triglycerides in lactating Nili Ravi buffalo on bST and under control was 56.725 ± 1.720, 163.333 ± 3.498, 7.930 ± 0.262, 38.674 ± 2.205, 4.316 ± 0.327 and 42.429 ± 2.175 % and 57.200 ± 1.879, 161.250 ± 6.092, 7.905 ± 0.443, 37.093 ± 2.071, 4.075 ± 0.259 and 37.879 ± 2.407 %, respectively. Daily cost of milk production and income from milk sales per buffalo was Rs 267.333 and 211.830, and Rs 524.757 and 454.131 in Nili-Ravi buffaloes on bST and under control, respectively. Daily gross margin per buffalo under bST and control was Rs 257.423 and 242.301, respectively. Conclusion: It is clear from the results that bST can be used in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes to boost milk production (upto 15 %) on economical basis in quantitative and qualitative manner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1792,T] (1).

29. A Study On Medetomidine And Alpha-2 Adrenoceptor Agent Alone And In Combination With Other Anesthetics On Different Animals

by Hamid Akbar | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Medetomidine HCl (alpha-2 adrenergic agonist) is a highly potent sedative and analgesic drug being used extensively in veterinary practice. It produces reliable degree of sedation, muscle relaxation and analgesia in different animal species. Hypothesis: On the basis of existing knowledge about medetomidine HCl it is hypothesized that medetomidine anesthesia alone as well as in combination with other anesthetics can overcome the prevailing hazards of different anesthetics. Goals: The goals of study were to investigate clinical suitability of "Medetomidine HCl" an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist drug alone and in combination with other drugs in different animals. A detailed clinico-biochemical study was carried out to explore the various aspects of this novel sedative and analgesic drug in different animal species. Analgesia was evaluated by checking presence and absence of various clinical reflexes and by performing certain surgical procedures under experimental conditions. Different experiments were designed in different animals to investigate the sedative and analgesic properties of medetomidine HCl. In dogs a clinico biochemical study was designed to see effect of this drug on clinical and hematological parameters at different doses alone and in combination with gas anesthesia. In equines the combination of this drug with other routinely used sedative and analgesic drugs was evaluated. In another study in bovine calves the epidural effect of this magic drug was evaluated. In cats this drug was evaluated in combination with Ketamine during major surgical intervention. Methodology: The parameters used to evaluate analgesia revealed that Medetomidine has greater potential to lessen the pain during minor and major surgical interventions in different animals. However, its epidural use also produced good analgesia of perineal region and at higher doses used epidurally its results can be compared with lignocain which is an ideal local anesthetic agent. Medetomidine produces general sedative effects after absorption from epidural space into general circulation. It was proved that in equines the drug can be used in combination Propofol, Ketamine and chloral hydrate for ideal sedative and analgesic effects and it compensated the side effects offered by these drugs when used alone. In addition it has an edge over other sedative drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on various physiological parameters of the animals. Detailed Clinical and hematologic studies have proved that Medetomidine "a novel sedative and analgesic" is the drug of choice for restraining, examination, minor and major surgical manipulations in equine, bovine, feline and canine species and it produces minimum untoward effects. This study will definitely open the new horizons to choose good anesthetic agents alone or in the form of cocktail to minimize the hazards of conventional drugs to save the economics of country. Medetomidine was used in four different animal species (equine, bovine, canine and feline). In canine the drug proved to be an effective sedative and analgesic drug aone and in combination with volatile anesthetic giving anesthetic sparing effects and exerted minimum effects on clinical and hematological parameters. In felines medetomidine effectively replaced an older and commonly used drug xylazine for combination anesthesia for surgical interventions. In bovine the drug was used as epidural anesthetic and proved to give ideal local effects. In equine medetomidine HCl was used effectively in combination with other anesthetics and enhanced sedation, analgesia, induction, recumbancy and recovery paramerts. A prolonged and stable recumbancy period enables the surgeons to carry out major surgical interventions smoothly and without hazards. In past many drugs have been trailed in veterinary practice as sedative, analgesic and anesthetics like clonidine, xylazine and atipamazole but medetomidine HCl has replaced these drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and effectiveness. In review of results of present studies it is recommended that medetomidine HCl can be used effectively for anesthesia in animals. In present study medetomidine HCl was trailed as anesthetic drug in different animals in variable experimental conditions and has proved to be an ideal sedative and analgesic. It can be used to handle different surgical conditions like suturing, removal of a tumour and cyst, to drain abcess, eye enucleation, roaring operation, cropping, tail docking, tenectomies, neurectomies, tracheostomy, dehorning and correction of prolapse. The drug can also be implied effectively alone or as preanesthetic in different major surgical interventions like evisceration, enterotomies, intestinal anastomosis, castration, penile amputation, spleenectomy ovariohysterectomy and cessarian section. In different experimental trails medetomidine HCl has shown its anesthetic efficacy alone and in combination with other drugs. It variably minimises the side effects and risk and dose rate of other anesthetic drugs used in combination. In addition the combination of medetomidine HCl prolonged the duration of surgical anesthesia and provided ideal analgesic effect. Anticipated difficulties were time frame for the conduct of trials and financial constraints faced which may have hampered clarification of some findings owing to the low number of animals in different groups this difficulty may be faced by future researchers especially in third world countries. Further studies and research could include effects of alpha-2 drugs for treating colic in equines and the evaluation of this drug in orthopedic surgery. And for Future research can be planned on muscle metabolic changes during and after anaesthesia in horses. With these techniques valuable information may be gained that would otherwise be overlooked. The present investigation was mainly undertaken to study the anesthetic role of medetomidine HCl in different animal species in order to deepen the understanding of physiologic and biochemical parameters during and after anaesthesia must be fully clearified. At the end there were some unanswered questions which can be effectively addressed if other aspects of this drug are studied. Some other aspects of medetomidine anesthesia need to be explored further in the future studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1822,T] (1).

30. Pre And Post-Moult Productive And Reproductive Performance Egg Geometry Quality And Meat Composition Of Four Varieties of Native Aseel Chicken

by Zulfiqar ahmad | Dr. Abdul waheeed sahota | Prof Dr mohammad akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1854,T] (1).

31. Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Trypanasomiasis In Camels In Balochistan

by Ihsan Ullah (2006-VA-245) | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Azam Kakar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Trypanosomiasis (Surra or Rotten disease) is a disease of animals such as cattle, buffalo, horses and camels caused by protozoan parasite of mammalian blood. In camels, the clinical manifestations of trypanosomiasis by T. evansi can be acute or chronic. The rypanosomiasis symptoms include fever, emaciation, anemia, weight loss, edema, lymphadenomegaly, conjunctivitis and occasionally sudden death of animal. However, the diagnosis of disease always remains a challenge for veterinarians and animal healthcare professionals, since the parasitemia is often very low in a majority of infections. Keeping in view the importance of Trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to evaluate the present status of Trypanosomiasis in Province Balochistan of Pakistan. The two districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi with thick populations of camels and have different climate and geographical distribution were selected. The questionnaire was developed for survey of Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousands and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011. In first experiment, a total of 1600 blood samples were randomly collected from camel population of both districts i.e. 800 camels from each districts. Camels were sub-grouped according to sex (male and female) and age (upto 2 years, 2-3 years and above 4 years). Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The blood samples were also processed for hematological 94 Summary studies to evaluate the effect of Trypanosomiasis on different blood parameters. The blood smear examination showed prevalence of 11.87 percent (95 out of 800 samples) in District Musa Khail and 17.12 percent (137 out of 800 samples) in district Jhal Magsi, indicating higher prevalence in hot climate when compared with cold climate. However, the higher prevalence in females, animals aged above 4 years and during summer season in both districts. In second experiment, the prevalence of trypanosomiasis was recorded through PCR amplification in 200 samples (100 from each Districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi). The prevalence was found to be 25 percent in District Musa Khail and 39 percent in District Jhal Magsi. PCR test proved to be most sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis and confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The hematological tests including hemogram, lecucogram, serum protein, and serum electrolyte and serum enzyme showed fluctuation from its normal ranges. Moreover, hemogram (RBC, PCV and Hb) showed significant decrease than the normal values while in Leucogram showed significant increase than normal values. In third experiment chemotherapy trials on 25 camels divided in 5 groups A, B, C, D and E were conducted. Single dose of anti-trypanosome drug (Samorin) Isometamidium chloride @ dose 0.5mg/kg deep I/M to group A. Dried leaves of Azadirachtaindica (Neem) @ 60 gm/animal, to group B. Dried and grind fruits of CitrilisColocynthis (L) Schard @ 50gm/animal, to group C. Group D was control diseased and Group E was control healthy group. Blood samples were collected post-treatment at 2nd, 7th and 12th day and the changes in blood picture were analyzed. The efficacy of drug and plant extract was tested after 72 hours of treatment. Blood samples were collected from group A, B and C and processed for amplification of PCR. Results of allopathic showed 100 percent efficacy while result of plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed 60 percent t efficacy by amplification of PCR. In group C plant Citrullus Collocynthis showed no efficacy. In third experiment, the direct as well as indirect economic losses due to camel Trypanosomiasis 95 Summary based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses and invisible losses include reduced fertility, meat loss, low quality of hide, loss of draught power and traction force and change in herd. While, indirect losses include additional costs of drugs, veterinarian fee, preventive medicine and quarantine. The respondents were grouped according to type of communities as Nomads spend summer in Afghanistan (uplands) and back to Pakistan (lowland) in winter. Hence, their camels harbor Trypanosomiasis from one border to another border and present trans-boundary impact of the disease. The present study demonstrates that the respondents above the age of 50 years were more experienced in disease diagnosis and use of traditional veterinary practices. The settled and transhumants communities had easy access to government hospitals and private veterinary clinics while nomads mostly rely on the use of traditional veterinary practices. The most common prevailing diseases of camel according to respondents were pneumonia, indigestion, parasitic infestation, mange, lameness, Trypanosomiasis, vector fly and nervous disorders. The most common clinical signs of camel Trypanosomiasis hyperthermia, anemia, depression, dullness, emaciation, edema (in dependent parts of body), abortion, nervous signs, circling movements, trembling, unusual aggressiveness and aimless running were recorded. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2400-T] (1).

32. Epitope Mapping Of Fusion And Hemagglutinin Genes Of Ndv Isolates From Pigeon And Peacock, And Efficacy Of Lasota Vaccine In Broiler Against The Isolates

by Sameera Akhtar (89-ag-433) | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Akram Muneer | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Poultry industry in Pakistan has experienced huge economic losses in the recent past by NDV. Simultaneous appearance of disease outbreaks and an increased genetic dissimilarity between the isolates recovered from commercial, backyard poultry and captive wild-birds raised the concerns whether the commonly used vaccine strains and vaccination schedules were good enough to provide protection against the circulating diverged strains reported by various researchers (Munir et al., 2012a; Shabbir et al., 2012a; Shabbir et al., 2013; Siddique et al., 2013; Rehmani et al., 2015). The fact that wild birds are known to act as reservoirs of viruses of low virulence that may emerge as vNDVs with the mutation in F0 cleavage site especially for chickens (Alexander et al., 2012) and that phylogenetically related vNDVs of class II causing outbreaks in chickens have previously been isolated from wild birds (Miller et al., 2010, Dortmans et al., 2011), viruses (in this study) were isolated from disease outbreaks in pigeons and peacock and the evolutionary trends of the isolates were studied. Deduced amino acid profiling of F and HN genes of the isolates along with their pathogenic potential and virulence for the broilers vaccinated with currently used live LaSota and killed ND vaccines were also studied. Both the isolates had the genome size of 15,192 nt similar to NDV genotypes reported previously. The complete genome and residue analysis of F and HN genes of the isolates revealed a low divergence to APMVs which was classified as genotype VI/lineage 4 and VII/lineage 5, respectively for pigeon and peacock isolates. The deduced amino acid residue analysis of cleavage site of the study isolate suggested that both the isolates carried a motif characteristic for velogenic/mesogenic ND viruses. The presence of polybasic F-protein Discussion 74 cleavage site, mean death time (48 – 61 hrs), severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, all highly suggestive of the virulent nature of under-study isolates. The sites for glycosylation and cysteine residues are thought to be conserved for F and HN protein. However, in comparison to each other and to representing genotype particularly the vaccine strain, we found differences in residues composition for a given glycosylation site and variations in both number and site of cysteine residues. Further, comparison of functional domains of F and HN protein to other genotypes and vaccine strain revealed several substitutions that were more often in F protein than HN protein. The substitutions particularly in fusion peptide, hydrophobic regions and transmembrane region of F protein and neutralizing epitopes of HN protein could results in altered proteins that may result in increased or decreased capacity of the these protein to bind to the host cells. However, it may be noted that percent divergence for fusion protein in both isolates when compared with the vaccine strain was found higher for nucleotides than the deduced amino acids indicating synonymous nucleotide substitutions (homologous recombination) for amino acid residues. Though there exists low frequency of such recombination in negative sense RNA viruses especially in non-segmented, such homologous recombination in all the coding and some non-coding region of NDV particularly the vaccine and circulating lineages is supposed activity and neutralizing escape variants (Hu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2015). They play an important role in generating genetic diversity and evolution to NDV (Chare et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2015). Taken together, variation in nucleotide and subsequent substitutions/alternations in amino acid profile such as observed in this study is consistent with previously described theories of evolution of RNA viruses particularly the NDVs (Yu et al., 2001; Umali et al., 2013). Discussion 75 F and HN are glycoproteins. Two oligomers of HN are connected through disulphide bonds to form a dimer and two such dimers get associated noncovalently to form a tetramer which is a functional protein. F protein, on the other hand, is a class I viral membrane fusion protein which undergoes a significant refolding transition during virus entry. The role of cysteine residues in forming intermolecular as well as intramolecular bonds is important for proper functioning of HN protein. Similarly other amino acid residues also play important role in the proper folding of HN and F proteins to maintain their integrities and biological activities. Generally speaking, amino acid substitutions with residues having similar properties do not result in major changes in the overall three dimensional shape of a protein molecule. For example if a hydrophobic amino acid is substituted with another hydrophobic amino acid in a primary sequence of a protein, the overall three dimensional shape of the protein remains more or less conserved. However, if a hydrophobic amino acid residue is replaced with a hydrophilic amino acid residue, this kind of substitution results in a major change in the overall three dimensional structures or shape of a protein molecule impacting the epitopes. Although, overall amino acid sequence similarity of our isolates was not strikingly different from that of the published isolates, however, amino acid substitutions with dissimilar properties were found with a scattered pattern of distribution. For example, 36th amino acid residue (isoleucine) of HN gene of peacock isolate (Figure 4.13) in our study is hydrophobic but it is polar (threonine) in the previously published NDV isolates. On the other hand, 50th aa in our isolate (peacock) is polar but it is hydrophobic in previously reported isolates. Similar substitutions could be appreciated at various regions of the genes. It is interesting to note that such substitutions with amino acids having dissimilar properties have also been found, albeit at lower rate, in previously published sequences (Figure 4.13). The Discussion 76 implications of these changes in the critical regions of F and HN genes could be serious as these changes may mean escape of the virus from the established immunity. Since the peacock flock had the history of vaccination with lentogenic strain (LaSota), identification of cleavage motif similar to velogenic strain raises concerns for type of vaccine used to protect the flock and need for post-vaccine evaluation. Substitution and subsequent mutations at fusion peptide, HR regions and transmembrane domain could affect the fusion activity of NDV (Umali et al., 2014) and alteration in antigenic epitopes particularly those that are involved in virus attachment could result in escape variants and subsequent vaccine failure (Cho et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2015). Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome and hypervariable region (F gene, 374 bp) of pigeon-originated APMVs revealed evolutionary relationship to lineage 4/genotype VI (sub-genotype VIbii), which is predominantly represented by the pigeon isolates (PPMV-1). The NDVs belonging to same genotype have been reported previously in Sindh province (genotype VI, Khan et al., 2010) and Khyber PakhtunKhwa province (genotype VIc, Shabbir et al., 2013) indicating both are in circulation in the environment. However, this is the first report detailing complete genetic and clinicopathological characterization of pigeon-originated NDVs (PPMV-1, VIbii) from Pakistan. The isolate represents currently circulating PPMV-1 since it had cleavage motif (112RRQKR↓F117) different than the viruses isolated prior to 1980s (112GRQKR↓F117). Given the significant genetic variability in PPMV-1 belonging to VIb, the viruses were divided into two major sub-groups (VIbi and VIbii). The isolates belonging to VIbii have been observed as predominant strains in the latter period of pigeon-originated panzootic while strains of VIbi are known to be diminished in the late 1980s (Aldous et al., 2003; Awu et al., 2015) imitating selective pressure from vaccine usage (Aldous et al., 2004). Though it is difficult to speculate Discussion 77 about the origin of the study virus of genotype VIbii, the clustering and genetic relatedness to isolate from Russia than recently reported PPMVs-1 from China [(VIa and VIb), (Awu et al., 2015; Wang et al, 2015)] indicates possible introduction through migratory birds from North to South Pole. The peacock isolate clustered to lineage 5/genotype VII (sub-genotype VIIi) and was found to be closely related to isolate previously reported from chickens in Pakistan. Lineage 5/genotype VII is thought to originate from the Far East with the first isolation from Taiwan in 80s (Yang et al., 1999). Since then, the presence of this genotype has been indicated from various parts of the globe (Aldous et al., 2003). Varying at sub-lineage level, a number of vNDVs of class II have been reported from many Asian countries including those that shared borders with Pakistan. Genetically related NDVs to sub-genotype VIIa have been previously reported from wild birds while sub-genotype VIc, VIIb and novel VIIi were reported from backyard and commercial poultry. Interestingly, novel sub-genotype VIIi was reported previously from backyard and commercial poultry (Munir et al., 2012a; Siddique et al., 2013; Rehmani et al., 2015). Nevertheless, it is the first time that this genotype has been identified from peacock, a wild bird, indicating that this genotype has the potential for its transmission between the two species (peacocks to poultry). We observed sudden deaths in challenged birds and in one of the vaccinate group. This was not unexpected since death with no apparent clinical indications are considered the most noteworthy evidence of velogenic NDVs. Similar observations have been reported by Samuel et al (2013) in immunogically naive birds challenged with virulent isolates of African origin. Though severity Discussion 78 of observed clinical symptoms was relatively less for pigeon isolate than that of the peacock, it resulted in almost comparable morbidity, mortality and shedding even in vaccinates. All the birds in Ch group died on day 7 p.i. The nervous symptoms were observed in non-vaccinates and vaccinates however it varied in duration (days p.i): symptoms were evident on day 6 p.i in non-vaccinates while it were observed on day 9 p.i in vaccinates. In general, even with the characteristic F protein cleavage site for velogenic strains (112GRQKRF117 or 112RRKKRF117 or 112RRQKRF117), most of the pigeon-originated NDVs do not result in significant disease in poultry and differences in pathogenicity index vary from moderate to no virulence for chicken (Collins et al., 1994; Dortmans et al., 2010). In an effort to characterize pigeon-originated PPMVs, Awu et al. (2015) suggested a low rate of viral replication and an increased antibody level to the low pathogenicity of pigeon upon challenge to chicken. However, differences in pathogenicity and efficiency of viral RNA replication have been described previously demonstrating varying level of proneness to different host species (Dortmans et al., 2010). Some PPMV-1 have been reported to be highly pathogenic for chicken after passage either in chicken or chicken embryo indicating their potential to cause ND outbreaks (Dortmans et al., 2011) similar to what has been observed in this study. Furthermore, variants of genotype VIb originating from pigeon have been shown to produce neurological symptoms (Ujvari et al., 2003). While comparing pre- and post-challenge antibody titers, we found varying but an increased immune response indicating that challenge virus have replicated. The immune response generated by pigeon isolate was found greater than peacock isolate indicating its efficient replication than peacock’s isolate (Fig.15). Furthermore, nervous symptoms were evident one day earlier in birds challenged with pigeon isolate than that of the peacock. The potential reason Discussion 79 could be the fact that both group of vaccinates received killed vaccine containing genotype VII that may have hindered replication of challenged virus of genotype VII to some extent than genotype VI. Viral shedding together with increase in antibody titer suggests that the commonly practiced vaccine types and schedule (LaSota and killed vaccine of genotype VII) are not able to provide protection or provide only partial protection (if at all) from ND. Genetic and antigenic differences as observed in the functional domains and neutralization epitopes of F and HN protein of study isolates and vaccine strain could be attributed for increased virulence and escape from vaccine. The deduced amino acid residues (F and HN protein) for pigeon isolates were 11.8% and 12.1% while it were 11.6 and 13.5 for peacock isolate, respectively. It is believed that genome-heterologous vaccines may prevent the disease but are unable to prevent infection and subsequent shedding of challenged viruses compared to genome-homologous vaccination (Yu et al., 2001; Hu et al., 2009; Miller et al., 2009). For example, in an immunization and subsequent challenge experiment, Samuel et al. (2013) have attributed variations in pre- and post-challenge immune response of immunized birds, viral replication and shedding to the genetic distance between vaccine and challenge strains. Although, they did not find disease upon challenge but infection, shedding and increased titer were noted for strains that were much divergent to vaccine strains and had subsequent break-through replication. Contrary to this, Susta et al., (2014) revealed that genomic variation in vaccine and challenge strains did not affect virus shedding in the presence of protective immune response. Comparing classic vaccine (LaSota) and adopted vaccine containing F and HN protein of challenged virus (genotype VII virus NL/93), Dortmans et al. (2012) revealed that classic vaccines are well able to protect from disease and results in reduced shedding even with suboptimal vaccine dose of classic vaccine against virulent strains of NDV. Further, they reported that it may be poor flock immunity due to inadequate vaccine Discussion 80 practices than genetic and subsequent antigenic evolution for potential outbreaks and spread of vNDVs. Beside potential compromise in procedures used in vaccine storage and administration, the expected genetic distance between vaccine strains and study isolate seems to be well-explained by Wang et al. (2015) through cross-HI assay. While evaluating the antigenic diversity of different strains through cross-HI assay, they reported a lower R-value (0.13-0.18) for interaction of PPMVs to LaSota than between PPMVs (VIa and VIb, 0.7) indicating an obvious antigenic difference with vaccine strain. This is consistent with our results where we observed an increased antibody response in vaccinated birds challenged with genotype VI than birds challenged with genotype VII indicating lack of or partial cross-reactivity of genotype II and VII to genotype VI. Given the antigenic similarity (serotyping) among all APMVs, lentogenic strains (LaSota, B1) are being used as live vaccine to protect birds from virulent NDVs (vNDVs). These strains cluster phylogenetically closely to the viruses isolated approximately 60-70 years ago, and have a high genetic gap in relation to viruses isolated in the fields (Miller et al., 2007; Munir et al., 2012a). These classic vaccines are known to prevent disease but not infection, replication and shedding of the virus even in vaccinates that may be reduced compared to immunologically naive or non-vaccinates. This reduced shedding depends but not limited to species affected and its immune status, concentration and virulence of challenged isolate, vaccine type and its dose as well as the time between vaccine and challenge (Miller et al., 2009). Relating to differences in virus shedding upon challenge to vaccinates, differentiation in antigenicity have been reported at the level of classes and genotypes by cross HI assays (Miller et al., 2009; Li et al., 2010; Gu et al., 2011). Since the genetic distance or dissimilarities exist between classic and prevailing Discussion 81 strains of vNDVs, spread as well as control of disease is always a matter of concern. The situation becomes further worse particularly in settings (e.g., Pakistan) where there lacks routine vaccination to backyard poultry and wild-birds, lack of or infrequent serological monitoring of the poultry flocks, uneven vaccination schedules and breach in bio-security practices. Currently, lentogenic (LaSota) strains are being used to vaccinate commercial poultry flocks. Killed vaccine has also been added in the schedule following frequent ND outbreaks in the recent years. However, vaccination schedule widely varies particularly in broiler flocks. Together, in a life-time of approximately 40 days, 3 time administration of LaSota and one time intramuscular injection of indigenous prepared killed vaccine (type and genome characteristic are unknown but most probably genotype VII) is being practised in broilers. The backyard poultry remains unvaccinated in Pakistan; however, occasionally LaSota or Muketesawr strains are being applied depending upon the owner awareness and access of government institutes to birds. The backyard poultry, characterized by small flock with an absolute lack of biosecurity measures and poor management, often intermingles with wild birds including pigeons and could serve as potential hot-spot for virus spread and disease transmission. Beside concerns that whether these vaccine strains are able to elicit a protective immune response against the diverged circulating variants, the excessive use of vaccination could be problematic than benefits. It is interesting to note that classic vaccines are supposed to give better protection against the vNDVs isolated in 1930-70s than the variants isolated in the recent years (Czegledi et al., 2006; Munir et al., 2012a). Discussion 82 CONCLUSIONS Two isolates originated from pigeon and peacock were genotypically and pathobiologically characterized. Both the isolates had the potential to cause disease and subsequent shedding even in vaccinates following the commonly practiced vaccine schedule. The result presented may be useful in revising the vaccine schedule being practiced currently in Pakistan. Furthermore, it ascertains the need to establish and maintain the active surveillance for appropriate diagnostics and control of NDVs that could be spilled out in the environment by wild birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2740-T] (1).

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