Status Of Wild Life Close To Indian Border Area At Ravi Siphon, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The proposed study was carried out at Ravi Siphon area in Sheikhupura district near Lahore, Punjab, which is an important site along the Indian Border. In this study, main emphasis was given on the population dynamics of birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles in relation to the wetland characteristics particularly different types of riverine habitats, different seasons (summer, winter), relationship between different species of animals, seasonal changes, species identification, census of biodiversity and their population assessment. In addition, natural flora of the site was also recorded. Wildlife is an excellent indicator of the overall health of an ecosystem. On this research identification of nature and severity of problems being faced by biodiversity was identified and concluded as recommendation for the welfare of our wildlife to declare the site as a protected area.
Waterbirds depend on Ravi Siphon wetland for a variety of activities which include feeding, breeding, nesting and moulting. The highest number of waterbirds is often found in wetlands which have the greatest diversity of plant species and vegetation types, or where there is permanent water. In hot summer wetlands become visiting places for summer visitor birds and they provide a drought- refuge for several species of water birds.
During the study there were 87 species of birds recorded. According to seasonal distribution 24 winter visitors, 54 residents, 6 summer breeder and 3 year round visitor were recorded. In the study area, some birds were seen in a large diversity and others were seen rarely.
The present study about the status of bird species showed that 1 very common, 9 common, 20 fairly common, 34 uncommon, 12 rare and 11 very rare bird species were recorded. Monthly data was taken during the whole year (May 2009-April10) and 772 total birds population were found. In May 319, Jun 354, July 375, August 390, September 316, October 432, November 349, December 395, January 373. , February 389, March 401 and in April 363 bird's population were recorded.
Relative abundance, Census Index and Shannon Weiner Diversity Index were also calculated for studied bird data. The most dominant bird of the area was Indian Cliff Swallow found having relative abundance 5.69. The other dominant birds were Little Green Bee-eater (3.4), Large Egret (3.96), House Sparrow (2.3), and Bank Myna (2.6). Census Index was found to be 1.64 and Shannon Weiner Diversity Index was 5.98 found. Wildlife other than birds was also recorded. Three species of amphibians, eight species of reptiles and significant species of mammals were studied. A great variety of plant trees were also found at Ravi Siphon.
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Ecology And Population Of Birds Of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The proposed study was carried out at Changa Manga that is an important woodland forest in Punjab. In this study, main emphasis was given on the population dynamics of birds in relation to the woodland characteristics particularly different types of forest habitats, different seasons (summer, winter), relationship between different species of birds, seasonal changes, species identification, census of birds and their population assessment. They connect all of us, from city dwellers to rural communities, to the environment. Birds are an excellent indicator of the overall health of an ecosystem. On this research identification of nature and severity of problems being faced by birds both resident and migratory was identified and concluded as recommendation for the welfare of our avifauna at the site.
In the site of study area resident birds are common and winter visitors, summer breeder birds were also recorded. In the study area 51 residents, 5 summer breeder, 21 winter visitor and 1 year round visitor species recorded. The total number of birds observed in Changa Manga Forest is 78 that show the most common birds in Changa Manga Forest are House Crow, Common Myna, Bank Myna, House Sparrow and Bee-eater etc.
The data collected from Changa Manga in May (524), June (384), July (544), August (418), September (425), October (487), November (647), December (593), January (532), February (604), March (630) and April (466).
The relative abundance is showed by house crow (7.8531). It is a garbage feeder so can easily be seen in areas which are the places of public interest, where people use to create or spread solid waste (wrapper, plastic bags, food material etc). Common Myna (4.4143), Bank Myna (4.3969), House sparrow (4.1641) and Blyth's Reed Warbler (3.1128), Small Sky-lark (2.3416), Common Babbler (2.6398), Blue-cheeked Bee-eater (2.0016), Small Sky Lark (2.3416), Long Tailed Grass Warbler (1.6631) and Indian Robin (1.6681) have abundance respectively. Census index (0.2422) and Shannon Wiener (5.5495) values were also calculated. The trophic levels were mention according to these; there were 263 birds' herbivores, 411 were omnivores, 391 were insectivores and 112 were carnivore's birds in the study area.
Hence there is a strong need to restore, conserve and preserve these existing woodland to maintain and improve the distribution, diversity and abundance of populations and habitats of breeding, migratory and nonbreeding birds throughout the land forests of the Pakistan
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Ecology And Diversity Of Head Qadirabad, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The proposed study was carried out at Head Qadirabad that was an important wetland of the Punjab. In this study, main emphasis was given on the ecology and diversity of waterbirds in relation to the wetland characteristics particularly different types of aquatic habitats, different seasons, relationship between different species of waterbirds, seasonal changes, species identification, census of waterbirds and their population assessment. They connect all of us, from city dwellers to rural communities, to the environment. Migratory birds were an excellent indicator of the overall health of an ecosystem. On this research identification of nature and severity of problems being faced by waterbirds both resident and migratory was identified and concluded as recommendation for the welfare of our avifauna at the site.
The lower basin of the Chenab River was a prime example of the consequences and challenges posed by increasing water scarcity. The aim of this study was Development, Environment, and Security and the water birds and to clarify key concepts and criteria for sustainable water use within the Head Qadirabad, and then, using those criteria, to present patterns of water use, allocation, and management that can continue to support economic prosperity while maintaining ecological integrity.
Water is a prerequisite for life, and a key ingredient in virtually all human economic activity. In regions where demands for water approach or exceed the limits of available supplies, competition intensifies among various interests turning water scarcity into a potential source of conflict. Scarcity often also results in unhealthy aquatic ecosystems because of alterations in the timing, quantity, and quality of freshwater flows needed to sustain their natural functions. This ecological degradation, in turn, spawns a variety of undesirable economic and social effects.
In the study area observed 76 winter visitor species, 54 resident species, 10 summer breeder species and 9 year round visitor species (Table: 4.3 and Figure: 4.2.)
House Crow was much dominant (Relative abundance was 3.6585), Little Green Bee eater (Relative abundance was 3.2520), Little Swift (Relative abundance was 2.8455), House Sparrow (Relative abundance was 2.5203), Bank Myna (Relative abundance was 2.0325), Common Myna (Relative abundance was 2.0325), Black Kite (Relative abundance was 2.0325), Cattle Egret (Relative abundance was 1.7886), Red-wattled Lapwing (Relative abundance was 1.6260) and Small Pied kingfisher (Relative abundance was 1.2195). These were all dominant in the Head Qadirabad area. This all data shown in Table: 4.9 and Figure: 4.4.
In the present study observed following number of birds in whole year, in May 354, Jun 388, July 388, August 404, September 361, October 341, November 394, December 344, January 560, February 649, March 591 and in April 593 birds, as present in Table: 4.10 and Figure 4.5.
The present study showed that, 149 species of birds were present in the study area. In 2009- 10 observed that Census Index was 0.437 and Shanon-Weiner Diversity Index was 9.58 as shown in Table: 4.12.
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Habitat, Morphology And General Biology Of Bats Of Fmaily Embellonuridae
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate habitat, morphology and general biology of the bats belonging to family Embellonuridae from Punjab. A total of fifteen specimens of sheath- tailed bats belonging to two species were captured from Attock and Bahawalpur districts and identified. These included eleven specimens of the naked-rumped tomb bat (Taphozous nudiventris) and four specimens of Egyptian tomb bat (T. perforates). The later species is a new record from the present study area.
A roost of sheath-tailed bats was located with help of some locals in the suburbs of the Ratowal village in Attock district from where four naked-rumped tomb bats (T. nudiventris) were captured with the help of hand net. Acacia catechu, A. nilotica, A. modesta, Bauhinia variegate, Olea ferruginea, Phylianthus emblica and Quercus leucotrichophora were the main tree species present in the area while the shrubs included Carissa opaca, Calotropis procera, Dodonaea viscose, Justica adhatoda and Otostegia limbata. A ilium jaquemontii, Arundo donax, Cannabis sativa, Centaurea iberica, Eulophia dabia, Geranium oceiiatum and Hibiscus caesius, were some notable herb species in that habitat.
Approximately three hundred bats were roosting on the walls and ceiling of the shrine located in the vicinity of Mojgarh from where five bats were captured. Two of these were Egyptian tomb bats (T. perforatus) while the remaining three were naked-rumped tomb bats (T. nudiventris). Six hundred and thirty five bats were counted on the walls and ceilings of various rooms of the ruined Derawar Fort of which six bats were captured. One of these was T perforatus while the remainings were T. nudiventris.
The mean body weight of the eleven T. nudiventris was 48.7 g ± 11.63 (SD) while their head and body length was 87.9 mm ± 6.20 (SD). Free tail, ear and tragus were 17.3 mm ± 3.38 (SD), 13.9 mm± 2.21 (SD) and 4.1 mm ± 0.54 (SD) long, respectively. The forearm was 70.5 mm ± 0.93 (SD) long. Thumb and claw were 7.8 mm ± 0.84 (SD) and 2.5 ± 0.35 (SD) long respectively. The mean length of 3', 4th and 5th metacarpals was 62.3 mm ± 2.54 (SD), 50.6 mm ± 2.28 (SD) and 38.2 mm ± 9.78 (SD), respectively. The 1st and 2'' phalanges of 3rd metacarpal
27.3 mm ± 1.03 (SD) and 28.6 mm ± 2.40 (SD) long, respectively while the same on 4th metacarpal were 13.6 mm ± 2.63 (SD) and 8.3 mm ± 1.03 (SD) long, respectively. Their wingspan was 36.6 mm ± 3.28 (SD). Hind foot, tibia and calcar were 14.8 mm ± 1.40 (SD), 29.0 mm ± 1.10 (SD) and 5.6 mm ± 1.91 (SD) long, respectively while male had a 5.8 mm ± 1.39 (SD) long penis.
A total of four specimens of the Egyptian tomb bat were collected from Bhawalpur district at Mojgarh (n = 2), Derawar fort (n= 1), and Rattowal (n= 1) from Attock district in the areas of Punjab. The mean body weight of these specimens was 37.6 g ± 15.07 (SD). Their mean head and body, free tail and ear length was 82.0 mm ± 4.40 (SD), 21.0 mm ± 2.16 (SD) and 15.0 mm ± 3.16 (SD), respectively. The mean length of tragus was 4.0 mm ± 0.00 (SD). Length of the forearm was 63.8 mm ± 1.50 (SD). Length of thumb and of claw was 8.0 mm ± 0.71 (SD) and 2.8 ± 0.29 (SD). The mean length of 3rd metacarpal , 1st phalanx on 3fd metacarpal and 2' phalanx on 3ft metacarpal were 59.6 mm ± 6.57 (SD), 25.1 mm ± 1.65 (SD) and 27.4mm ±2.43 (SD) respectively. The mean length of 4th maetacarpal and it's 1st and 2nd halanx were 47.0 mm ± 2.86 (SD), 13.4mm±1.60 (SD) and 7.8mm ± 2.25 (SD), respectively. The4 mean length of 5th metacarpal was 40.8 mm± 6.99(SD) Their wingspan was 30.9mm ±1.80 (SD). Hind foot and tiabia length was 15.5mm ± 1.29 (SD). Their calcar and penis length was 6.0mm ±1.41 (SD) and 5.9 mm± 1.93 (SD) respectively.
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Morphology Of Some Bat Species Of District Bajaur Agency And Adjacent Areas
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Publisher: 2009-2011 Dissertation note: This one year study extending from June 2010 to May 2011 was made to collect information on various bat species inhabiting Bajur Agency (FATA) and some adjacent areas (KPK). A total of 30 bats were captured and measured for body and cranial parameters during the present study. Of these twenty specimens were collected from Bajaur Agency and ten from Dir (Lower). All the potential roosting sites were thoroughly searched and their GPS locations were recorded. Bat samples were collected through mist nets and hand nets. Each captured specimen was tagged in the field indicating a specific field number, date and time of capture, exact locality, age, sex and the name of town or village of Bajaur Agency. They were preserved in 95% Alcohol before weighed, measured and autopsied. The standard morphometric, cranial and bacular measurements of each specimen were recorded and compared with that given in the literature.
Twenty bats were captured from two Tehsils of district Bajaur Agency (SA1). Fourteen bats were captured from Tehsil Khar. These included Scotophillus heathii (1?) captured from Molakaly, Pipistrellus ceylonicus (1?, 1?), Pipistrellus tenuis (1?) Pipistrellus cromendra (1?), Pipistrellus javanicus (1?) and Scotophilus kuhlii (2?) captured from Tuhaidabad and Pipistrellus cromandra (1?, 5?) captured from Daray. Six bats were recorded from Teshil Salarzo. These included Pipistrellus pipistrellus (2?), Pipistrellus tenius (1?, 1?) and Pipistrellus javanicus (1?) captured from Malkana and one Rhinolopus hipposiderous (?) captured from Tattay. Ten bats were captured from Dir (Lower). These included Megaderma lyra (1?,4?) Rhinolopus ferrumequinum (1?) and Rhinolopus hipposiderous (4?).
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Bat Biodiversity (Vespertilioniformes: Order Chiroptera) In Some Tropical And Arid-Subtropical Regions Of Pakistan
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from June 2009 to May 2011 in those arid subtropical and tropical regions of Pakistan which included less pronounced monsoon influenced areas of the Salt Range, the Upper Indus Plains and the sand dune areas typified by the Cholistan. Bat surveys were conducted in two protected areas i.e. the Margallah Hills National Park (SA1) and the Chinji National Park (SA2) that were located in the arid subtropical region and in another, the Lal Suhanara National Park (SA3), situated in the tropical sand dune region of the Upper Indus Plains. In addition, bat samples were also collected from Gujranwala, Lahore, Tob Tek Singh and Kasur districts (SA4). These sub-areas were selected to maximize the chances of capture of as many bat species inhabiting arid-subtropical and tropical habitats of Pakistan as possible.
A total of 182 bats belonging to twelve species were recorded. These included R. blasii (Family Rhinolophidae), R. hardwickii (Family Rhinopomatidae), Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus (Family Emballonuridae), Scotoecus pallidus, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, P. javanicus, P. pipistrellus, P. tenuis and Hypsugo savii (Vespertilionidae). Rhinolphous blasii was captured only from SA1, R. hardwickii and S. pallidus from SA3 and P. tenuis from SA1. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured from SA1 and SA3, S. kuhlii and P. ceylonicus from SA1 and SA4, H. savii from SA1 and SA2 and P. javanicus from SA1 and SA2. Scotophilus heathii and P. pipistrellus were recroded throughout the study area.
Maximum bat activity was recorded in spring (n = 65) that was followed by summer ( n = 61), autumn (n = 32) and winter (n = 24). Rhinolophus blasii and S. pallidus were recorded only during winter, R. hardwickii and P. tenuis during autumn, while S. kuhlii was recorded only during summer. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured during summer and autumn. Pipistrellus pipistrellus was recorded during autumn, spring and winter while S. heathii was captured throughout the year.
Although the netting effort was the same, the number of bats captured from the SAs was different. A total of 72 bats were recorded from SA1, 52 from SA4, 43 from Lal SA3 and 15 from SA2. The dominance was highest for SA2 and lowest for SA1. Both Shannon and Simpson indices show that the diversity was the highest at SA1 followed by SA3, SA4 and SA2. Evenness was found to be highest at SA4 followed by SA3, SA2 and SA1.
The mean head and body length of three Rhinolophus blasii was 39.33 mm ± 0.577 (SD) forearm length was 40.17 mm ± 1.155 (SD) and the tail length was 19.23 mm ± 1.940 (SD). The greatest skull length of a single R. blasii was 17.22 mm and mandible length was 11.80 mm. The baculum of a single R. blasii sample was 3.5 mm long.
The mean head and body length of two Rhinopoma hardwickii 66.00 mm ± 5.657 (SD). The mean forearm length was 54.00 mm ± 0.0 (SD). The tail length was 59.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The greatest skull length was 19.68 mm ± 0.108 (SD), and the length of mandible was 11.28 mm ± 1.652. The baculum of single R. hardwickii was 1.1 mm long.
The mean head and body length of twenty six Taphozous nudiventris was 86.87 mm ± 5.556 (SD) and the tail length was 27.57 mm ± 12.187 (SD). The greatest skull length was 26.16 mm ± 0.323 (SD) and the length of mandible was 17.53 mm ± 1.149 (SD). The mean total baculum length of the two specimens was 0.58 mm ± 0.017 (SD).
The head and body length of four T. perforatus was measured as 84.30 mm ± 5.450 (SD) long. The forearm was 64.30 mm ± 3.457 (SD) long and the length of tail was 22.10 mm ± 2.702 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 22.24 mm and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.25 mm. The total length of a single T. perforatus was measured as 0.69 mm. The head and body length of fifty three Scotophilus heathii was 79.46 mm ± 6.941 (SD). The mean forearm length was 58.69 mm ± 2.929 (SD) and the tail length was 55.00 mm ± 7.360 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 21.39 mm ± 1.378 (SD) and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.08 mm ± 0.882 (SD). Mean total bacular length of ten S. heathii was measured 1.76 mm ± 0.150 (SD).
The mean head and body length of five specimens of S. kuhlii was 72.10 mm ± 8.096 (SD). The forearm was 49.40 mm ± 3.03 (SD) long and the length of tail was 42.40 mm ± 4.04 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 18.98 mm ± 0.613 (SD) and the mandible length was 14.41 mm ± 1.173 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. kuhlii was 1.74 mm.
The head and body length of two Scotoecus pallidus was 56.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The forearm was 35.50 mm ± 0.707 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 35.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 15.46 mm ± 0.449 (SD) and mandible length was measured 9.64 mm ± 2.425 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. pallidus captured from SA3 was 5.0 mm.
The mean head and body length of twenty two Pipistrellus ceylonicus was 63.60 mm ± 7.486 (SD). The length of forearm was 29.92 mm ± 2.492 (SD) and tail length was 25.68 mm ± 3.442 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.76 mm ± 0.257 (SD) and the length of mandible was 9.28 mm ± 3.956 (SD), respectively. Mean total length of the bacula of four P. ceylonicus was 3.66 mm ± 1.190 (SD).
Mean head and body length of the ten P. javanicus was 52.00 mm ± 2.712 (SD). The forearm was 35.13 mm ± 1.996 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 30.38 mm ± 5.236 (SD). The greatest skull length was 13.01 mm ± 4.546 (SD) and the length of mandible was 10.29 mm ± 1.679 (SD). The mean total length of the four bacula was 3.57 mm ± 0.860 (SD).
The head and length of fifty two P. pipistrellus was 39.33 mm ± 2.690 (SD). The forearm was 28.23 mm ± 1.264 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 25.86 mm ± 3.396 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 11.04 mm ± 0.342 (SD) and the length of mandible was 7.87 mm ± 0.802 (SD). The mean total length of the eleven bacula of P. pistrellus was 3.19 mm ± 0.421 (SD).
Only two specimens of P. tenuis were captured from SA1. The head and body length of these specimens was 35.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The forearm length was 28.00±0.707 while the length of the tail was 22.25 mm ± 3.182 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.19 mm. and the mandible length was 7.82 mm. The total bacular length was 2.79.
The head and body length of the two Hypsugo savii was 55.50 mm ± 19.092 (SD). The forearm was 36.75 mm ± 3.889 (SD) long while the length of the tail was 33.50 mm ±6.364 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 11.18 mm and the length of mandible was 7.08 mm. The total bacular length of a single H. savii was 2.67 mm.
The echolocation calls of bats of Pakistan have never been recorded and thus the accuracy of species identification on the basis of their calls remains a bit doubtful.
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