Your search returned 48 results. Subscribe to this search

Not what you expected? Check for suggestions
|
1. Pillars of Epidemiology

by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: UVAS LAHORE; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 614.4 Athar 30073 1st 2013 Epidemiology] (3).

2. Study On Fasciioliasis With Estimation Of Haemoglobin & Total Serum Proteins In Camels Brought To Lahore Abbatoir

by Maj. Naeem Ahmed Janjua | Dr. muhammad Sarwar Arkhan | Dr. Ch | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of fascioliasis in different age groups of camels and to estimate the haemoglobin concentration and total serum protein levels in positive cases and also equal number of negative cases. For this purpose study was carried out on 512 camels of different age groups (calve, young and adult) brought to Lahore Abattoir for slaughtering during a period between May to July 1993. The investigations revealed that out of 512 camels, .50 (9.76%) were positive for fascioliasis. It was observed that infection rate was higher in adult ( 10.68%) than in young (8.98%) and calf camels (7.27%). The study also indicated that the prevalence qf fascioliasis in months of May June and July was 9.20%, 10.55% and 9.46% respectively. The present investigations reveled that an average haemoglobin concentration was 7.5 g/100 ml with a range of 4.1 - 10.3 g/100 ml (Table 8) and total serum protein level on average was 7.6 g/100 ml of positive camels with a range of 5.1 - 9.6 (Table 7). The negative blood samples of 50 camels were also examined for the estimation of haemoglobin concentration and total serum protein levels. The mean values of haemoglobin concentration indicated by the studies was 13.1 g/100 ml ranging between 12.2 - 14.1 g/100 ml (Table 12 and 13). Total serum protein mean value revealed by the study was 6.7 g/100 ml and it ranged between 6.2 - 7.4 g/100 ml (Table 14 and 15). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0367,T] (1).

3. Effect Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis On Some Blood Parameters And Its Treatment With Embazin & Coxistac In Quails

by Anwaar Hussain, Syed | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effects of experimentally induced coccidisis on some blood parameters and its treatment with Embazin and coxistac in Quails. For this purpose 300 day old quail chicks were obtained from a local hactchery and raised under standard, controlled coccidia free conditions. A commercial coccidiostat free feed was provide. At the age of 21 days. birds were divided into 4 groups comprising 60 birds each and shifted from brooder into a multistorey cage and grouped as tinder:Group A (60 quails) Infected and medicated with Embazin. Group B (60 quails) Infected and medicated with Coxistac. Group C (60 quails) Infected and non-medicated. Group D (60 quails) Non-infected-Non-medicated. Birds of group A, B and C were infected with 1 ml of coccidial inoculum having 50,000 sporulated oocysts given directly into crop. Group D was kept as control group. On fourth day post infection birds of all infected groups showed disease symptoms and at that time groups A and B was medicated with Embazin and Coxistac respectively. Four samples of blood and faeces were collected from each group on zero day, 5th day and 9th day of medication. In groups A and B Haemoglobin and Total Erythrocytic Count was lowered on 5th day and then increased on 9th day of medication oocyst count was Nil on 9th day of medication in group A and 92.30% reduction percentage was there is in group B. Haemoglobin and Total Erythrocytic Count decreased in group C upto 9th day ofmedication but oocyst count increased in this group. Increase percentage was 7.14% on 5th day and 14.28% on 9th day of medication. In group D Haemoglobin andTotal Erythrocytic Count remained almost constant and oocyst count was found Nil throughout the experimental period. The best feed conversion Ratio of 3 was recorded in group D whereas group "C" which was infected but not treated showed worst feed conversion ratio i.e. 4. Group A & B revealed intermediate F.C.R. of 3.6 and 3.8 respectively. Hishest mortality of 33.33% was recorded in group C, 13% in group B and 11.66% in group A. In group D mortality was Nil. From the findings of study it was concluded that Embazin was drug of choice for the treatment of coccidiosis in quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0372,T] (1).

4. An Epidemiological & Haematological Correlation Between Healthy & Tuberculous Indigenous Birds

by Azeem Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A total of 250 desi birds, selected randomly, from different villages of district Lahore, were divided into two groups. The group-I composed of 125 apparently healthy birds whereas 125 apparently weak and emaciated birds were present in group-IT. Avian tuberculin test was employed to diagnose the tuberculosis. A 0.1 ml of avian tuberculin (MCSM) procured from VRI, Lahore, was injected into left wattle whereas right wattle was kept as uninjected control and test was read after 48 hours. Only 6 birds (2.4%), all belonged to group-IT, were found tuberculin positive. Haematological studies of these six tuberculin positive birds were carried out along with 10 healthy desi birds for comparison. There was decrease in erythrocytic count (EC), haemoglobin value (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV). The average values of EC, Hb and PCV of infected birds were 1.94x106/µ1, 8.86 g/dl and 22.69% respectively. On the other hand, leukocytic count (LC) was increased and found to be 37.33x10/il on average. A significant change in differential leukocytic count (DLC) was also observed with an increase in the proportion of polymorphs and monocytes and fall in lymphocytes. The lymphocyte to heterophils ratio was the inverse of that in healthy birds. On post-mortem, a large number of tubercles of varying size were noticed on liver, spleen and intestines. No birds showed lung lesion except one. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0389,T] (1).

5. A Study On The Prevalence Of Mange In Camels And Its Effects On Some Blood Parameters During Winter Months

by Bashir Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Khalid | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Camel is a versatile creature of the Nature. Its population in Pakistan is 9,58,047 heads. Its importance is obvious from the facilities which it provides to the mankind e.g. transportation and ploughing facilities, lifting of water and pulling of carts, provision of milk meat and earning of foreign exchange. But. on the other hand, camel is ignored in provision of better managernental facilities due to which it is facing many disease problems. Similarly, camel is also ignored by our scientists and a little research work has been done on camel in the world. Keeping in view all these factors, this project was designed to see the prevalence of mange in camel. This study also include haematological changes in camel blood suffering from mange. This study was conducted during winter months of the 1992 at Lahore abattoir. For the prevalence of mange, 150 camels suspected for mange were selected and their skin scrapings and blood was collected. Skin scraping was examined with the help of microscope at Laboratory of Medicine Section, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. During the study 19 camels out of 150 were found positive to mange and this is calculated as 12.66%. Regarding the 2nd portion of the study, blood of 19 mange infected cases were analysed for total leukocytic count (TLC), differential leukocytic count (DLC) and erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR). At the same time blood of 19 mange free camels was also examined and it was found that due to mange infection, TLC values were increased. In case of DLC, Eiosinophils and lymphocytes showed increase in their number. ESR was also increased due to infection of mange in camels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0403,T] (1).

6. Epidemiological, Serological And Hematological Investigations In An Out Break Of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea And Foot

by Ghaffar Khan, A | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: After an outbreak of a vesicular disease in Lahore District a demoninator based active surveillance was conducted in four villages. During and after the epidemic and the homesteads were visited and interviewed from door to door. The total number of animals kept by the farmers (N = 1537) and the affected number of animals (n= 1384) by age, sex and species were enquired from the farmers and recorded on a questionnaire proforma. The clinical signs of the affected animals and their sequence were recorded. Epidemiological investigations revealed that morbidity rate of 66.94% (n=867/1537) was higher in buffaloes than cattle which was 48.34% (n=117/242). Young animals of both species were more susceptible than adults. Morbidity rate in young cattle was 50.64% (n=39) in 77 animals but in case of adult cattle amongst the total population of 165 morbidity rate was 47.27% (n=78). In case of young buffaloes 290 (69.37%) out of 418 animals while in case of adult buffaloes morbidity rate was 63.51% (557/877). Case fatality rate was observed higher 42.85% (363/847) in buffaloes than the cattle which was 26.65 % (37/117). Frequency of clinical signs observed was found as depression (63.30%), mucosa diffusely red (61.87%), anorectic (61.48%), muzzle hyperimic encrusted (61.09%), erosions (58.49%), laminitis (56.73%), temperature 101-105°F (54.26%), drooling (53.35%), shivering (44.82%), mistitis (38.51%), temperature 105-107°F (6.18%), polypnea (5.79%), temperature 101-103°F (4.35%), cough (3.38%), diarrhoea (2.40%), subnormal (0.71%) and abortion (0.65%). In this project 160 animals affected from the disease, 80 of each species, were selected for hematological and serological investigations. Forty healthy animals were observed as control. Blood samples from the affected Buffaloes were tested for the total erythrocytic count (TEC), total leukocytic count (TLC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and differential leukocytic count (DLC) i.e. neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils and their average values were observed as 3.56 ± 0.31 x 106/ul (5.18 x 106/ul), 4.90 ± 1.22 x 103/ul (6.45 x 103/ul), 26.59 ± 2.14% (29.31%), 10.13 ± 0.92 mm/Ist hr. (4.56 mm/Ist hr.), 30.54 ± 1.07% (32.55%), 59.18 ± 1.03% (56.16%), 1.78 ± 0.22% (2.41%, 5.92 ± 0.52% (4.51%), 0.29 ± 0.01% (0.48%) respectively. Blood samples from the affected cattle were tested for the TEC, TLC, PCV, ESR and DLC i.e. neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils and their average values were observed as 5.76 ± 0.32 x 106/ul (7.24 x 106/ul), 6.73 ± 0.92 x 103/ul (7.99 x 103/ul), 31.49 ± 1.59% (33.90%), 9.32 ± 1.32 mm/Ist hr. (3.16 mm/Ist hr.), 31.08 ± 1.09% (34.82%), 45.00 ± 1.05% (41.31%), 0.33 ± 0.04% (0.63%), 9.16 ± 0.46% (7.86%), 0.33 ± 0.03% (0.63%) respectively. Serum samples from the affected buffaloes were tested for the total serum protein (TSP), serum albumin and serum globulin and their average values were came as 5.97 ± 0.56 g/dI (7.72 g/dI), 2.80 ± 0.37 g/dl (3.55 g/dll), 2.40 ± 0.95 g/dl (4.17 g/dl) respectively. Serum samples from the affected cattle were tested for the TSP, serum albumin and serum globulin and their average values were observed as 6.43 ± 0.45 g/dl (7.58 g/dl), 2.67 ± 0.35 g/dll (2.32 g/dl), 2.67 ± 0.52 g/dI (4.26 g/dll) respectively. Agar gel immunodiffusion test used for the antibodies detection was found positive for foot and mouth disease (FMD). Typographically two strains O (42.50%) and Asia-I (29.38%) were isolated out of 160 samples. A total loss of Rs. 5.286 millions due to FMD in cattle and buffaloes was estimated in the four villages. Note: Values in parenthesis are normal/standard for the respective parameter. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0412,T] (1).

7. The Pathology Of Experimental Vitamin A Exess And Deficiency In Broiler Chickens

by Sami Itrat, M | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Ahmad Raza | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: This study was conducted on broiler chickens for 7 weeks to investigate the effect of three different dietary levels of vitamin A on different body organs (oesophagus, liver, kidneys and ureters) by studying their weight and pathological lesions. The haematological parameters (TEC, Hb estimation and PCV) were also observed. The results of the study revealed that vitamin A supplementation at 20,000 lU/Kg feed had beneficial effects on weight of organs such as oesophagus, liver, kidneys and ureters. Whereas vitamin A deficiency had adverse effects on body organs in terms of weight and morphology. No effect of different levels of vitamin A on haematological values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0447,T] (1).

8. Efficacy Of Various Chemotherapeutic Agents Against Experimentally Induced Avian Mycoplasmosis In Broiler Chicks

by Naveed Ahmad Khan Niazi | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A total number of 200 day old broiler chicks were procured to determine the drug efficacy of tiamulin, tylosin and oxytetracycline against jylycoplasma gallisepticum infection in-vivo. The organism prior to its use was verified on the basis of morphology, staining reaction, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. These birds were divided into 5 groups each having 40 birds. The birds of all groups were infected experimentally except group A birds. On the appearance of symptoms of CRD, group C, D and E were treated with tiamulin, tylosin and oxytetracycline respectively at the recommended doses of manufacturers for three consecutive days. The birds of group B were kept as untreated control. The efficacy of each drug was based upon morbidity percentage, mortality percentage, case fatality, clinical symptoms, feed-intake and necropsy lesions on postmortem. The tiamulin proved superior over other two drugs as only one bird died unlike tylosin-treated group D which recorded 2.5% mortality. The oxytetracycline treated group E showed 7.5% mortality with the death of 2 birds. A total of 29 birds revealed no pathological lesion at necropsy in contrast to group E birds showing only 27 birds without necropsy lesions of CRD. The feed-intake was poorest in group E and was remained normal in both group C and D. After 144 hours post medication, the clearance of lesions were 96.6%, 90% and 76.6% for group C, D and E respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0469,T] (1).

9. Prevalence Of Camel Tuberculosis By Using Short Thermal Test & Identificatiuon Of Organism From Lymph

by Laeeque, Sh. M | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammd | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: In the present study an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of tuberculosis in camels by applying tuberculin test and post mortem examination of reactors and non reactors. Gross and microbiological examination of various lymph nodes of reactors and non-reactors was conducted. Animals were physically normal, thin and emaciated and of different age groups. Short thermal test was employed as diagnostic test. The readings were taken at 8 hour post inoculation of tuberculin, and heat concentrated sysnthetic medium tuberculin (HCSM) was used at dose of 4m1 S/c. No adverse reaction of HCSM was noted during research. Eleven animals gave positive reaction while no false positive and false negative case was recorded. Similarly no case of milliary T.B. could be noted among experimental animals. Majority of the diseased animals were detected from a group of emaciated and aged animals. Whereas a small number from a group of thin animals was also affected. However, a group physically normal camels was found free from T.B. Positive reactors showed higher pulse and respiration rate compared with negative reactors, post 8 hour inoculation. Positive reactors were found to be a model set to observe the pattern of temperature rise during STT. 2 out of 3 positive reactors, showed macroscopic lesionsin mediastinal, lymph nodes. Out, of these 1 showed characteristic lesions of T.B. 1 showed only pin head point lesions in early stages. While other 1 showed only Mycobacterium tuberculosis on bacteriological examination and proved no visible lesions (NVL). It was found that distribution of lesions were high among those animals which showed temperature difference (4oF between first and final reading. This is notworthy that lung lymph nodes involvement was higher as compared to the lymph nodes from abdominal cavity, no lesion or acid fast bacilli (AFB) detected from supramammary lymph nodes of experimental animals Overall 3 of the animals tested showed prevalence of tuberculosis Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0473,T] (1).

10. Helminthiasis: Its Dissemination And Treatment With Fenbendazole In The Migrating Sparrows

by Ali Razmaara, Syed | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to bust upon the worm load in the naturally parasitized migratory sparrows, and also to determine the effect of worm load on the blood picture. Furthemore the effect of broad spectrum anthelmintic like Panacur (fenbendazole) in the experimental group in terms of eggs per gm. of faeces pre and post medication. For this experiment 400 live migratory sparrows were purchased randomly, out of which 200 birds were slaughtered and an incidence of 64.5% parasitic fauna was found. Sparrows were found infected, with two species of nematode i.e. Ascaridia gaul was 39.5% and Heterakis gallinarum was 25% respectively. None of the bird was found infected with trematode and cestode. The hematology of the above 64.5% parasitized sparrows was performed. The study revealed that due to nematode infection there was a slight increase in Total leucocytic count and Heterophils whereas the Total erythrocytic count, Haernoglobin level, Lymphocytes and Eosinophils were decreased which may lead to anemia, loss of growth and production. From the left 200 wild naturally parasitized sparrows, 86 (43%) birds were found positive. These sparrows were divided into two groups one was left as control and the other group was subjected to drug efficacy. Panacur (fenbendazole) at the rate of 9.9 mg/kg body weight which was given orally. The results were observed in terms of eggs per gm. of faeces pre and post medication after 24, 48 and 96 hours respectively. The control group showed progressive increase in ova count i.e. 12.82%, 24.79% and 48.72% respectively, whereas reduction in the ova count of the medicated group was gradually observed as 83.72%, 92.25% and 95.35%. The poultry breeders and scientists are urged to make an effort how the wild birds could mechanically transmit the parasites from one region to another. An attempt should also be made for the better understanding of bacterial and viral infections dissemination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0474,T] (1).

11. Epidemiology And Economic Losses Of Trichostrongylid Parasites In Sheep

by Sarwar Khan, M | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The meteorological data recorded during the study period from 1.1.96 to 31.12.96 showed the maximum temperature in June as 36.5°C and minimum temperature in December as 6.8°C. Maximum and minimum Humidity was recorded in the month of September and April as 85% and 55% respectively. The maximum rainfall during the year was recorded in the month of August as 660 mm. The faecal egg counts of sheep grazing on permanent pasture showed the minimum EPG during first week of January while maximum EPG on nid of September and first week of October. Pasture larval counts were performed on permanent pasture and experimental plot for the recovery of trichostrongylid larvae. The maximum number of larvae was recovered on 16th September, 1996, while minimum number was recovered in January and February from permanent pasture and experimental plot respectively. Two species of trichostrongylids were identified i.e. Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongvlus colubriformis. The faecal and larval counts were very low in the months of January and February, the counts started rising in March. Peak counts were seen in the month of September. Decline in counts started in late October and reached to minimum in December. Mature and immature worm counts of slaughtered sheep were performed at 15 days interval. The, overall prevalence oftrichostrongylid parasites was 34%. The maximum number of mature parasites were seen during first week of October which was886 whereas maximum number of immature parasites including hypobiotic was 326 on 1st of December. During this study the average fecundity/female of contortus and L colubriformis parasites were calculated as 721 and 209 respectively. A spring rise in worm egg counts was experienced in mid of March. A pen parturient rise in the worm egg counts of pregnant and lactating ewes indicated the maximum counts during lambing week. An experimental group of sheep with mixed infection of trichostrongylid parasites showed the similar pattern of EPG counts as of naturally infected sheep. A study was performed to evaluate any protection provided by a particular Flaemoglobin type to trichostrongylid infection hut not difference could be observed. The Asparate Aminotransferase (AST) and total protein levels of infected sheep were decreased as a result of increase in the intensity of infection. A decrease in R.B.C. counts, Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume and lymphocyte counts was observed both in experimentally and naturally infected slaughtered sheep. However, an increase in total leukocytic count (TLC) alongwith an increase in the ratio of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils was observed. At the end of experiment infected sheep gained 5.71 Kg/head less body weight and produced 4 3 grn less wool as compared with non-infected group. Based on epidemiological information the suggestions for control of the, trichostrongylid infection are submitted alongwi th recommendations for further studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0595,T] (1).

12. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Moxidectin, Ivermectin And Levamisole Against Toxocara Vitulorum In Buffalo Calves

by Rahmatullah | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: hits study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of newly introduced drug moxideclin against Toxocara vitulorun, in buffalo calves under held conditions and to compare its efficacy and treatment cost with other anthelmintics (ivermectin atid levamisole) being used. In this project total of 80 buffalo calves Positive for Toxocara i'itulorum. based on faecal examination, were selected from (he field, and divided randomly into four equal groups i.e. A, 13, C and 1) containing 20 animals in each. Calves of group 'A' were treated with moxidectin, group 'B' were treated with ivermectin. group 'C' were treated with levamisole and group '1)' were kept as untreated control. Faecal samples were collected from each calf at clay zero (premedication), day 7th, day I 5th, and day 21st postmedicalion. Ffhicacy of each drug was calculated on the basis of reduction in eggs per gram of faeces. Anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin at (lie (lose level of 200ug / kg body weight was I 00%,efficacy of ivermectin at the close level of 200ug/kg body weight was 99.55%, and the efficacy of levamisole at the close level of 7.5mg/kg body weight was 99.035%, 21 st days post medication. From this study it was concluded that moxiclectin and ivermectin has excellent effect against Toxocara i'lluloriun but they are much expensive while levamisole has also excellent efficacy against T vituloruni and (his drug is more economical for the farmers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0658,T] (1).

13. Magnitude Of Health Problems Of The Livestock Population, Serological Findings And Cost/Benefit Ratio At A Farmer Level

by Ajmal Shahid, M | Dr . Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr . Muhammad | Dr . Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: An active surveillance was conducted in 10% villages of canal irrigated, waterlogged, Idara-e-Kissan, river side and urban areas of tehsil Renalá Khurd district Okara through a questionnaire over a period of one year i.e. March, 1998 to February, 1999 to determine the magnitude of various livestock health problems. In total buffalo population 7333 of all the strata morbidity, mortality case fatality was 57.73%, 10.07% and 17.45% while in 2635 cattle, these observation were 38.44%, 1.25% and 3.2% respectively due to various livestock problems. In 3445 goat, 1604 sheep population, the result were 27.95%, 8.06%, 28.86% and 30.17, 9.35%, 30.99% respectively. The highest incidence of haemorrhagic septicaemia 25.38% and 6.48% in young and adult buffalo population respectively was observed in river side area. Waterlogged area was next 24.38%1and 5.165% to river side while least incidence in urban area. Foot and mouth disease incidence was highest 19.28% and 22.01% respectively in young and adult buffalo along river side with no incidence in urban area. Highest. incidence of diarrhoea 11.11% in young buffalo population was observed in waterlogged area. Similarly highest incidence of Mastitis observed was 3.07% in waterlogged area in adult cattle. The highest incidence 23.64% of FMD was observed in waterlogged areas. Incidence of enterotoxemia in young sheep population were high 18.40% than young goat 12.35% while it was high in adult goat 10.23% than 8.99% in adult sheep. Total economical losses due to various livestock disease was calculated R.8408067 (US$ 158642.77). The cost and benefit ratio at a farmer level was 1:2.03. Antibodies were detected against haemorrhagic septi caem i a through IHA, in buffalo and cattle revealed that highest GMT in vaccinated buffalo and cattle was 55.69 each. These titers were also observed in affected and unvaccinated (might be as carrier) along with the recovered animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0664,T] (1).

14. Sero-Epidemiological Study Of Various Livestock Diseases And Cost/Benefit Raio At Farmer Level In Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan

by Shafiq-ur-Rahman | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The epidemiological surveillance was conducted in 10% villages of Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan which consisted of three different categories i.e. Urban, Rural and Tribal. These 10% villages were randomly selected and epidemiological survey was done during a period of one year i.e. August, 2000 to July, 2001 to determine the magnitude of various livestock diseases. In the buffalo population of 9649 head, morbidity, mortality, case fatality rates were 61.50%, 14.41% and 23.43% while in 9224 cattle, these observations were 41.98%, 2.48% and 5.90% respectively due to various livestock diseases. In 2318 camel population morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 30.62%, 6.90% and 22.53% respectively. In goat population morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 34.54%, 11.20% and 32.42% respectively. In sheep population the morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 37.80%, 11.15% and 29.49% respectively. The highest incidence was due to haemorrhagic septicaemia i.e., 29.50% in young and 6.28% in adult buffalo population of rural category. In urban category, incidence rate was 13.51%, 6.10% in young and adult buffalo population respectively, while least incidence in tribal category where it was 1.80%, 4.21% in young and adult buffalo population. The highest incidence of Foot and Mouth disease was 20.48%, 23.76% in young and adult buffalo population of rural category with no incidence in urban and tribal area. Highest incidence of idiopathic diarrhoea of 11.62% in young buffalo population was observed in rural category. Similarly highest incidence of mastitis 5.84% recorded in buffalo population of rural category. In cattle, highest incidence of mastitis 2.74% observed in rural category. The highest incidence of Foot and Mouth disease 25.45%, 26.89% observed in young and adult cattle population of rural category. Incidence of enterotoxemia 18.44% in young sheep population was higher than young goat 12.50%, while it was high in adult goat 12.42% than in adult sheep 9.12% respectively. The GMT was recorded highest in vaccinated buffalo and cattle while found lowest in affected buffalo and cattle respectively. Total economical losses due to various livestock diseases was calculated Rs.16726578/-. The cost and benefit ratio at a farmer level was 1:1.73. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0739,T] (1).

15. Comparative Efficacy Of Yucca Schidigera Extract And Frusemide In Ascites Of Broiler Chicks, Under Field

by Sohail Ejaz | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Masood | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of Yucca schidigera extract Norponin-200) and frusemide in ascites of broiler chicks. For this purpose twenty flocks affected from ascites were selected to carry out this experiment. From each flock thirty birds were randomly selected and were divided into three groups A, B and C having ten birds in each group. Twenty-four hours light was provided to all the experimental birds. Fresh and clean water was provided to them at all the time. The birds were fed ad libitum. The chicks of group "A" were given Yucca schidigera Extract (Norponin-200) at the rate of 10ml/200L of drinking water for three days. The chicks of group "B" were given frusemide (Frusicon) at the rate of 1gm/liter of drinking water for three days while the chicks of group "C" served as control. In this study feed intake, water intake, weight gain and reduction in the ascitic fluid was recorded before and after the treatment. The treated birds were significantly better than untreated birds. In Yucca schidigera treated birds, feed intake, water intake and weight gain was significantly higher than that of frusemide treated birds while reduction in ascitic fluid was significantly higher in frusemide treated group. From this study it is concluded that use of Yucca schidigera extract in ascites of broiler chicks is a better choice than that of frusemide. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0744,T] (1).

16. Cholecystoduodenostomy As A Surgical Attempt To Establish Biliary Redirection In Dogs

by Hamid Akbar | Mr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Liver is the largest paranchmatous organ of body. Gall bladder is embedded in lobes of liver and it acts as a store house of bile. Liver pours its secretion into gall bladder which temporarily stores it and transports it to duodenum by bile duct which is a small pathway. Sometimes this pathway (bile duct) is disturbed due to any of multiple reasons described earlier and bile is not transported. Hence there is an immediate need to develop a new connection to restore flow of bile. Cholecystoduodenostomy is a good technique in such cases to restore bile flow. In this project twelve healthy dogs were selected and divided into 3 groups namely, A, B and C. Group A consisted of 8 dogs in which cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Group B consisted of 2 dogs, in which only laparotomy was experienced, whereas group C also consisted of 2 dogs acted as control. Liver function tests were carried out in all the dogs before and after surgery. The enzyme values were increased when tested at 8 weeks post-operatively. The dogs were also monitored for various parameters to check the efficacy of technique. All the dogs were euthanized at 12th week post-operatively to chck healing at surgical site. The analysis of results has clearly indicated that cholecystoduodenostomy is a safe and sound method in obstructive bile duct problems, and this technique can be used without putting the patient in dilemma. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0745,T] (1).

17. Comparative Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Pasciolosis In Cattle Of Lahore And Attock Areas

by Tahir Hamid | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the comparative prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle in two different areas (plane area and sub-hilly area) having different climatic and environmental conditions in terms of temperature, humidity, rain fall and water resources etc. For the purpose, Lahore and Attock were selected. In this present study, the efficacy of newly introduced homeopathic drug "Trematox" against fasciolosis in cattle was determined by comparing it with nitroxynil (Trodax 34%) and Albendazole (Farbenda 10%). The prevalence was observed in such a way that at both the places i.e. Lahore and Attock, the animals were examined to select 80 positive cases (40 at Lahore and 40 at Attock). Subsequently, the animals were divided into 8 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Groups A, B, C and D were kept at Lahore and groups E, F, G and H were kept at Attock. Groups A and E were untreated control groups. The eggs per gram (EPG) counts are estimated by using McMaster technique at day zero (before medication) and day 7. Then groups B&F, C&G, D&H were treated with Nitroxynil, Albendazole and Trernatox, respectively. Nitroxynil and Albendazole were used @ 10 mg/kg body weight each. The Homeopathic drug "Trematox" was injected 5 ml to each animal i/rn. At day 7, post-medication the EPG was measured. It was observed that at 7th day Nitroxynil showed the efficacy of 92.49%, Albendazole 77.77% and Trematox 42.75%. No side effects in any animal were observed during the experiment. Hence Nitroxynil, Albendazole and Trematox were concluded to be the safe drugs against fasciolosis in cattle. It was observed that medium temperature between 10-25°C and high humidity offer optimal conditions for the occurrence of fasciolosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0757,T] (1).

18. Prevalence Of Clinical Mastities And Diagnosis Of Subclinical Mastitis In Cross Bred Cows

by Muhammad Yaqoob | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of clinical mastitis and diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in crossbred cows in and around Lahore. One hundred crossbred cows were selected in and around Lahore. The data for clinical and subclinical mastitis was collected by different means such as observation, palpation of udder, by streaks and surf field mastitis test. Prevalence of clinical mastitis was estimated by collected data. In this project the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 14.23%. Prevalence of clinical mastitis in different farms was different. In three selected farms "Farm A, Farm B and Farm C", the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 16.66%, 12.72% and 13.33% respectively. For diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, samples were collected from selected farms. One hundred crossbred cows were selected. Two different tests were applied for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis such as surf field mastitis test and white side test. The overall percentage of subclinical mastitis was 12.62% with both tests. The percentages of three farms were as such 10%, 14.54% and 13.33% respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0762,T] (1).

19. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Suturing Techniques For End To End Anastomosis Of Jejunum In Dogs

by Abdul Rauf, Rana | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Diseases of gastro-intestinal tract like intestinal foreign body, intussusception with obstruction and adhesion, gangrene, volvulus and abdominal trauma amenable to surgical correction with enterectomy, segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis had been a nightmare with both human and veterinary surgeons. Most of the techniques evolved in the past were not commensurate with the criteria of physiological restoration of normality, absence of leakage and minimal lumen stenosis. The present study was undertaken to compare the three suturing techniques viz; simple interrupted crushing sutures, simple interrupted lembert sutures and simple continuous lembert sutures for end-to-end anastomosis. Study was conducted on 12 clinically healthy dogs of mixed breed divided equally into three groups. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of clinical parameters, hematological value, radiographic examination and postmortem findings. It was observed that simple interrupted crushing technique was comparatively more compatible and superior due to its simplicity, economical, less lumen reduction as compared to other techniques viz; simple interrupted Lembert technique and simple continuous Lembert technique. The results of this study clearly indicated that the use of simple interrupted crushing sutures has an edge over the simple interrupted lembert suture and simple continuous lembert sutures for end-to-end anastomosis of jejunum in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0766,T] (1).

20. Epidemiology Of Parasitic Load And Therapeutic Control Against Ecto And Endorparasites With Ivermectin In Horses

by Rubina Hassan | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present research project was designed to study the efficacy of ivermectin i.e. LG EUVECTIN inj. against ectoparasites, endoparasites and blood parasites in horses. For this purpose, apparently healthy, weak, emaciated horses showing the clinical signs of parasitism, brought to Outdoor clinics, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore and Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (S.P.C.A) were checked. Out of these 84 animals 25 (29.76%) were found positive for ectoparasites through the skin scraping examination under the microscope. From these 84 animals 28 were checked for endoparasites and through the coprological examination 25 (89.29%) were found positive. From 84 horses, 5 (5.95%) horses had mixed type of infection i.e. positive for both ecto- and endoparasites. Ectoparasites found in 25 positive cases were mites (29.76%) and no ticks or lice infestation was found i.e. Zero percent prevalence. The endoparasites found were mainly the G.!. T. nematodes (round worms) i.e. 25 (89.29%) cases were positive for round worms while 2 (7.14%) cases out of these 25 were also infested with tapeworms and liver tlukes were zero percent. Infected horses were treated with LG Euvectin injection (Ivermectin 1.0% w/v) through subcutaneous injection at dose rate of 1 ml/50kg (0.2mg/kg) body weight once on zero day. Eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was counted on a day, 7th and 14th day. Recovery rate with ivermectin against ectoparasites and endoparasites was 76% and 88% respectively. A total of 50 horses were bleed for blood parasites, none of them were found positive. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0791,T] (1).

21. Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal, Homoeopathic And Standard Drugs Against Coccidiosis In Broilers

by Muhammad Ali | Dr. Muhammad Athar khan | Dr. Khalid | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of four different drugs against coccidiosis. A total 240 day old broiler chicks were purchased and reared for 42 days under standard managemental condition. The birds were randomly divided into six groups comprising of 40 birds each. Group-A was medicated with Anjbar, Group-B medicated with Bael, Group-C medicated with Mere sol, Group-D medicated with Darvisul liquid. Group-E was kept as infected, unmedicated, while group-F served as uninfected, unmedicated control. All groups except that of group-F were given challenge dose of infection on day 22nd. The oocysts were counted on 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th day post-infection. The weight gain and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Record of mortality was maintained and postmortem of dead birds was performed. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using two way analysis of variance and least significant differences between treatment. It was concluded that Aegle Marmelos (Bael fruit) and Darvisul liquid showed better results in term of wight gain, feed consumption, reduce oocyst count, as compared with Anjbar and Merc sol Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0849,T] (1).

22. Comparative Effect Of Zinc Bacitrcing And Propionic Acid On The Performance Of Broiler Chicken

by Nadeem Akram | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Anjum | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The idea of the study was to replace feed additive antibiotics with organic acids. Therefore diets supplemented with different levels of propionic acid were compared with diet supplemented with feed additive antibiotic zinc bacitracin in order to determine their effects on the performance of broiler birds. One hundred day-old chicks were selected for the experiment and arranged into five groups A, B, C, D and E. There were 20 chicks in each group. Group A served as a control while the diets of group B, C and D were supplemented with 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8 % propionic acid. The diet of group E was supplemented with feed additive antibiotic zinc bacitracin. The parameters selected for the experiment were Feed consumption, Weight gain, Feed conversion efficiency, Morbidity and mortality and Economical analysis of various treatment groups. The experiment was conducted at Animal Nutrition Section of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The results thus obtained were statistically analyzed. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between group A (control) and group C (supplemented with 0.6% Propionic acid) in case of feed consumed and weight gained. There was no significant difference between various treatment groups in terms of feed conversion efficiency. As far as economics is concerned group E (supplemented with zinc bacitracin) was the most economical group among the various treatment groups. The use of propionic acid proved costly as compared to feed additive antibiotic zinc bacitracin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0869,T] (1).

23. A Study On Surveillance Of Various Diseases/Problems Of Commercial Broiler Farming In Azad Kashmir

by Shaista Fazil | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. S. Naeem Jafary | Miss Sameera | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The main objective of present work was to investigate the prevalence of various diseases and target the managemental factors affecting the prevalence of various diseases in broiler farming in Azad Kashmir. For this purpose, the project was divided into three portions. In the first portion, a data regarding the prevalence of various diseases in broiler farms was collected from 1990-2000. Maximum mortality was due to infectious bursal disease which caused mortality percentage of 15.4. Other important diseases observed were coccidiosis (12.9%), Omphalitis (8.8%), Colibacillosis (8.2%). In the second portion of the project, one year retrospective study was done. This study was conducted from December, 1999 to December 2001. During this period, twenty broiler farms were visited. These birds had housed birds from 1000 to 5000. The information was collected from farmers, attendants and daily mortality register present at the farms. The influence of season on the prevalence of disease was also observed. A questionnaire was designed to collect the data from each farm that related to mortality rates, vaccination, susceptible age, managemental fault. Highest mortality was due to viral diseases. Infectious bursal disease was the great problem with morality percentage of 29.2 followed by Hydropericardium syndrome having mortality percentage of 20.3 and omphalitis with mortality percentage of 19. Influence of season on the disease was observed by dividing a calendar year into two portions i.e. summer and winter and mortality due to various diseases into two seasons was compared. Early chick mortality, Gumboro disease, Newcastle disease and respiratory diseases were observed to have high incidence in winter than summer while Hydropericardium, colibacillosis and coccidiosis were common in summer than winter. In the third portion of the project, a three months duration study period was decided from June to March, 2001. During this period, twenty broiler farms were visited and study on the prevalence of various diseases, disease mortality rates and managemental factors responsible for various diseases was done. During this period overall mortality was 15.4% due to various diseases. Important diseases causing mortality were Gumboro (25.9%), Hydropericardium (19.3%), Colibacillosis (14.5%) and Omphalitis (14%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1115,T] (1).

24. The Impact Of Community Based Animal Helth Services Delivery System On Epidemiological Parameters And Farmer'S

by Farrukh nazir | Dr. Muhammad athar khan | Dr. Haji ahmad hashmi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: A study was conducted to understand the impact of community based animal health services delivery systems on epidemiological parameters and farmer's economic sustainability in Central Punjab. In Pakistan three systems for the animal health services delivery are being practiced without any data base and conclusive findings for the comparison purposes and in terms of the replication if needed in future, therefore, a study was planned to quantify and compare the three systems. These systems are; community based, public based and conventional based animal health services delivery systems. As the community based system was launched as Halla scheme, in Central Punjab through the German Technical Cooperation program / funding. Therefore, the other two systems i.e. public and conventional based were selected in the areas adjacent to the community based system (Halla Cluster). The project area was selected because of the similar geographical, environmental, socio cultural and political similarities. One cluster of five villages was selected randomly for each system. The data was obtained from each cluster through active disease surveillance and was recorded on a questionnaire. Each questionnaire was used for one farmer. The cluster of five villages was 'considered as one herd. In the 1st project, the clusters were quantified and compared on different parameters, like provision of animal health services, provided from the system to the member farmers. Epidemiological parameters like morbidity and mortality rate were recorded and analyzed statistically. In the 2IId project, the community trials were also conducted to compare the efficacy of prophylactic interventions, for the economically important diseases of buffaloes and cattle i.e. the haemorrhagic septicaemia and foot and mouth disease. The effect of deworming was also recorded with reference to morbidity and mortality. In the third project the sustainability of the farmers residing in the systems were compared in terms of cost benefit ratio. Animal health services were arranged like vaccination, treatment, deworming, artificial insemination and nutrition support. Poor, good and better services were provided in conventional based, community based and public based animal health services delivery systems, respectively. The impact of services on morbidity and mortality was recorded, the minimum morbidity and mortality rate was recorded in the community based system and moderate and maximum morbidity rate, mortality rate, number of outbreaks and fertility rate due to various diseases were recorded in the conventional based animal health service delivery system. The results were statistically analyzed and significant difference at a level 5% was estimated. The efficacy of the vaccination was estimated and it was statistically found that the morbidity and mortality rates were significantly low in the intervention herds of buffaloes and cattle, as compared to non intervention herds. The overall sustainability of the farmer in term of cost benefit ratio was higher in community based as compared to public based and conventional based animal health services delivery system. In conclusion the better the animal health services delivery system, the more prosperous was the farmer. So, it is recommended that the community based animal health service system be promoted and replicated on priority basis. The animal health services are provided by public based service deliverers but they are not of the same quality as were provided by the community based system in Halla Cluster. This is the reason that in spite of all the services provided by the public based system, the morbidity rate and mortality rate due to various infectious and non infectious diseases were higher in buffaloes and cattle as compared to the community based system. In conventional based system neither the community based services nor the public based services were available for the farmers because those areas were remote and far from the public veterinary hospitals. Therefore, the morbidity rate and mortality rate at the highest spectrum of ranking and disease burden/disease load. The magnitude of disease problems was highest in the conventional based, lowest in the community based system and intermediate in the public based system. Better the quality of services are provided the minimal are the losses due to the diseases in the animal populations and in turn better the cost benefit ratio and ultimately the more prosperous is the farmer. The only way of poverty alleviation in the rural communities is to replicate the community based animal health services delivery system (Halla) with certain modifications in the Provinces of Punjab and Sindh in particular and in North West Frontier Province and Balochistan in general Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1147,T] (1).

25. Descriptive Epidemiology Of Bovine Subclinical Mastitis And Non-Functional Teats

by Zaheer Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The study was conducted to understand the prevalence of subclinical mastitis prevalence of non-functional teats and various factors associated with it, viz lactation age, lactation number, housing and hygiene. The economical losses due to subclinical mastitis and non-functional teats were also estimated. Four village Munianwala, Kot Lehnadas, Rossy and Damiranwala and two private farms located in Jattan Tha Warda and Wazirpur were selected on the basis of availability and non-availability of veterinary medical services. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was found to be 39.46% (58 affected cattle out of 147 lactating cattle) in cattle and 29.13% (162 affected buffaloes out of 556 lactating buffaloes) in buffaloes on animal basis and 12.79% (37 affected quarters out of 2791 quarters at risk) on quarter basis collectively in both species. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis was higher in hindquarters 60% than 40% in fore quarters. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded, 32.21%, 27.73%, 21.84% and 18.20% in right hind, left hind, left front and right front quarters respectively from 220 affected animals. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was highest in 5th and 6th lactation animals, 36.23% in buffaloes and 42.85% in cattle followed by 3rd and 4th lactation animals 32.57% in buffaloes and 39.39% in cattle and 1st and 2nd lactation animals 24.50% in buffaloes and 39.34% in cattle. The lowest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was in group of animals which were in > 6th lactation. The highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was observed in late stage of lactation in both buffaloes and cattle i.e. 33.65% and 56.09% respectively. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was found 27.71% in buffaloes and 31.57% in cattle in mid stage of lactation and 26.11% in buffaloes and 34.66% in cattle in early stage of lactation. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in animals with poor, fair and good hygienic status was found to be 50%, 30.58% and 19.62% respectively. The prevalence of non-functional teats was found to be 0.75% (21 non-functional teats out of 2812 quarters at risk) on quarter basis and 2.84% animals (n=20/703) had non-functional teats. The economical losses due to non-functional were estimated to be Rs.340 per lactating animal and Rs.929 per farmer per annum. Losses due to subclinical mastitis were estimated to be Rs.536 per lactating animal and Rs.1467 per farmer per annum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1175,T] (1).

26. Clinico-Epidemiological Features Of Dengue Fever In And Around Lahore

by Abdul Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of veterinary science.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1187,T] (1).

27. Descriptive Epidemiological Study Of Cancer Patients Registered At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tamseela Naseem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The objective of this study were to report the distribution and pattern of various cancers in Mayo hospital of Lahore over a period of last 5 years and to determine the age and gender distribution of the various reported Cancer cases in the above mentioned teaching hospital of Lahore. This research project was planned to study the epidemiology of various types of cancer among population of Pakistan. For the design of study a descriptive study based on passive surveillance system was planned. The data of cancer patients were collected from the Mayo Hospital a Teaching Hospital of Lahore. To meet the objective of this study we took data from Mayo Hospital, based on previous five years (from 2006-2010). Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 16 by researcher herself. Quantitative variable like age was presented in form of mean ± SD with respect to type of cancer and year. The qualitative variable like gender, type of cancer etc were presented in form of frequency tables and appropriate charts. Chi square analysis was used to see the association between qualitative attributes. Analysis of variance was used to see the mean age of different types of carcinomas. Independent sample t-test was used to see the mean age in different gender. In this study there were total 12096 cancer patients registered at Mayo hospital Lahore in period of last five years from 2006 to 2010. Out of which, 2305(19.1%), 2182(18.0%), 2293(19.0%), 2315(19.1%) and 3001(24.8%) patients were registered in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Out of total 12096 cancer patients, there were 5766(47.87%) males and 6330(52.13%) females. Of the 12096 patients diagnosed with malignant cancers, nearly 11827 (98.5%) belonged to the province of Punjab and approximately 45 (0.4%) to the NWFP, 111 (0.9%) belonged to Azad Jammu Kashmir, 27 (0.2%) belonged to Karachi and 13 (0.1%) belonged to Quetta. There were 2988 patients of breast and female genital carcinomas registered, out of which 592 patients were registered in 2006, 487 patients were registered in 2007, 583 were in 2008, 611 in 2009 and 715 were registered in 2010. Registered patients with carcinoma of digestive organs were 2071 in which there were 374 were in 2006, 385 were in 2007, 374 in 2008,418 in 2009 and 520 in 2010. Lymphoid heamatopietic were 1589 in which 293 were from 2006,322 were from 2007,302 were from 2008, 284 were from 2009 and 388 were from 2010. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1370,T] (1).

28. Descriptive And Therapeutic Trial Of Iron Supplements (Standard Drug And Herbal) In Anemic Pregnant Women

by Maria Ikram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This study was carried out in two phases; in first phase descriptive epidemiologic study was done in pregnant females living around district Okara. List of a total 101154 pregnant females was obtained from Health office OKARA. Hemoglobin level of each subject was assessed and prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was observed 42.15%. From village 1141., 88 44%) pregnant women were enrolled, from 25 GD village 74(37%) pregnant women were enrolled and from 36/2L village 38 (19%) pregnant women were enrolled. in phase II, experimental epidemiological study was conducted to compare the efficacy Sharbat- e-Iolad (Treatment groups) with Ascifer (standard group). Sample Size of 200 patients was enrolled with 100 subjects in each group. SPSS 16.0.2 was used for data entry and analysis. Mean ± S.D was used to present the data. Two way repeated measures ANOVA was used to see the effects of treatments in the significance of Hemoglobin levels at different follow ups. Mean age of the mothers in group A was 27.16 ± 4.97 years and in group B it was 26.07 ± 4.78 years. The age range of the patients was 17 to 38 years. Mean Hb level in Group-A was 6.89 & 6.87 in Group-B at base line. Mean Hb level after first follow up (after 3 weeks from base line) in Group-A mean Hb level was 7.34 and in Group-B it was 7.26. After second follow up (after 6 weeks) mean Hb level in Group-A was 8.81 and in Group-B it was 8.50. In both Groups Hb level was significantly improved (p-value = 0.000). I-Ib level was significantly improved in both study groups with equal effects. In future any of the treatment may be used for the treatment of anemia but Sharbt-e-Folad is recommended due to its cheap cost and accessible availability in rural areas. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1371,T] (1).

29. Epidemiological Trends, Clinical Profile And Risk Factors Associated With Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever In Quetta, Balochistan

by Khushal Khan Kasi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an important disease in suburbs of Quetta in particular, and other cities of Balochistan in general. The cases of this disease are brought to the public hospital for treatment purposes. The study was carried out to understand the descriptive nature of the disease with respect to geographic, temporal and personal distribution. The second part of study comprised of cross sectional as well as case-control study for the identification of different risk factors in patients as compared to their control admitted in the same hospitals. The highest numbers of CCHF cases were from Quetta i.e. 35, 82 cases were male and 19 cases of female, small scale sheep and goat farmer has highest number of cases i.e, 59. Mean age for male patients was 30.82±15.47 years, while for female patients mean age was 29.17±16.40 years with a p-value= 0.685. Mean platelet count for male and female patients was 450n.29±35934.14 and 35388.89±18081.96 respectively with a p-value= 0.270. Mean Hemogobin level for male and female patients was 11.52±2.78 and 9.80±3.23 respectively, and with a p-value=O.023. Among the patients, 5 patients were positive for IgG and IgM antibodies, 9 patients were having A+ blood group, 44 with B+, 16 with 0+, 1 with AB+ and 29 was not reported, 21 patients died and the remaining patients discharged, and the highest number of cases were between April and September. A significant association exist between platelet count with respect to cases who suffered from CCHF (p-value= 0.000), male were 1.157 times more prone to CCHF as compared to female (OR=1.157), (p-value=0.629) and (CI=0.641-2.089), and animals at home have has more susceptibility to CCHF cases (OR=3.538), (p-value=O.OOO) and (CI=2.219-5.642). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1377,T] (1).

30. Socio-Demographical And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With The Diseases Of Senior Citizens of Jhelum City

by Muhammad Shahzad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Research on geriatric diseases is scarce in Pakistan. This endeavor was planned to establish a baseline data for common geriatric diseases found in lhelum, Pakistan. This study reveals the prevalence of geriatric diseases in elderly people in lhelum, Pakistan. Our first objective was to collect and interpret the baseline data about prevalent diseases among the old aged people. Our second objective was to describe the socio- demographic and epidemiological risk factors associated with the diseases of elderly population of lhelum city. In order to study the risk factors associated with geriatric diseases, a geographical cluster of lhelum was selected. The study area was Tehsil lhelum which comprises of 400,000 individuals. Tehsil lhelum is further divided into 16 union councils. In this epidemiological study, multistage sampling was performed. At first step by purposively sampling, union council number 14 of Tehsil lhelum was selected which was comprising of all socioeconomic classes of our community. At second step, by using random sampling technique, home-to-home visits were done. The data was collected on pre-tested questionnaire. The data was collected by face-to-face interviews. The pre- tested questionnaire contained variable factors and questions regarding age, gender, socio economic status, education level, exercising, smoking, marital status, walk before the age of 60 years, walk after the age of 60 years, present and past employments, financial status, use of edible oils in the past, number of children and social life. Futhermore, Information was collected regarding working of different body systems like Central Nervous system, Cardio-vascular system, Digestive system, Urogenital system, Respiratory system, ENT system, Musculo-skeleton system etc. Along with system-information, name of disease of the impaired system was also asked. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS-version 16. This present interview based study reflects the prevalence of geriatric morbidities in geriatric population of Jhelum city. In the current study, impairment of digestive system (28%), cardio-vascular system (23%) and musculo-skeletal system (21 %) was on the top of the list. Impairment of digestive system was found in a good proportion among senior citizens followed by Cardio-vascular system, musculoskeletal system, centra nervous system, respiratory system, uro-genital system and E.N.T. system. Diabetes mellitus, blood pressure related problems and arthritis are the most frequent diseases. So, vwe should try to educate the people about these diseases. As compared to other studies around the globe, our geriatric population is possessing comparatively better health. Walk before the age of 60 years and walk after the age of 60 years is helpful for health. The people who used to walk more than five kilometers usually remained healthier in theelderly. Economic status, use of edible oils and social life is also associated with health of elderly people. So, there is need to promote the habit of walk in the elderly population and in young population. Disease prevention is the most cost-effective method for the maintenance of optimal level of health in elderly population. We should understand that many of the geriatric diseases are preventable. Preventive measures can be applied during the various stages of disease progression in order to either slow or stop the process of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1404,T] (1).

31. Epidemiology Of Major Transbuondary Diseases Of Livestock In Nomads Herds Of District Buner

by Farman Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The research project was carried out in the livestock of nomads in District Bunere to study the epidemiology of major trans-boundary livestock diseases including foot and mouth diseases 9FMD) in buffaloes and cattle and Peste des Petite Ruminants (PPR) and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in sheep and goats. A questionnaire was designed for collecting data regarding morbidity, mortality & case fatality rate in different seasons in the animals of nomads migrate from Afghanistan to Pakistan. Serosurveillance was also conducted by collecting 600 blood samples from the apparently healthy sheep and goats, cattle and buffaloes in the summer season. A total number of 100 nomads were interviewed by systematic random sampling method and sera were collected to test the antibodies against FMDV and PPRV. The serum samples in labeled eppendorph tubes were stored in deep freezer till the sent to lab in ice container. These samples were transported to National Veterinary Laboratory Islamabad, where cattle and buffalo's sera were examined by using 3ABC-ELISA & sheep and goat's sera were analyzed by C-ELISA to detect antibody ofPPRV, respectively. Similarly 60 nasal swabs of sheep and goats collected and examined in Veterinary Research Institute Lahore, by culturing method. The data were collected and analyzed statistically by using SPSS (16.00). Means, Chi square values, P-Vlues and percentages were calculated. The overall prevalence of CCPP was 18.3% while individually 3.3% in sheep and 15 % in goats. The prevalence in goat (15%) was higher than that of sheep (3.3%) with insignificant difference and no significant association between CCPP disease and species of sheep/goat of nomads. Similarly age wise prevalence of CCPP in young (sheep and goats) was 10% which was higher than that of adult (8.3%) with significant association between CCPP disease and age of sheep and goat. Similarly gender wise prevalence was 6.66% in male and 11.6% in female (sheep and goats) with no significant association between CCPP disease results and gender of sheep and goats. The peculiar signs of CCPP were recorded retrospectively, including pneumonic coughing, mucopurulent nasal discharges, fever and abortion in sheep and goats in autumn season in Pakistan and in winter season in Afghanistan respectively. The 10.5% mortality rate, 82% morbidity rate and 12.8% case fatality rate of CCPP in autumn season were recorded in sheep respectively. While 92% morbidity, 12.5% mortality and 13.5% case fatality rate were recorded in goats in autumn, respectively. The mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate were 6.5%, 66%, and 9.8% in sheep in winter season. Similarly mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate in goats due to CCPP in winter season were8%, 89.5% and 8.97%, respectively. The prevalence in both the species were higher in autumn season than that of winter season and zero prevalence were recorded in rest of the seasonsretrospectively. The night stay with crowding of livestock near streams and springs, night fog, morning dew, cold seasons and common travelling and grazing premises were recorded as risk factors for CCPP. The serosurveillance for FMD was conducted and overall seroprevalence of FMD was 32% and individually 12% in buffaloes and 20% in cattle respectively with no significant association and both the species were equally susceptible to FMDV. Gender wise seroprevalence in male and female cattle and buffaloes were 12% and 34 % respectively with no significant association between FMDV antibodies and gender of the animals. Age wise seroprevalence of FMD in adult cattle and buffaloes was higher (24%) than that of young (8%) cattle and buffaloes with a significant association between the age of cattle, and buffaloes and FMDV antibodies. The survey results indicated that all the cattle and buffaloes were in mixed herds and the peculiar signs including stomatitis, lameness, abortion, fever and dysphonia were recorded retrospectively. The mortality rate was 0% in cattle herds of all ages and in both the genders while the morbidity rate was 52.5%. The death rate of l.1%, 75.5% attack rate and 1.41% case fatality rate in buffaloes were recorded retrospectively in the humid rainy season of late summer in Shangla, Besham & Chitral districts. The serosurveillance for PPR in sheep and goats was conducted by using competitive ELISA, dand 42% overall seroprevalence while individually 27% in goats and 14.8% in sheep were recorded with a significant association. Gender wise seroprevalence of 38.8% in females and .3.2% in males of sheep and goats with significant difference and with a significant association to PPRVantibodies were recorded. The age wise seroprevalence of37.8% and 4.2% in adult and in young of both the species with a significant association to PPRV antibodies were recorded. No clinieal signs of PPR were observed by nomads because the infection was subclinical and survived previously because they had not practiced vaccines for last many years. Zero % morbidity and mortality rates were therefore recorded retrospectively in sheep and goat flocks. The four routes at the border areas of Khyber Pakhton Khwa were recorded for the seasonal and cyclieal entrance of livestock of nomads, which act as abridge for diseases transmission between Afghanistan & Pakistan. The outbreaks of CCPP occurred in winter season in Afghanistan and in autumn season in Pakistan (Gilgith, Chitral, Kohistan, Besham, Shanglapar and Buner). Also the FMD outbreaks occurred in Buner and Shangla in late summer while the PPR was subclinical and animals survived. Cross borders as well as district wise trade and movement restrictions are of utmost importance for control the diseases. Similarly serosurveillance of the disease in the local and as well as in nomad's livestock's population necessean appropriate scheduled vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1408,T] (1).

32. Assessment Of Knowledge And Practice Of Food Handlers About Food Safety In University Hostel Kitchen Employees

by Qurra-Tul- Ain | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cigarette butts are found at crime scenes as potential evidence. Saliva is present on the cigarette butts that can be detected and DNA can be isolated from nucleated cells present in saliva for quantification and typing. In past, research has declared that cigarette butts are useful source for saliva detection, DNA extraction and profile generation. Difference of saliva accumulation on cigarette butt paper and filter was compared in the present study. On smoked cigarette butts, gender based comparison of saliva detection and DNA quantification was performed. Agarose gel assay was used for amylase enzyme detection. All samples showed positive results for saliva detection. Cigarette butt filter and filter paper were processed separately and analyzed. Results showed more saliva detected at cigarette butt paper. Then gender based comparison on cigarette butt samples smoked by males and females was done for salivary amylase. By using student t-test, no significant difference was found on basis of gender. For extraction of DNA, phenol chloroform extraction method was used. Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit was used through RT-PCR for quantification of DNA isolated from cigarette butt papers. SDS software analyzed the data and gave results of quantified DNA in ng/µL. Gender based comparison in DNA quantity was done by using statistical method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation value was calculated between detected saliva and quantified DNA of samples. Weak positive results of correlation were obtained between saliva and DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1424,T] (1).

33. Clinico-Epidemiological Study Of Toxocariasis In Pet Cats In Lahore

by Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study was conducted at the pet clinic UVAS to check the prevalence of Toxocara Cati in pet cats and awareness of the pet owners about the zoonosis. Prevalence of Toxocara was checked by conventional laboratory techniques. A survey was conducted to check the awareness of zoonotic diseases among the pet owners using a questionnaire. A total of 40% were found to be infected with Toxocara cati. Overall high prevalence was recorded in cats less than one year of age which was significant. There was also significant difference of prevalence among cats in which deworming was not done as compared to the dewormed cats. Prevalence was also high in cats in which the fecal consistency was not normal. There was no significant difference in prevalence of Toxocara between male and female cats. There was also no significant difference of prevalence among the different breeds of cats. The results of the survey revealed that out of the total of 100 pet owners only 39% had idea of pet zoonosis, while the majority of the owners had awareness about rabies. Only 18 % of the owners were informed by the veterinarians. The total of 98% suggested that the vet should inform the owners about pet zoonosis. Among the total 56% replied that they will leave their pet if a zoonotic problem was diagnosed the remaining were not willing to leave their pets even if a zoonotic problem diagnosed. Most cases of human toxocariasis and zoonotic hookworm infections are preventable by simple measure such as careful personal hygiene, eliminating intestinal parasites from pets through regular deworming and not allowing the children to play in potentially contaminated environments. Despite the fact that some of the pet owners dispose of their pet feaces however,, owners should be educated on proper disposal methods of pet feaces. Disposal methods like using pet feaces as garden manure, can predispose children playing in the lawn to infective eggs and larvae. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1428,T] (1).

34. Epidemiological, Haematological And Biochemical Risk Factors Of Parturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Altaf Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Parturient haemoglobinuria is disease of economic importance which affects a considerable number of buffaloes every year in India, Pakistan and Egypt. It is a non infectious hemolytic syndrome characterized by intravascular haemolysis, hypophosphataemia, haemoglobinaemia, haemoglobinuria and anaemia. The exact pathogenesis is not known and diversified etiological factors have been associated with this disease in different parts of the continent. Information on multidimensional etiological aspects of this buffalo syndrome is quite scanty. The present study was therefore carried out in district Chakwal for assessment of disease burden (parturient haemoglobinuria), its distribution and quantification of associated epidemiological, haematological and biochemical risk factors in order to suggest control measures and future research priorities. Active surveillance was conducted in eight randomly selected villages of district Chakwal from April 2010 . March 2011. All breeding age buffaloes (1938) of these selected villages were taken as sampling frame whereas one breeding age buffalo was taken as sampling unit. Parturient haemoglobinuria appeared as number one disease among all problems of breeding age buffaloes with respect to mortality rate (1.03%) and proportional mortality rate (20%) whereas it appeared as 8th and 7th disease respectively with respect to incidence (3.97%) and case fatality (25.97%) rates. Case-Control study was conducted for quantification of epidemiological risk factors associated with disease by analyzing the data of 180 case-control pairs for various 162 hypothesized risk factors. . 7 months pregnancy, . 3 lactation number, . 60 days postpartum period, . 7 years age, previous history of haemoglobinuria and ingestion of cruciferous plants were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) risk factors with odds ratios of 15.80, 6.39, 6.23, 5.56, 3.41 and 2.51 respectively. Clinical trial was conducted on 30 haemoglobinuric buffaloes randomly divided into three groups with 10 animals in each group to compare and assess the recovery rates of three different treatment packages against parturient haemoglobinuria. The highest recovery rate (100%) was recorded for combined therapy of sodium acid phosphate and blood transfusion followed by sodium acid phosphate with antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (70%) and tranexamic acid with Novacoc injection (50%). Cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on haemoglobinuric (n = 30) and healthy (n = 60) buffaloes for quantification of haematological and biochemical risk factors associated with parturient haemoglobinuria. Red cell count (. 5 ~ 106 /ƒÊl), haemoglobin (. 8g / dl), haematocrit . 25%, mean corpuscular volume (. 50fL), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (. 20pg) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate( . 80mm / 1st hour) were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) haematological risk factors with odds ratios of 26, 17.81, 28.95, 21, 12.25 and 26 respectively whereas billirubin unconjugated (. 0.2mg /dl), billirubin total ( . 0.3mg /dl), phosphorous (. 2.5mg /dl), molybdenum (. 70ƒÊg /dl) and selenium (. 15 ƒÊg /dl) were recorded as significant (P.0.05) biochemical risk factors with odds ratios of 26.55, 26.55, , 7.50, 11 respectively. Experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of orally administered gossypol on haematological and biochemical parameters of eight female rabbits of six 163 months age purchased from local market and maintained at university of veterinary and animal sciences from February 2011 . April 2011 under optimum conditions. The cotton seed cake containing free gossypol contents of 0.25% was fed to rabbits @ 4 grams per kg per day in addition to their routine diet including good quality fresh vegetables (cucumbers, spinach, cabbage & carrots) and clean water ad-libitum. Blood samples of each rabbit were collected after every 15 days interval and analyzed for haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Significant (P.0.05) decrease was recorded in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and serum inorganic phosphorous whereas significant increase was recorded in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and monocytes from 0 . 60th day with the passage of time whereas non significant (P.0.05) difference was recorded with respect to granulocytes and serum calcium concentration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1429,T] (1).

35. Sero And Viro Surveillance Of Influenza Virus Sero Types Circulating In Equine Species

by Muhammad Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1526,T] (1).

36. Epidemiological And Molecular Profile Of Hepatitis-C Viral Infection Among Different Groups Of Population In And Around Lahore, Pakistan

by Dr. Abdul Majeed Akhter | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices. The present project was carried out to study the prevalence of laboratory based confirmed patients of Hepatitis-C in various public, private hospitals and in high risk groups among the population of Lahore metropolitan and its distribution and pattern with respect to person, time and place. Second part of the project was designed to study the risk factors of Hepatitis-C patients from out patient departments of various public and private hospitals of Lahore. Individuals at high risk from different organizations and occupations across the city population of Lahore metropolitan were also included in the study. The third part of the project was designed to investigate the distribution of genotypes of Hepatitis-C virus among patients through RT-PCR and theireffect on viral load, various haematological and biochemical parameters. Project-I Study-1: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C in various public and private hospitals of Lahore Metropolitan among different groups a total of 1399 individuals were tested to estimate the hospital based prevalence of HCV. Out of these 233 individuals produced positive result for Hepatitis-C virus infection. The overall hospital based prevalence was estimated to be 16.66% during the year 2009. The current study revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in Dialysis patients and Organ recipients (41.17%) followed by General Patients of age > 12 years (14.60%) and pregnant women (10.84%). It was further observed that the least affected group was the Children of age ? 12 years (3.85%). Study-2: The results of estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection in high risk groups from the population in and around Lahore revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in patients with HIV/AIDS (36.36%) followed by injecting drug users (36.09%), blood donors (17.78%), long rout truck drivers (14.70%), house hold and direct contact personal (14.6%) and prisoners (14.28%). It was also find out that the less affected groups were police department (10.66%), staff nurses and other health care workers (9.87%) and barbers and beauticians (6.97%) while doctors and dental surgeons were least affected (1.32%) among the high risk groups. Study-3: To find out the pattern and distribution of HCV patients with respect to person place and time a total of 924 patients were selected from the registry of Provincial Hepatitis Control Cell Lahore through systematic random sampling. Out of these, 154 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 90 were male and 64 were females. Average age of male and female patients was 35.88±10.49 and 37.78±9.12 years, respectively. The age difference between male and female patients was statistically non-significant (P-value>0.05). It was further observed that 147 patients were Punjabi and 7 were from other provinces. Moreover, It was found that the highest number of patients was observed during the month of December (n=18) followed by November, 2008 (n=15), March (n=15) and July, 2009 (n=14) while the least number of patients were observed during the months of September, 2008 and May, 2009 (n=10). Project-II To study the risk factors associated with HCV infection an analytical cross sectional study was conducted. Study-1: Lower socio economic class, place of birth (hospital), delivery assisted by whom and breast feeding were significantly associated with HCV infection in children of age ? 12 years. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive general patients was significantly associated (P=0.012) with anti-HCV status. Marital status (OR=2.042), socioeconomic status, blood donation (OR=2.15), prescription by doctor or non-doctor (OR=2.664), route of drug administration, relative having hepatitis and towel sharing (OR=1.987) were also significantly associated (P<0.05) risk factors for HCV infection. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive pregnant women was 27.55±3.43 and 25.37±4.24 years, respectively. Educational level (OR=3.093) and occupational status (OR=2.228) were the important risk factors associated with HCV infection. Tattoo on the body (OR=11.833), comb sharing (OR=20.86) and razor sharing (OR=4.786) were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Pregnant women who gave the history of dental procedures and tooth brush sharing were 3.15 and 4.12 times more prone to get HCV infection, respectively. In 205 patients having dialysis and organ recipients 41.17% patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Blood transfusion, glass sharing and qualification of the patients were significant factors in this group. Study-2: In case of doctors/dental surgeons a significant association was observed with history of blood transfusion and duties in medical and surgical wards. The nurses who worked in surgical wards, visited beauty salons were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Among health care workers age, gender and other factors did not have any significant influence on the reaction of HCV. Among blood donors female to male ratio was 1:16.5. It was found that the occupational status (p=0.002), place of surgical treatment (p=0.035), history of blood transfusion (p=0.000), ever pricked by sharps (p=0.045), habit of injecting drugs (p=0.04) and glass sharing (p=0.017) were significantly associated with occurrence of hepatitis C in blood donors. In long route truck drivers geographical status, surgical procedure, dental treatment and family history were significantly associated (P<0.05). Among the injecting drug users, demographic factors like marital (P=0.007) and educational status (P=0.000) were found to be significantly associated with HCV infection. Furthermore, the behavioral factors; use of injectable drugs with reused syringes (P=0.003), sharing of syringes in groups (P=0.004), place of shaving (P=0.000), use of disinfected ustra (razor) (P=0.003) and razor sharing (P=0.000) were significantly associated with anti-HCV status for IDUs. Among HIV/Aids patients a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was present among the ages of reactive and non reactive patients. Comb sharing has also a positive effect of HCV but all other factors were not contributing in this group. In Police personals odds ratio for married persons was higher (9.57) but statistically insignificant. The mean age for reactive persons was 39.75±8.24 years. A non-sexual contact with HCV patient and spoon sharing were significantly associated. In prison inmates skin infection and sexual involvement were significantly associated (P<0.000) with HCV infection. In the group of 43 barbers/beauticians age, working shift, tattoo on body (OR=19.5), injecting drugs (OR=19.5) and pre-testing for HCV (OR=19.5) were significantly associated with HCV infection. In house hold and direct contact group previous history of accidents and family history of HCV (OR=18.36) were significantly associated with HCV infection. Project-III A molecular epidemiological study was conducted in which the HCV reactive patients as tested by ELISA test were subjected to viral load and genotyping through RT-PCR. The positive cases of Project-I were included in this project. In the present study 558 patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Out of these, 34 (6.09%) patients had Type-1 genotype, 67 (12%) patients were accounted for Type-2 and 410 (73.47%) patients were positive for Type-3. Multiple genotypes were seen in 19 (3.4%) patients, 9 (1.61%) patients had un-type able genotype whereas in 19 (3.4%) patients genotype could not be detected. According to the distribution of genotype-1, 1a was present in 30 (88.23%) while 1b was seen in 4 (11.76%) patients. In patients of Type-2 genotype, 2a and 2b were present in 54 (80.59%) and 13 (19.40%) patients, respectively. In patients having Type-3, 3a and 3b were identified in 353 (86.09%) and 57 (13.90%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, Bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALPT, viral load, Hb, TLC, DLC, Platelet and ESR were statistically same in all genotype. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1529,T] (1).

37. Epidemiology Of Brucelosis In Sheep And Goat In District Quetta, Balochistan

by Abdul Wahab Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prf. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Brucellosis is one of the chronic infectious bacterial diseases of farm animals and man caused by Brucella specie and has a wide host range including bovine, ovine, caprine, canine, equine and man. It causes heavy economical losses in livestock holdings by resulting abortion and infertility while from public health point it is a bacterial zoonotic diseases causing undulant fever in man. In the modern world it is still a challenging health ailment to livestock and public health. In Pakistan it is prevalent in livestock holdings and human population. Keeping in view the importance of Brucellosis the present study was designed to investigate its status in District Quetta of Balochistan province. In this study sheep, goat and their concerned (farmers, veterinary assistant, veterinarian, butchers) were included. Govt. farms, private farms and slaughter houses were used as a source of samples. Information about risk factors in man and animals were gathered by separate structured questionnaires. To investigate Brucellosis, blood and milk samples were collected and serum from blood samples was isolated. Serum and milk samples were screened with Rose Bengal Plate test and Milk Ring Test respectively, and positive cases from RBPT were further tested on Polymerase chain reaction for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in animals was 2.40 %, 3.80 %, and 2.22 % in sheep, goat and livestock owners respectively by RBPT and this result was confirmed by PCR, while prevalence of brucellosis was 1.6% by MRT achieved. The seroprevalence of brucellosis from Lahore was 3.91% by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed through PCR. Among the risk factors in human significant association was found between the occupations of the person. And brucellosis is a serious threat to man. Therefore, routine surveillance of farm flocks is essential, to know about the brucellosis and local infected areas, before implementing a wide scale national programme of brucella control and eradication. There is an increasing need of educating farmers and farm managers about brucellosis and its public health significance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1535,T] (1).

38. Epidimiological Investigation Of Dengue Virus Maintenance Host In Lahore

by Mesam Abbas | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1553,T] (1).

39. Epidemiology Of Endo And Ecto Parasites Of Small Ruminants And Its Effect On Their Hematology Profile In District Bannu

by Niomat Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammd Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1607,T] (1).

40. A Case Control Study To Determine The Risk Factors Of Tuberculosis In Dairy Animals In Peshawar City And Its Suburbs

by Atta Ullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is chronic infectious disease of animals and human beings, which is characterized by progressive emaciation, nodules formation in lungs and involvement of local lymph nodes. Tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium species and it is endemic in Pakistan. In the world ranking regarding tuberculosis patients, Pakistan is on 6th position. A case control study was conducted in Peshawar city and its suburbs in order to determine the risk factors of tuberculosis in dairy animals. Prevalence of tuberculosis in dairy animals recorded in this study was 18.27%. A total of 750 dairy animals were included in the study in which 250 were positive cases and 500 were controls on the basis of tuberculin skin test. Controls were divided into two groups, group 1(animals above 1 year of age) group 2(animals under 1 year of age). All these animals were selected from civil veterinary hospital Peshawar and veterinary teaching hospital (University of Agriculture Peshawar); and villages located on ring road of Peshawar city. Data was collected from the owner on pre designed questionnaire to determine different risk factors associated with tuberculosis and it was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0. The calculated odds ratio in descending order were 2.70 for rotational grazing practice, 2.52 for keeping donkey with dairy animals, 2.22 for not having own bull for breeding, 2.05 for keeping animals inside the shed at night, 2.02 for living in rural geographical environment, 1.87 for low socio-economic status, 1.65 for not using tap water, 1.59 for herd size more than 16-30 animals, 1.47 for non lactating animals, 1.47 for illiterate owners, 1.42 for contact with wild animals, 1.30 for keeping old animals within the herd, 1.25 for using fertilizer on crops that offer to animals, 1.22 for cattle, 1.17 for dung disposal weekly and 0.45 for deworming practice in dairy animals. Odds ratio more than 1 was considered being a risk factor while less than 1 was being considered as a health promoting factor. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Tuberculosis is disease of zoonotic importance, and its incidence increasing day by day both in humans and animals. Therefore further research is the need of time to control and eradicate this disease globally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1627,T] (1).

41. Community Trials Of Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccines In District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1649,T] (1).

42. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Camels Of District Muzaffargarh, Punjab

by Sami Ullah | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1760,T] (1).

43. Epidemiological Intelligence On Distribution & Dynamics Of Main Transboundary Diseases Of Ruminants In The Central Districts Of Punjab

by Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1844,T] (1).

44. Comparative Impact Of Dairy Farming On Health Status Of Farm Workers And Non Farmers Of Lahore

by Farwa Amjad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar khan | Dr. Saima | Ms. Shakera Sadiq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1971,T] (1).

45. Seroprevalence Of Brucella Canis In Dogs In Disteict Lahore0

by Muhammad Adnan aslam | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1994,T] (1).

46. Retrospective Study Of Fatal Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever In Lahore City

by Shumaila Abdusattar (2012-VA-523) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dengue fever is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases of human beings. It has become a major reason for public health concern internationally over the recent years because of disease morbidity and mortality. Globally around 2.5 billion people are living in areas where dengue viruses can be transmitted. Spread of mosquito vectors & viruses in geographical distribution are two main reasons of rise in incidence and prevalence of dengue fever & appearance of dengue hemorrhagic cases. Urban areas of the tropics have been identified to be highly endemic. According to estimates made by WHO around 50–100 million infections of dengue are prevalent every year globally. (Deen et al. 2006) In Pakistan first dengue outbreak was reported in Karachi in 1994 as environmental conditions are conducive to Aedes mosquito breeding. Economic and security related migration introduced virus to Lahore as well. According to Punjab Health Department 590339 suspected cases were reported in Lahore & 21685 confirmed by serology. It has been observed that 5-10% of these cases develop DHF.(Mahmood et al. 2013) Dengue is mainly transmitted by mosquito vector i.e. Aedesaegypti and can also be transmitted by A.albopictus to a lesser extent. Virus that causes dengue has four different types that are closely related to each other.Infected female mosquitoes transmit this virus to human beings through bite.An infected mosquito can transmit this virus to humans for the rest of its life. Symptoms of dengue range from very mild fever to very high fever including intense headache, retro-orbital pain, muscular and joint pain, and rashes. There is no vaccine or any specific medicine to treat dengue. Patients having dengue fever are advised to take rest and drink ample fluids. They are advised to use paracetamol in order to reduce high grade fever or visit the physician if fever persists. Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that serotype but confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection by the other three. There have been enough proofs showing that subsequent infection increases the risk of severity of disease which can result in DHF (WHO). Leaking of plasma, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, and intense bleeding and organ impairment makes severe dengue a fatal complication. Warning signs includes decrease in temperature (below 38°C/ 100°F), severe abdominal pain, rapid breathing, bleeding gums, malaise, and restlessness,continuous vomiting and hematemesis. These can occur three to seven days after first symptom recognition. In order to prevent complications and minimize the risk of death adequate and timely health care is required in next 1-2 critical days.(Halstead 1980) In 1950s when dengue epidemics occurred in the Philippines and Thailand then Dengue hemorrhagic fever was first identified. Till 1970 nine countries had encountered epidemic DHF and this number has increased more than four times and keeps on rising. Today rising number of DHF cases are causing increased dengue outbreaks in the Americas, and in Asia, where all four dengue viruses are endemic. DHF has turn out to be a prominent reason of hospitalization and demise among kids in several states.In Asia, widespread DHF has enhanced geologically from Southeast Asian regions to west China. Various regional states of the South and Central Pacific have encountered significant or slight DHF outbreaks.In previous twenty years deterrence and management has come to be more immediate with the escalating geographical spreadof dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever and higher ailment occurrence (Gubler 2002). In the absence of bleeding or organ manifestation, DHF is medically challenging to diagnose, and the numerous etiologic agents can barely be distinguished by clinical tests. The specified diagnosis of DHF depends mainly on laboratory testing.(Drosten et al., 2002) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2211,T] (1).

47. Relationship Of Parent’s Level Of Education And Socio-Demographic Variables With Child’s Immunization Status: A Cross-Sectional Study In The Rural Areas Of District Layyah

by Abida Zahoor (2012-VA-573) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Immunization is a very important element of public health. It is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, generally by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infections. It prevents against various communicable diseases such as Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Pertussis, Diphtheria, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Measles. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 parents having at-least one child under five years of age. Data was collected from the rural areas of district Layyah. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status on one hand and the effect of sociodemographic variables on child’s immunization status on the other hand. In this study, it was concluded that there was a significant association between parent’s level of education and the socioeconomic variables with child’s immunization status. Low rate of parent’s literacy, especially health literacy, poor socioeconomic status, large population size, parent’s refusal, difficulty in accessing immunization services and lack of health facilities were identified as the main barriers to immunization completion. As parent’s level of education is considered to be the corner stone in the progress of modern nation so education is a very important element as educated parents play a significant role in achieving the health of their children. It was concluded that there was a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The immunization status of children in the rural areas can be improved by higher household income, literacy, better Summary 41 health knowledge, exposure to media, maternal empowerment and mother’s participation in decision-making process. The policy makers should stress on the education of the people especially female education. Health awareness campaigns should be carried out so that parents can gain the benefits of vaccination. 6.1 Hypothesis Ho: there is no significant relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status. H1: Parent’s level of education has significant relationship on child’s immunization status 6.2 Methodology A cross-sectional study of six months duration from July 2016 to December 2016 was conducted in the rural areas of district Layyah in which parents of children under 5 years of age were interviewed about the immunization status of their children. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data. Data was collected from 200 parents living in the rural areas of district Layyah. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. 6.3 Statistical Design The dependent variable “child’s vaccination” and independent variables “parent’s educational level, household income, parent’s occupation and family composition” were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and Microsoft Excel. Data entry and analysis was done on SPSS-16. Chi-square test was used for statistical testing. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Cross Summary 42 tabulations were done among dependent and independent variables. Chi-square test was applied on different sociodemographic factors and child’s immunization status to define the significant associations. 6.4 Study Outcomes It is concluded that there is a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The major benefit of this study is that, the research findings can be used to assess the relationship of parent’s education with child’s immunization status and to find out those factors which are the main hindrance in child’s vaccination coverage. It will also provide new dimensions for further research related to child immunization and the health managers will find new facts and figures that will help them to make national decisions with the certainty of success. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2654-T] (1).

48. Epidemiology Of Influenza Virus H5n1 In Islamabad Capital Territory

by Zahida Fatima (2005-VA-246) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Khalid Naeem | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The poultry sector in Pakistan is the second largest industry that contributes to the national gross domestic products (GDP) and remains a major source of nutrition (protein and energy) for human population in Pakistan. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) outbreaks due to H5N1 virus in poultry have been recorded in over 62 countries, indicating the contagious nature of the disease and its potential to infect various avian species. These HPAI outbreaks in poultry have lead to killing/culling of around 120 million birds in various countries. During 2009, the Avian Influenza continues to occur in poultry in China, Hong Kong, India, Egypt, Nepal, Bangladesh and Canada . In Pakistan, an HPAI outbreak due to H7N3 virus was first observed in 1994-95 and those due to H9N2 virus in broiler and layer chickens were recorded between late 1990’s and early 2000. During the period between 2006 and 2008, poultry heavily suffered due to multiple outbreaks caused by H5N1 virus. The country experienced several and severe HPAI subtype H5N1 outbreaks during 2006-2008 in commercial poultry farms mostly, causing mass economic losses. In Pakistan all the four poultry production system exists being identified by FAO. The present study was conducted in peri-urban areas of ICT Islamabad, capital of Pakistan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the outbreaks due to HPAIV H5N1 in 2006-2007 in ICT and identify the pattern and trends of these outbreaks. For this purpose descriptive epidemiological study was conducted and data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire regarding farm demography, culling, morbidity and mortality. The result statistical analysis showed a significantly (P< 0.05) higher morbidity, mortality, case fatality and culling rate in layers farms than breeders and broilers respectively. Layers and breeders of old ages were mostly affected with having higher mortality and culling in comparison to younger age layer and breeder commercial farms. The mean morbidity and mortality rates ranged 57–95% and 5-43% correspondingly. After the HPAIV H5N1 first reported outbreak in Pakistan in 2006 culling strategy was adopted after devastating outbreaks regularly reported from throughout the country. The reasons behind these emerging epidemics were unknown and several hypotheses were given birth after these outbreaks. Knowledge regarding potential risk factors responsible for HPAIV H5N1 epidemics in commercial poultry farms in Pakistan was lacking. Therefore we conducted a longitudinal cross sectional survey (1:1 matched case control study) to identify potential risk factors at farm level responsible for 2006-2007 HPAIV H5N1 infection in poultry in ICT. Information on farm characteristics, biosecurity practices and farm management were collected. Logistic regression model on data was used to unveil the potentially associated risk factors with cases (farms confirmed HPAI H5N1 Positive). Several candidate variables were studied and investigated for association. The results multivariable logistic regression showed that farm location such as in urban area (P<0.05: OR=18.50), wild birds entry (P<0.05: OR= 12.66) and farms situated in highly dense poultry populated area (P<0.05:OR=4.50) were found significantly associated with outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in commercial poultry farms during 2006-2007 epidemics in the study area. Live bird markets (LBMs) are essential for poultry marketing in developing countries like Pakistan. One year active disease surveillance for influenza viruses in avian species in LBMs in ICT area was conducted in 2011. LBMs in Pakistan are typically urban that brings together many avian species produced by different suppliers. Which make LBMs in Pakistan a potential source of HPAIV viruses as well as other emerging poultry pathogens i.e. new castle disease virus,infectious bronchitis etc. The results of the present surveillance data showed that seroconversion against H5N1 and H9N2 is present in LBMs bird species which were isolated from different samples like serum, cloacal, nasal samples and organ samples.This indicates the continuous threat of AIV viruses circulating in the live bird markets set up of Pakistan. Findings of these studies will help to tailor control and prevention measure against devastating outbreaks in future regarding the local circumstances of commercial poultry farms as well as in LBMs. These studies also succeeded to unveil the true reasons behind these devastating outbreaks and their higher impact on poultry industry. Such type of surveillance programs will be useful in future to investigate several emerging diseases and outbreaks in Pakistan and other developing countries. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2700-T] (1).



Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Email:rehana.kousar@uvas.edu.pk Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.