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1. Disposition Kinetics Of Oxytetracycline In Sheep

by Rana Fatima | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Mr. Riaz ul Haq Siddique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: The pharmacokinetic s of ooxytetracycline was investigated in eight normal adult female sheep after intravenous administration. The blood samples collected at various time intervals were assayed for unchanged oxytetracycline. The plasma concerntrations of oxytetracycline at different time intervals from 5 minutes to 24 hours ater injection were plotted on semilograthmic graph paper versus time. The results are expressed after performing two compartment model kinetic analysis. After single intravenous administration of ox tetracycline in sheep, the distribution half life and biological half life shoed average +- values of 21.52 + 5.72 and 413.75+ 25.08 minutes and ranged between 16 to 29 manures and 365 to 442 minutes, respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of oxytetracycline in sheep calculated by area method was 1.049+ 0.0009 1/kg and ranged between 0.99 to 1.25 1/kg-1. The average + values of volume of central compartment was 0.659+ 0.005 1/kg. The rate constant for oxyteyracyline transfer across compartment 1 to 2 (k12)and 2 to 1 (k21) were an average + SEM 0.723+0.02, 1.281 + 0.03 respectively. Total body clearance of oxytetracyline through intravenous route calculated on per kg basis ranged between 91.56 to 122.88 ml. min h-1 oxytetracylcine was bound to plasma protein on an average 49.3+ .002 percent and ranged between 46 to 51 percent. The renal clearance of total and free oxytetracycline as 5.42 + 2.09 and 10.57 + 3.81 ml/min 10 kg, respectively. The results showed that the renal clearance of oxyytetracylcine involved molecular filtration and back diffusion which is independent of pH, diuresis and presence of total and free oxtetracylcine. The average + SD urinary excretion of oxytetracycline as about 18.01 + 4.03 percent of the does at 24 hourse. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1144,T] (1).

2. Isolation Characterization And Growth Optimization Of Starch Hydrolyzing Fungi From Soil Of Livestock Farms

by Saba Sana | Prof. Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1898,T] (1).

3. Screening And Characterization Of Phytase And Bile Salt Hydrolases Producing Probiotic Lactobacilli Isolated

by Madiha arif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Khushi muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2001,T] (1).

4. Isolation And Characterization Of Antibiotic Resistant Lactobacilli From Fermented Food Products

by Shahgull | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Aftab anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2002,T] (1).

5. Development Of Prebiotic Galacto - Oligosaccharide Enriched Buttermilk And Evaluation Of Its Storage Stability

by Hafsa Tahir (2012-VA-584) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2181,T] (1).

6. Occurrence Of Bacterial Contaminants In Poultry Meals And Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

by Nayyab Tariq (2009-VA-207) | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry is the second largest industry after textile industry in Pakistan. Its consumption rate is very high as compared to other animal protein sources, as it is cheaper as compared to red meat. To fulfill increasing demand of poultry, poultry production quality must be improved. Many factors affect poultry production. One factor is feeding process. Efficiency of poultry production depends mainly on feeding process which influences both the quality and quantity of the poultry production (Grepay 2009). The rearing of poultry birds on commercial level requires use of bulk quantities of poultry feed. Poultry feed costs 60-70% of total cost for production (Sahraei et al. 2012). The main purpose to increase poultry production is to fulfill nutritional requirements of human population that largely rely on poultry and poultry by products as a source of protein(Obi and Ozugbo 2007). Poultry feeds are food materials designed to contain all necessary feed ingredients for proper growth, meat and egg production in birds (Obi and Ozugbo 2007). It is a mixture of various components including plant proteins (cereals and by products, grains etc), animal byproducts, fats, vitamins and minerals (Ravindran 2013). The major component of poultry feed is protein which is the key component of eggs and meat. Protein sources in poultry feed are of plant, marine and animal origin. Plant proteins may lack some of the essential amino acids, thus are incomplete protein. Proteins of animal origin are better growth promoter than protein of plant origin, but their safety is a concern. Among plant based proteins, soybean and canola meal are produced in higher amounts worldwide (Alali et al. 2011). The animal protein sources include poultry, fish, meat bone and poultry by products meal. Poultry meal is derived from clean tissues Introduction 2 of slaughtered poultry including bone after the moisture and fat have been extracted in the rendering process. It may contain whole birds excluding feathers (Anonymus 2014). Among all protein based meals, poultry meals and poultry by products meal are of superior quality and provide higher protein content than plant, marine and meat based meals (Samli et al. 2006). Quality of animal feed has gained importance worldwide. The feeds are found to be associated with infectious or non-infectious hazards, thus influence human health (Sherazi et al. 2015). Poultry feed can act as carrier of animal and human pathogens (Aliyu et al. 2012). Poultry feed can get contaminated at any point of harvesting, processing, storage or dispersal of feed. Primary mode of poultry feed contamination is by dust, soil, water and insects. Poultry meals can be another source of feed contamination. Poultry meals are added in feed as a source of protein. Feeds of animal origin like poultry meals are richer in nutrients and water as compared to feed of plant origin thus are found to have higher microbial load, facilitating the multiplication of bacteria (Kukier and Kwiatek 2011). Inclusion of contaminated meals in feed increases microbial load of poultry feed. The contamination of poultry feed not only influences appearance and nutritional value of feed, but also affects animals and human who consumes it (Maciorowski et al. 2007). The profitability of poultry production can be greatly affected due to the frequency of feed contamination and the detrimental effects of the aflatoxins on performance of chickens (Anjum et al. 2011). Poultry feeds have been implicated in several poultry diseases of viral (Avian Influenza, Newcastle disease), bacterial (Salmonellosis, Infectious Coryza) and fungal origin. Many human diseases like Traveler’s Diarrhea and Salmonella Paratyphoid fever have been associated with consumption of poultry birds that contracted infections from poultry feed (Obi and Ozugbo 2007). Introduction 3 The poultry industry relies on ready to use poultry feed prepared by feed mills (Arotupin et al. 2007). Both bacteria and fungi including mycotoxins usually contaminate feed at different stages of pre or post processing, depending upon the conditions under which it is handled or stored (D’Mello 2006). Poultry meals mostly get contaminated post rendering process. The cooking step in rendering process inactivates bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasites(Meeker and Hamilton 2006) . Still presence of contaminants in meals is attributed to post processing contamination. Many bacterial pathogens reported in feed are Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Enterococcus fecalis, Cl. perferingens and Cl. botulinum (Aliyu et al. 2012; Lateef and Gueguim-Kana 2014) . The contaminated feed results in excessive activation of immune system and ultimately decreases poultry production and its profitability (Kukier et al. 2012). In addition to bacterial contaminants, toxigenic fungi have threatened quality and safety of feed and have caused severe losses to poultry industry in recent times. Cereals and grains based poultry feed mostly get contaminated with fungi (Kwiatek and Kukier 2008). Mycotoxin producing fungal genera that are reported in poultry feed are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium (Greco et al. 2014). As Poultry feed is the first step of the food safety chain in "farm-to-fork" model. Contaminated feed can also serve as a source of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in poultry meat(da Costa et al. 2007). There are many evidences that pathogens in feed are transmitted to humans through animals and food of animal origin. It can also become source of some human pathogens in environment. Feed contamination by fungi is responsible for animal mycotoxicoses and through consumption of contaminated animal food, results in human intoxications (Kukier et al. 2012). Birds utilizing toxins containing feed are economical loss for farmers and also affects consumer Introduction 4 health through its residues (Alam et al. 2012). Poultry feeds containing antibiotic resistant bacteria results in loss of poultry productivity, making treatment of poultry diseases difficult. Thus quality of animal food directly depends on usage of nutritionally balanced and safe feed. Among many feed sources used, poultry meals are gaining importance for their higher nutritional value, but very less work has been done in world particularly in Pakistan to determine microbiological safety of poultry meals produced. There is the need to determine various quality parameters which should be followed to ensure production of safe meal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2252-T] (1).

7. Isolation And Characterization Of Antibiotic Resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria From Poultry Gastrointestinal Tract

by Nabeea Saleem (2008-VA-234) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are heterogeneous group of bacteria which are fastidious in nature. LAB has acquired status as Generally-Recognized-as-Safe (GRAS) status. Over-use and misuse of antibiotics in veterinary and human clinical setups give rise to antibiotic resistant lactic acid bacteria in gastrointestinal tracts which act as antibiotic resistance reservoir. Acquired and transferable antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria is a newly identified safety concern in poultry. So, it is dire need of time to determine the situation of antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria of poultry gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study was conducted to isolate lactobacilli from indigenous and broiler gastrointestinal tract of chicken. For this purpose, chicken feces, cloaca and caecum samples (n=20 each) were collected from Lahore. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated on MRS medium. Isolates were identified by phenotypic characteristics including Colonial morphology, Gram staining and Catalase test. While molecular identification of lactobacillus spp. was done by PCR at an annealing temperature of 55°C using the primers XB-5 and LbLMA-1 with an expected product size of 250bp. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics such as ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cephradine, cefuroxime, ofloxacin, levofloxacin were determined by the broth micro dilution method following the EFSA guidelines. Antibiotic resistance genes, including erythromycin arm (B) and tetracycline Tet (M) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The comparison of % antibiotic resistance pattern between broiler and indigenous lactobacillus spp. against different antibiotics was analysed for chi-square test using SPSS ……………………………………………………………………………………………Summary 67 version 16.0. The study provided data on antibiotic resistance pattern of transferable resistance genes in lactic acid bacteria of poultry gut. Conclusion: From the present study it is concluded that a high level of resistance was shown by lactobacillus spp. against tested antibiotics. Lactobacillus spp. were screened by PCR for known resistance genes and thus were able to determine the presence of erm(B) and tet (M) genes in all lactobacillus spp. using erm(B) and tet (M)-specific primers. All lactobacillus spp. were also phenotypically resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. Thus, the present study indicates that such erm (B) and Tet (M) genes occur among different LAB genera and species therefore it is the need of time to study other resistance determinants to ensure the safety of poultry meat and spread of resistance determinants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2282-T] (1).

8. Isolation And Characterization Of Avian Isolates Of Lactobacilli Species And Their Antisalmonella Activity

by Anum Shaukat (2009-VA-220) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Prof. Dr. Mansur-Ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is second largest industry of Pakistan. Poultry industry is cheaper source of protein and provides jobs for more than 1.5 million people. It is facing several problems due to microbial diseases. Salmonella is one of the leading causes of diseases in poultry. These are being treated with antibiotics but misuse and overuse of antibiotics result in antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms. We need some alternatives for treatments. Lactobacilli are one of the alternatives to antibiotics used as probiotics. It has been found that the Lactobacilli of poultry origin have antimicrobial activity against Salmonella. Lactobacilli was isolated from the droppings, cloaca and caecum of rural poultry birds using deMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium. The isolates were screened for anti-Salmonella activity against S. enterica along with their properties to resist low pH and bile acids, antibiotic sensitivity, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation. The isolates showed anti-salmonella activity were identified using microscopic characters and biochemical profile. The isolates were confirmed by PCR using species specific primers and sequencing 16S rRNA gene. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA at significance level P value <0.05 by using the statistical software Graph Pad Prism version 5.3. The study was conducted on a total of 60 samples including caecal swabs (n=20), cloacal swabs (n=20) and dropping (n=20) of indigenous poultry. From these samples, five isolates were Summary 57 selected based upon the tests performed. Isolates namely CLB-41, CLB-45, PDL-13, PDL-26 and PDL-33 showed best results. Further characterization was done by PCR and sequencing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2313-T] (1).

9. Activity Of Plant Extract Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Against Selective Medically Important Pathogens

by Qurat UL Ain (2010-VA-295) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Due to increased use of antibiotics different common pathogenic microbes have developed antibiotic resistance. The problem of antibiotic resistance is growing day by day. Plants are being used as a valuable source of natural products to maintain the health. So use of plant extracts is an interesting and valuable way to control this problem. Metal particles have antibacterial activity. Extract mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a very impressive way to control the microbial diseases. To synthesize metallic nanoparticles using extracts is a superior method than any other method. Silver has distinctive properties as antibacterial agent. Nanoparticles can be synthesized by various methods but green synthesis is environment friendly and much more important than other methods. Melia azedarach have many active components due to which its every part has some antimicrobial characteristics. Its extract mediated AgNPs are very important in this regard. Similarly Albizia procera extracts has potential to kill pathogenic microbes. That’s why these two plants were selected to synthesize nanoparticles. Fresh leaves were collected extracts were prepared. Silver nitrate solution was prepared and then this solution was allowed to react with each extract separately. After the formation, nanoparticles were separated by centrifugation. Then their characterization was done by UV visible spectroscopy and FTIR. After characterization well diffusion assay was performed to check antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against selected medically important pathogens. It was found that the antimicrobial activity of extract mediated nanoparticles was better than the antimicrobial activity of plant extract alone. Summary 51 In the present work it is explored that nanoparticles formed from extract of Albizia procera has a greater antimicrobial activity against important medical pathogens. In short it was proven that nanoparticles can control the pathogens in a better way as compared to the extract alone. And this result that nanoparticles mediated particles extract of Albizia procera has suggested many other new facts. Albizia procera’s properties are needed to be explored more. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2507-T] (1).

10. Antimicrobial Activity Of Selected Plant Extracts Against Streptococcus Mutans Isolated From Dental Caries

by Iqra Shaukat (2010-VA-287) | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Streptococcus mutans is gram positive bacteria and present in cocci and chain form. It is facultative anaerobes, non-motile, catalase negative and non-spore forming, lactic acid bacteria and normally found in oral cavity (Rao and Austin 2014). S.mutans involve in endocarditis, dental caries, have ability to adhere to the cardiac tissue and cause chronic infective endocarditis. Caries is caused of tooth decay and tooth loss in adult and school aged children. Many microorganisms can cause dental caries namely S. mutans, S.sanguis, s.mitis, S.salivarius and S. sobrinus but S.mutans have major role in developing of dental caries. Dental caries is major problem around the globe in these days. Generally it treated with antibiotics. But now a day’s due to increase in antibiotic resistance, recently plant extracts and plants parts are being in use as treatment and oral hygiene. It is therefore, present research was designed to analyze the plant extract which having antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria and have been used traditionally for cleaning the teeth. Azadirachta indica (Neem), Acacia nilotica (Kikar), Pongamia pinnata (Sukhchein) and Salvadora persica (Peelu) were used to check the activity against S. mutans. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of bark were prepared of selected plants. Extract potential against S. mutans was checked through well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Dental caries samples were collected from different hospitals from Lahore. Twenty five samples were processed to isolate S.mutans. Out of twenty five samples twenty isolates of S.mutans were isolated which showed resistance against bacitracin, confirmed by disk method.. Biochemical tests such as hemolysis test and sugar fermentation tests were also done for the confirmation of S. mutans. Furthermore, antibiotic sensitive test was performed to check the sensitive pattern of S. mutans All S. mutans were resistant to oxacillin, cefmetazole and cephaloridine, and sensitive to streptomycin Summary 50 and gentamycin. S. mutans showed high level of resistance to ceftriaxone (90%), cefixim (90%), chloramphenicol (65%) and vancomycin (60%), and intermediate level of resistance to sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (40%) and ciprofloxacin (30%), and low level of resistance to amoxicillin (25%), delfopristin (25%) ampicillin (20%), fusidic acid (20%) and linezolid (5%). MIC value for aqueous extract for Salvadora persica, Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Pongamia pinnata are 24-48, 3-48,0,180-12 and >48 mg/ml respectively, and MIC value for methanolic extract are 0.09-12, 3->48, 0.376-6 and 1.5-24 mg/ml respectively. This in vitro study gives us natural antimicrobial plants which can help us to control dental caries and endodontic infections. The effects of these extracts might be beneficial if incorporated in tooth paste, mouth rinses and dental products to reduce plaque and dental caries. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2508-T] (1).

11. Evaluation Of Antibacterial Activity Of Ciprofloxacin Alone And In Combination With Diclofenac Sodium Against Different Pathogenic Bacteria

by Mehwish Khan (2014-VA-816) | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Antibiotic resistance is an international public health problem as a result of an excessive and indiscriminate antibiotics usage, which has resulted in emergence of MDR microorganisms. This study is designed for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of different dilutions of Diclofenac sodium alone and in combination with Ciprofloxacin by using well diffusion method against bacterial pathogens to improve the quality of life of patients and minimize the chances of infections. Different dilutions of Diclofenac sodium alone and in combination with Ciprofloxacin were checked for antibacterial activity againstEscherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebseilla pneumonia and Salmonella enterica. Three isolates of each bacterium were obtained from Microbiology department, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences, Lahore. The pathogens were tested for their sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and azithromycin. The sensitivity was checked by disc diffusion method. Their zones of inhibition was measured in mm and compared with the CLSI standards. All the available bacteria were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Well diffusion method was used to measure the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin. For this purpose, 100 µg of ciprofloxacin was used and three concentrations of 100µg, 200µg and 300µg of diclofenac sodium were used. Diclofenac sodium when used with the ciprofloxacin in higher concentrations, it caused the increase in the zone of inhibition significantly among all the bacteria. Maximum antibacterial activity of drugs combination was seen with E.coliamong all the bacteria.Synergism between diclofenac sodium and ciprofloxacin was found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.01) when compared with the individual effects of the ciprofloxacin Collected data was analyzed by using statistic package for social sciences (SPSS, windows version, Chicago, IL, USA). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and descriptive statistics was appliedusing graphpad prism 5.03. This study indicates that Diclofenac sodium in combination with Ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli,Staphylococcusaureus, Klebseilla pneumonia and Salmonella entericamay be effective and used as a synergistic combination to achieve more effective outcomes for disease management. This can be experimented further to evaluate these effects and prove to be major leap towards the increasing antibacterial resistance globally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2569-T] (1).

12. Evaluation Of Inhibition Activity Of Indigenous Lactobacilli Spp. On Ammonia Emitting Bacteria

by Fatima Sajjad (2010-VA-312) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Poultry is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan which is growing at an amazing rate of more than 10% from last few years. It provides jobs for more than 1.5 Million people. Although, it is growing at excellent pace, it still faces many problems. One of the important problems in poultry farming is the production of ammonia by urease producing microbes. Ammonia is health hazard for both poultry and human. Urease producing bacteria which are the major problems in poultry are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in poultry droppings. Probiotics such as Lactobacilli can inhibit the urease producing bacteria in poultry intestine as well as environment thus mitigate the ammonia emission. Present study was designed to isolate Lactobacilli from indigenous poultry, screen them for antimicrobial activity against urease producing microbes and determine their effect on growth of Proteus mirabilis during co-culture experiments. A total of 71 Lactobacilli isolated were recovered from 20 samples of droppings (10) and caeca (10) of back-yard poultry on MRS agar plates. Twenty seven (27) isolates demonstrated antimicrobial activity against ammonia emitting bacteria by agar spot and well diffusion assays. Seven isolates (FSL19, FSL25, FSL39, FSL45, FSL51, FSL63 and FSL71), having better antimicrobial activity, were selected for co-culturing with Proteus mirabilis in nutrient broth. FSL25, FSL45, and FSL51 showed more than 2 log10 reduction of Proteus mirabilis in co-culture experiments. FSL25, FSL45, and FSL51 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius, respectively by amplifying and sequencing their partial 16S rDNA. It is concluded that Lactobacillus plantarum FSL25, Lactobacillus fermentum FSL45 and Lactobacillus salivarius FSL51 may be used to mitigate ammonia emitting bacteria in poultry environment after further investigations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2594-T] (1).

13. Study Of Effect Of Heat On Aflatoxin Reduction In Chickpea

by Zarmeena Khan (2009-VA-514) | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Naureen Naeem | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), also called garbanzo bean or Bengal gram, belongs to the family Fabaceae of class dicots (Lev-Yadun et al. 2000). It is an important legume crop cultivated over an area of 963.0 hectares with a production of about 675.2 tons in Pakistan. It is the most nutritive pulse extensively used as protein addition to starchy diet. The major issue which influences the chickpea is naturally occurring aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) with AFB1 the most important, toxic and carcinogenic. Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AfG2) are toxins produced by Aspergillus flavis and Aspergillus parasiticus infecting the agricultural crops. Chickpea is largely contaminated by aflatoxins in Pakistan due to seasonal variations, improper management of grains and contaminated soils. These are dangerous fungal metabolites that impair child development, suppress the immune system, cause cancer and in severe acute exposure death occurs, so it is necessary to estimate its toxicity in public health perspective. For this purpose present study was conducted to determine the level of aflatoxins in Chickpea samples (Roasted and Unroasted). Samples were collected from different areas of Lahore i.e. Anarkali, Icchra, Model town, Gulberg, Mughalpura,Iqbal Town, Samnabad, Secretriate, Sabza Zar, Wahdat Road, Shad Bagh, Data Darbar, Thokar Niaz Begh, Cantt, Lohari Gate, Outfall Road, Dharampura, Joray Pull, Rehman Pura, Mozang, Faiz Bagh, Akbari Mandi, Liberty, Jallo Morh, Lahore Medical Society, Darogha Wala, Firdous Market, Siddiqia Colony, District Court, Sanat Nagar and also from chickpea vendors. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to check the presence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2). TLC analyses were further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to verify the accuracy of TLC. These analyses were performed in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and WTO labs, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Experimental results showed that 60 out of 120 samples were contaminated with four different types of aflatoxins. In other words, 50% samples were found contaminated with aflatoxnis. Aflatoxin B1 was the major aflatoxin found in many samples but aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 were also identified. Samples were analyzed on TLC method and 5% of contaminated samples were re- evaluated on HPLC technique to get precise results. Out of 120 samples sixty samples (50%) were collected from retail shops and other sixty (50%) samples were collected from street vendors. Each category of sixty samples holds 50% roasted and 50% un-roasted samples. Out of 120 total samples of chickpea 60 samples were taken from vendors with 2 categories of roasted and unroasted while 60 samples were collected from shops with the same categories. In those 120 samples, 60 (50%) were contaminated. From those 60 samples 39 (65%) samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1. And it was also observed that the aflatoxin contamination level in vendors sample was high as compared to samples collected from shops. Out of 39 AFB1 contaminated samples vendor’s samples included 26 (66.66%) samples and samples collected from shops included 13 (33.3%) samples. In 26 vendors’ samples contaminated by AFB1, 18 (69.2%) samples were un-roasted while 8 (30.7%) samples were roasted. Aflatoxin B2 was present in 14 (23.33%) samples from these 60 contaminated samples, and presents only in both vendors and shops samples i.e. 7 (50%) samples from vendors and 7 (50%) from shops. From these AFB2 contaminated samples 10 samples (71.4%) were un-roasted and 4 samples (28.5%) was roasted. Aflatoxin G1 is also present in 5 samples (8.33%), out of which one sample (20%) was collected from vendors and 4 samples (80%) was collected from shop. From these G1 contaminated samples, 1 (20%) was roasted and 4 (80%) was un-roasted. Aflatoxin G2 is present only in two samples collected from vendors and shops, and we can say that 3.33% samples were contaminated with aflatoxin G12, out of 60 contaminated samples. From above results it is concluded that out of 60 contaminated samples 43 (71.66%) were un-roasted and 17 samples (28.33%) were roasted. After the aflatoxin determination in 60 shop’s and 60 vendor’s roasted and unroasted chickpea samples 5 samples were further processed at home by keeping 1 sample unroasted and 4 samples roasted at time intervals of 5mins,10mins,15mins and 20mins in sand bath. All the samples were free from the aflatoxin contamination except one which was unroasted. AFB1 was present in that sample at its minimum level i.e. 32.16µg/kg. AFB1 was present more frequently in chickpea samples. Present study will be supportive for the investigation of aflatoxins in chickpea samples. Chickpea is widely consumed all over the world and occurrence of aflatoxins in this commodity is a major concern to human health. The present situation is too much worse about the levels of aflatoxins which are higher than the prescribed limit by the regulatory authorities. It was observed that TLC technique is good for the determination of aflatoxins in developing countries where the facilities of sensitive instruments are not accessible. Furthermore to quantify levels of aflatoxins by using sensitive instruments like HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS is required for accurate detection of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2) in chickpea samples available in markets to protect the consumers from exposure of aflatoxins high level which are carcinogenic and hepatotoxic. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2599-T] (1).

14. In Vitro Activity Of Selected Biocides Against Fungal Isolates From Production Area Of Pharmaceutical Industry

by Sana Ilyas (2009-VA-238) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pakistan pharmaceutical industries have grown to grab their position amongst top ten pharmaceutical industries of Asia Pacific region. These are serving with 80% of pharmaceutical needs. The industry on the other hand faces some challenges in terms of sterile pharmaceutical product manufacturing. The fungal contamination causes spoilage to pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, and food products. The fungal contamination to pharmaceutical products has resulted in direct losses to human health and to economy. A total of 50 air samples were collected from clean area of a pharmaceutical production unit by exposing sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates by settle plate method (4 hours exposure). Fungal colonies were purified by sub-culturing and later identified macroscopically and microscopically. Selected biocides included isopropyl alcohol (70%), chloroxylenol (20%), chlorhexidine gluconate (20%), and benzalkonium chloride (20%) were used in this study. A 100 μl of spore suspension of each fungal contaminant (1.0 × 106 to 5.0 × 106 spores/mL) was exposed to 9.9 mL of biocide preparation for 15 and 30 minutes while exposure was stopped by adding 1 mL of mixture (spores exposed to biocide) into 9 mL of respective neutralizing agents The enumeration of colonies was started immediately after the growth was visible and expressed as Mean±S.D. and converted to log10. Antifungal activity of biocides was expressed as log10 reduction and different biocides‟ activity was compared using ANOVA technique by graphed prism 5.0 statistical software. Total 204 colony forming units (CFU) were identified from filling area (36), solution room (47), and buffers (121). The antifungal activity in terms of log reduction was lowest by isopropyl alcohol at 15 minutes and highest was shown by chlorohexidine gluconate at 30 minutes against Summary 64 Aspergillus flavus. In case of Aspergillus fumigatus all the biocides presented significant difference of antifungal activity at 15 minutes. The response of Aspergillus niger against different biocides at 15 minutes and 30 minutes was same as was in case of Aspergillus flavus while each biocide‟s antifungal activity was found significantly increased with increase in time of exposure. The similar response of antifungal activity of different biocides at both exposure times was noted against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antifungal activity of all biocides against penicillium was found significant different at 15 minutes and 30 minutes exposure time. Similarly, each biocide‟s antifungal activity increased with increase in time of exposure. On overall basis, isopropyl alcohol was found less effective while benzalkonium chloride and chlorohexidine gluconate presented comparatively higher efficacy against fungal isolates. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2705-T] (1).

15. Role Ofprebiotic Galacto - Oligosaccharides In Rehablitation Of Gut Microbiota Distrubed By Antibiotic Therapy

by Toheed Ahmad (2014-VA-545) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Azmat Ullah Khan | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In this research work, GOS was availed by Friesland campina Domo, Vivinal® GOS powder. Galacto-oligosaccride rich in whey product and is white homogeneous powder, neutral to slightly sweet,and were fed to the patients of sore throat who were on antibiotic trial to check the growth of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteriu, E. coli and total plate count after disturbing micro flora.Then, by using the same concentrations of antibiotic for two group and prebiotics were fed orally to group one which was treatment group and other was control only depend upon antibiotic. After 0, 5, 10 and 15 days the fecal samples were collected aseptically to check the growth of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, E. coli and total plate count. Colony counting was done very to count the colonies.The plates were incubated at 37 ºC and numbers of colonies were counted on digital colony counter. The results showed that treatment groupof Lactobacilli showed significantly high growth of colonies as compared to control group.The two-other bacteria Bifidobacterium and E. coli species were also tested. Bifidobacteriumrecovered back as earliest it was possible due to the consumption of GOS while it was opposite in case of control. In case of control group Bifidobacteria did not recover back to its original condition even on 15th day of sampling.In case of E. coli and Total Plate Count results of colonies counting showed that day 0 and 10 show the maximum growth of bacteria, the day 10 and 15 were also similar in statistically results due to the rapid increment in rehabilitation of gut micro-biota but the situation in E. coli case were little different because microflora’s strains did not much disturbed and E. coli growth were high in both groups as compare to all other bacteria. This was due to the naturally developed immunity of E. coli against antibiotic.Results of control group of total plat count was checked and it was noticed that the growth of colonies was slow and the results of 0,5,10 and 15 days did match statistically as per requirement. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2725-T] (1).

16. Assessment Of Heavymetal Contaminants From Protein Sources

by Marriam Wasif (2014-VA-216) | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Ms. Saman Saad | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Protein is one of the main ingredients of basic need of every human diet. Demand is more than its production. This shortage is more in underdeveloped countries like Pakistan. Due to industrial waste, many toxic heavy metals stay within the earth rather than its decomposition. There is a cycle of circulation of these toxic heavy metals getting back into the tissues or organs of grazing animals through feeds. (Nawaz, et al. 2015). These toxic heavy metals have no useful impact on the body but instead, these cause extremely toxic effects even at their lower concentration. In animal tissues bioaccumulation of heavy metals is hazardous to human health. Heavy metals which are more likely to be present in animal tissues, are Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb (Javed, 2005). Other source of contamination is vehicle emission and dirty slaughter places. Meat especially body tissues, organ of livestock i.e. liver, kidney and stomach sold by shopkeepers on road side or at open market are more vulnerable for deposition of metals. (Mariam, et al. 2004). The second source of protein is poultry which has shorter time of production of meat rather than red meat animals. Its demand in world increases due to reasonable prices and its nutritive property. (Mahmoud, et al. 2015). The other protein source is hen eggs which contain a large number of heavy metals which is due to contaminated feed and polluted water. But still, there are some traces minerals which is very beneficial and nutritive to health (Rehman, et al. 2013). Last main source of protein is fish, which is more susceptible contamination of heavy metal. Dangerous level of heavy metals has evident deadly or ceaseless impacts on fish (Qadir, et al. 2011). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2751-T] (1).

17. Comparitive Study Of Biogas Production From Wastewater Sludge Of Tehsil Municiple Administration (Tma) Ravi Town Drains In Lahore

by Hira Khalid (2014-VA-229) | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Global expansion in energy demand has convinced energetic search for alternative energy sources. Biogas is an energy-rich combination of mainly methane and carbon dioxide and can be used for active purposes. It is a cheap way to meet energy crises. It is an odorless, colorless and flammable gas with an energy content of 37.3 MJ/m3. It is produced by process of anaerobic digestion comprising of three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenesis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Out of the 14 drains in Lahore, sludge samples were collected from Samanabad, outfall and Gulshan-e-Ravi drains. These samples were analyzed for Electrical conductivity (HI 8633 EC meter), pH (HI 2210 pH meter), BOD5 (HI 9146 DO meter), Total carbon content, Nitrogen (Kjeldhal’s method), Phosphorus (V-110 spectrophotometer), Potassium (Multichannel Flame photometer-AFP 100) and Heavy metals (including Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni by Polarized Zeeman Z-8230 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). pH went from 6.37 to 7.66 (from slightly acidic to basic in nature) inside the biogas digesters while temperature inside the biogas digesters ranged from 26.1°C-32.2°C. Electrical conductivity of sludge samples varied from 1.38 mS/cm to 2.23 mS/cm and TDS ranged from 883.2 mg/l to 1427.2 mg/l. Carbon content of wastewater sludge ranged from 1.3983 g to 2.3677 g while total Kjeldhal’s nitrogen varied from 40.6 mg/l to 59.2 mg/l. Nutrients like Phosphorus varied from 15750 ppm to 17250 ppm and Potassium ranged from 602.5 ppm to 9775.5 ppm in sludge samples. Concentration of heavy metals i.e. Lead (Pb) in sludge samples varied from 2.58 ppm to 2.94 ppm, Copper (Cu) went from 0.05 ppm to 0.79 ppm, Zinc went from 5.13 ppm to 5.28 ppm, Nickel (Ni) ranged from 0.11 ppm to 0.35 ppm while Chromium (Cr) was not detected in samples. Summary 43 Variation in water concentration in the digesters of drain A made a difference of 900.800 ppm in CH4 concentration, 0.016 % vol of CO2, 0.020 in pH and 1.090 °C in temperature. While variation in water concentration in the digesters of drain B made a difference of 483.499 ppm in CH4 concentration, 0.331 % vol of CO2, 0.019 in pH and 0.110 °C in temperature. And in that of the digesters of drain C made a difference of 238.295 ppm in CH4 concentration, 0.187 % vol of CO2, 0.015 in pH and 0.490 °C in temperature. Highest methane potential was found in Drain A, followed by drain B and C. Absence of H2S shows that the biogas produced anaerobically from the municipal wastewater sludge can be an environmentally friendly source of energy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2756-T] (1).

18. Microbial And Physicochemical Analysis Of Drinking Water Quality Of Government Installed Water Filtration Plants Of Lahore In Comparison With Tap Water

by Syed Mubeen-ur-Rehman (2014-VA-945) | Ms. Isbah Hammed | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Water is an important constituent for survival after oxygen. Internationally, hazardous drinking water passing through poor hygiene kills almost 1.6 million children below the age of five annually. Various physical parameters that represent the quality of drinking water should be in safe limit. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) have adverse effects on humans. Drinking water should not contain any pathogenic organism or any bacteria indicating bacterial contamination. Presence of coliforms in water is considered as bacterial contamination. In this study three filtration plants were selected randomly from each town three samples of tap water and filtered water were taken after 15 days respectively. Overall 162 samples were collected for the study. Parameters that were used to determine the physical characteristics of water were Color, total Hardness as CACO3, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and pH. Chemical characteristics included detection of Arsenic, Calcium, Chloride, Chromium, Copper. Toxic inorganics included Lead, Manganese, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc were analyzed. Microbiological quality of water was examined in terms of Escherichia coli (must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample) and total coliforms (Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample). The results observed are as follows: pH of tap water ranged from 5.56 to 8.49 in tap water while that of filtered water ranged from 7.46 to 8.37, TDS in tap water varied from 52 mg/L to 1025.3 mg/L while that in filtered water was 217.91 mg/L to 1098.6 mg/L, chlorides in tap water ranged from 47.5 meq/L to 592.8 meq/L while that in filtered water were from 41.5 meq/L to 520.6 meq/L, Hardness of tap water samples varied from 20.1 mg/L to 260 mg/L while that of filtered water samples were from 40.4 mg/L to 290.9 mg/L, calcium (Ca) in tap water ranged from 17.8 mg/L to 48.3 mg/L while that in filtered water was Summary 41 14.7 mg/L to 51 mg/L, Manganese (Mn) in tap water ranged from 0.01 mg/L to 0.19 mg/L while in filtered water it ranged from 0.01 mg/L to 0.13 mg/L, Zinc (Zn) in tap water samples varied from 0.01 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L while in filtered water samples it went from 0.01 mg/L to 0.09 mg/L, Arsenic (As) ranged from 0 to 0.05 mg/L in tap water while in filtered water it went from 0 to 0.023 mg/L, Lead (Pb) in tap water ranged from 0 to 0.06 mg/L while in filtered water it ranged from 0 to 0.01 mg/L, Chromium (Cr) in tap water varied from 0 to 0.6 mg/L while in filtered water it went from 0 to 0.2 mg/L while Copper (Cu), Selenium (Se) and Nickel (Ni) were not detected in tap water samples as well as in filtered water samples. 3.7% coliforms were present in filtered water samples while tap water had 7.4% of total coliforms. 22.2 % E. coli were present in filtered water samples while 40.7% E. coli were present in tap water samples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2759-T] (1).

19. Evaluation Of The Quality Of Drinking Water In District Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

by Muhammad Akram (2009-VA-458) | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: In District Dera Ghazi Khan, water borne illnesses had been happening for quite a while especially hepatitis, diarrhea and kidney issues were occurring because of the heavy metals in drinking water. To this end, it is important to assess the drinking water of District Dera Ghazi Khan. One hundred and forty-four samples of drinking water were collected from hand pump, motor pump and tube well in three different Tehsils of District Dera Ghazi Khan. Heavy metals like lead, nickel, manganese, copper, iron and zinc concentration in water samples were determined utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in the department of Environmental Sciences UVAS, Lahore. pH was determined in the previous department; for microbial quality like E-coli and Total Coliform in water samples were counted in University Diagnostic Laboratory UVAS, Lahore. Data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique using PROC GLM in SAS software, significant means were compared by using LSD test. Water quality with respect to different water sources, heavy metal load remained above the recommended level set by WHO except Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) which remained significant. Similarly, microbiology showed 25% and 15% above the WHO recommendation of fecal coliforms and E. coli respectively. In addition, pH also remained above the WHO recommendation. Water quality regarding different tehsils, heavy metal load remained above the recommended level set by WHO except Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) which remained significant. Similarly, microbiology showed 20% and 13% above the WHO recommendation of fecal coliforms and E. coli respectively. In addition, pH also remained above the WHO recommendation except in tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. 46 6.1. Suggestion and Recommendation On the basis of this study, it is recommended that: Tube well water has the minimum heavy metal load so that it is healthy for human consumption. Less chances of water borne illnesses (diarrhoea, typhoid and kidney problems) could be observed by using the tube well water. Future researchers should also check the level of arsenic and antimony in tube well water to improve the quality of water for human consumption. Same treatments should be applied in other districts to check the level of these heavy metals so that water quality may be improved. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2806-T] (1).

20. Evaluation Of Physico-Chemical Properties And Germination Efficiency Of Onion (Allium Cepa) And Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea) Seeds Grown Under Stress Of Tannery

by Tooba Ayyaz (2014-VA-212) | Ms. Saman Saad | Dr. Saif-ur-Reheman Kashif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In the process of rapid urbanization industries are being establishing at a high rate and waste water discharges from these industries are unavoidable and lead to cause water and soil pollution. This water pollution has become a great threat to existence of plants and animals life. Pakistan tanning industry is a major contributor of chromium pollution. There are about 750 tanneries in different provinces of Pakistan and Kasur city has more over 230 tanneries in different areas. In this process different types of waste are released which contain chromium, salts, ammonia and organic compounds and it enters in our food chain through irrigation system and cause serious diseases such as cancer, lungs infection, liver infection and respiratory diseases. Therefore special attention on the management of industrial waste water is needed. The present study was carried out to investigate the Physico-chemical properties of tannery waste water and their impacts on the seed germination of Onion and Cauliflower plants. Samples were collected from Kasur Tannery Waste Management Agency (KTWMA) near Dipalpor road. Seeds were germinated in petri dishes for 14 days under control conditions. Different concentrations of diluted tannery effluents was applied ranges from; 0 %, 10 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100 % respectively. All physico-chemical parameters of effluents were analyzed such as Color, odor, EC, pH, TDS, TSS, Na, K, Ca, P, Cl, BOD, CO3 , HCO3, heavy metals Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mg. At different time intervals rate of germination was measured and morphological parameters of plants were examined such as shoot and root length, fresh and dry weigh, seedling vigor index after harvastation. Antioxidant enzymes such as Catalase, Peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase were estimated. After digestion of seedlings heavy metals Summary 72 such as chromium, iron, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel were determined. SPSS software was used to apply descriptive statistics and ANOVA 1. Results showed that all physico chemical parameters were higher form prescribed values except pH, TDS and Cu recommended by NEQS. All observed parameters of both plants included seed germination, root length, shoot length, seedling length and seedling vigor index, fresh and dry weight strongly depends on concentrations of effluents. All morphological parameters were decreased with the increase of concentrations. Growth of cauliflower seeds was inhibited after T5 treatment whereas in onion plant growth was ceased after T4 treatment. A result of heavy metals showed that amount of chromium was significantly higher in both plants as compared to other metals. Antioxidant assay of enzymes showed that catalatic activity decreases as concentrations of effluents increases whereas Peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase activity increases with the increase of concentrations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2737-T] (1).

21. Evaluation Of Bioactive Peptides/ Proteins/ Alkaloids From Extracts Of Croton Tiglium, Lawsonia Inermis And Eruca Sativa Against Mastitis Causing Bacterial Strains

by Rubia Saeed (2011-VA-377) | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Mastitis is considered as one of the most prevalent disease in dairy animals of Pakistan. Bacteria which are found in most mastitis cases are S. aureus, S. agalactiae and E. coli. Infections caused by these bacteria are being treated by various antibiotics but due to their development of resistance towards these drugs, there is need to explore some alternatives like medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of mastitis. Croton tiglium, Eruca sativa and Lawsonia inermis have been reported to have antimicrobial activity, thus the extracts of these medicinal plants will be explored to their antimicrobial activity against mastitis causing bacterial strains. Present study purpose was to evaluate the bioactive proteins/alkaloids/peptides from extract of C. tiglium, E. sativa and L. inermis against mastitis causing bacterial strains. For this purpose, the leaves and seeds samples of selected medicinal plants (C. tiglium, E. sativa and L. inermis) were collected from Bagh-e-Jinnah and were identified from Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against mastitis causing bacterial strains. For this purpose, dust free leaves and seeds of selected plants were cut into small pieces, homogenized in ethanol/buffer and centrifuged. The resulting supernatant was then collected to check its antimicrobial activity against S. agalactiae, S. aureus and E.coli. Antimicrobial activity was analyzed by well diffusion method. Regarding the antimicrobial activity assay, the overnight grown cultures of the selected microbial strains was spread on the LB agar plates and the extracts was applied to wells incubated was done at 37°C for overnight. Inhibition zone was measured. Then the extracts having maximum activity were purified by GC.MS and the nature of extract was examined. All experiments were performed in triplicates so mean and average of the values was taken. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2853-T] (1).

22. Characterization And Antibiotic Resistance Profile Of Listeria Monocytogenes Isolated From Fish And Broiler Meat

by Mohammad Nasar (2015-VA-21) | Dr. Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz) | Prof Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad).

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Gram positive rod shaped, non-spore former Listeria monocytogenes is the major food-borne pathogens for humans and animals. It can cause serious foodborne infection. The bacterium is saprophyte and can grow on wide range of temperature (0-45°C). Due to this it contaminates different food products. Consumption of this contaminated food products can cause serious problems in neonates, pregnant women and immunocompromised peoples. Its signs may develop between day one to three months after ingestion of the organism. The neonates can develop septicemia, respiratory diseases and meningitis. The pregnant woman may develop influenza like symptoms, or keep an asymptomatic infection that ends in abortion, premature birth or sepsis in the newborn. Healthy people hardly develop clinical signs but a febrile gastroenteritis syndrome has been reported. No doubt this disease is associated with unhygienic food consumption and is characterized by fever, nausea, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain and sometime myalgia. These symptoms may be resolved in one to three days Listeria monocytogenes was isolated by conventional methods and suspected colonies were identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests catalase and oxidase test. The DNA was extracted from isolated colonies by 10% chelex method. The isolated strains were confirmed through PCR by targeting prfA gene of 479bp. Antibiotic resistance were also checked for confirmed isolates. A total of 160 (Fish meat n=80, Broiler meat n=80) samples were taken for the present study for screening Listeria monocytogenes. The bacterium was found in 19/80 (23.75%) samples of Fish and 5/80 (6.25%) of broiler meat samples through PCR detection. Summary 45 Later the confirmed isolates were tested to check the resistance profile of the bacterium to different commonly available antibiotics. For this 24hrs old culture were used. Three to five colonies were picked by sterile loop and transfer to test tube containing 10ml normal saline. To check the turbidity the tube was compared with 0.5 Macfarland standard. Then by sterile cotton swab the bacterium was spread on Mueller Hinton agar. Antibiotics were placed by sterile forceps on agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24hrs. Zones of inhibition were measured in mm by the help of ruler and then compared with staphlycoccus aureus break points in CLSI. The susceptibility result shows that the bacterium was resistant to gentamicin. Mostly L. monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to antibiotics used in this study. This study suggested ampicillin as drug of choice for treatment of listeriosis. Preventive measures should be adopted to avoid the risk of the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2835-T] (1).

23. Antiviral Potential Of Gold And Silver Nanoparticles Against Newcastle Disease Virus In-Vitro

by Anam Iftikhar (2011-VA-404) | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Nanotechnology supplies a golden platform, where properties of pure metals are modified and improved by converting them into their nanoparticles, and it is applicable to numerous fields such as diagnostics, antimicrobial agents and drug delivery. Nanoparticles act as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral agents. Several types of nanoparticles (gold,copper,silver,aluminium,magnesium,zinc and titanium) have been reported in literature out of which are known to have antibacterial properties. Viral diseases present challenging problems worldwide. Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in Pakistan, and is linked with huge economic disastrous to farmers. Application of antiviral therapy to control the active infection of NDV is very limited. Use of nanotechnology to control active virus infection might be a viable solution to limit the disease in effected flocks. In this study four groups of nanoparticles i.e. gold, silver, magnetic and gold coated magnetic were evaluated against mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus. Chicken embryos were used to propagate the virus and infective amniotic allantoic fluid was collected. Evaluation of nanoparticles in reducing virus infectivity as a measure of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) was performed. Various dosesof nanoparticles (very low, low, medium, high and very high) were allowed to interact with virus suspension in three ways i.e.pre- treatment, post-treatment and co-treatment methods. Virus infectivity before and after the treatment with nanoparticles was measured and subsequently used to calculate reduction factor (RF). All of the experiment was repeated three times. It was observed that in pre and post-treatment, silver, gold coated magnetic and magnetic nanoparticles groups the infectivity titerswere efficiently reduced at high dose. While in co-treatment, silver, gold coated magnetic and magnetic nanoparticles groups the virus inactivation rates were relatively higher at low and very low doses. It is evident from the findings that within the tested nanoparticles, silver, coated magnetic and magnetic nanoparticles have equivalent antiviral properties against NDV. While within various treatment methods co-treatment assay proved to be more effective in reducing virus infectivity than the pre and post treatment group. The results of present study are suggestive of testing antiviral properties of the nanoparticles in vivo conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2877-T] (1).

24. Microbiological Evaluation Of Street Vended Sugar Cane Juice Sold In Different Areas Of Lahore City

by Hafiz Syed Zaigham Abbas (2014-VA-1142) | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The condition of local vended sugar cane juice sold in various areas of Lahore is not safe for consumption which causes serious food safety issues. This study has therefore been planned to evaluate food safety status oflocally vended cane juice in Lahore Total 108 samples were collected from all nine TMAs (four samples from each TMA) of Lahore city. The samples will be collected in aseptic conditions. These samples were analyzed for TPC, Yeast & Mould, Total Coliform, E.coli and fecal streptococcus microbiological testing. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS (version 21). Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. (DMRT) was applied to get the trend of microbial load (bio burden) from sugar cane juice. In all the TMAs of Lahore, the log values of TPC ranged from 3.91.±0.09 to 8.27±0.019. The maximum microbial load is observed in Wagha TMA while the minimum microbial load is observed in TMA Data Gunj Bakhsh. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 5.4038 and CV is 6.81 and the result is highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, the results of all the samples of every TMA are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material. The log values of total coliform count in all TMAs ranged from 1.86±0.027to 3.30±0.09. The maximum total coliform count is observed in Ravi TMA. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 2.6780 and CV is 12.86 and the result is highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, 89% of the results are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material. The log values of E.coli count in all TMAs ranged from 1.66±0.047 to 2.69±0.08. The maximum E.coli count is observed at Ravi TMA ant the minimum E.coli count is observed at Nishtar TMA. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 2.0980 and CV is 6.69 and the result is highly significant.Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, 67% of the results are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material. The log values of fecal streptococcus ranged from 1.79±0.10 to 2.68±0.10. The maximum fecal streptococcus is observed in Wahga TMA while the minimum microbial load is observed in TMA Data Gunj Bakhsh. The overall mean value of fecal streptococcus for all the TMAs is 2.0935 and CV is 8.90 and the results are highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, 44% of the results are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material. The log values of yeast and mould count in all TMAs ranged from 3.39±0.21 to 7.05±0.16. The maximum yeast and mould count is observed in Shalimar TMA and minimum yeast and mould is observed in Gulberg TMA. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 4.9455 and CV is 11.65 and the result is highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, the results of all the samples of every TMA are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material. In a nutshell, the level of microbiological contamination detected during the research in fresh sugar cane juice advances a grave concern related to health and economic welfare of the people. Microbial resistance against antibiotics is additional evolving food safety problem and may aggravate the health related concerns in all TMAs of Lahore. A detailed and well defined monitoring and investigation system needs to be in place and executed on crucial grounds to discuss the food safety of fresh sugar cane juice in Lahore. Application of awareness programs on different health related issues among the vendors, consumers and stakeholder may be another scheme to inhibit the horror of food safety issues.This study has presented the general analysis of microbiological trend and can be used as the base for further researches on related issues in different area of Lahore city. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2883-T] (1).

25. Leachate Characterization Of Lakhodair Landfill And Coagulation/Flocculation Treatment

by Madeeha Saleem (2015-VA-08) | Ms. Isbah Hameed | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Decomposition of solid waste in landfill site produces highly polluted leachate. In most of the landfill worldwide collection, handling, treatment and disposal are major issues associated with landfill operation. Open, untreated disposal of the landfill leachate poses serious threat to the receiving environment and public health. It also leaches and reaches groundwater polluting the aquifer. Since it is contains huge variety of pollutant or contaminant such as (organic matter, suspended and dissolved solids, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants etc.), it required adequate treatment before disposal leachate treatment with municipal wastewater is neither required nor can produce efficient and economical results. Coagulation has be found to effectively reduce contaminant loading from leachate, alone and in combination with other method, as applied on leachate taken from different landfill in different studies. This study targeted characterizing the leachate from Lakhodair landfill site on the basis of the selected parameters (pH, EC, Turbidity, TDS, TSS, Hardness, BOD5, COD, Cl-1, Na, K, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe). Leachate samples were collected from Lakhodair landfill site in plastic bottles, brought to laboratory, preserved and analyze for the above mentioned parameters. Lakhodair landfill site was inaugurated 18 April 2016. Since the leachate was young and the solid waste at Lakhodair landfill site had not undergone acidogenic phase of decomposition, the leachate was slightly alkaline (pH = 8.43) and quite high in organic loading (in term of COD and BOD5), Sodium, Potassium, and few heavy metals like Ni and Cr. High concentrations of some contaminants not studies in the literature (TDS, TSS, EC, Hardness, Turbidity, Chlorides). Other tested heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe) were found in low concentration due to low solubility at alkaline pH. Leachate samples were subjected to coagulation/flocculation with 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, SUMMARY 53 1.4, 1.6 g/L of Alum, Ferric chloride and their mixer, and tested for same parameters after treatment. Treatment comprise 5 min rapid mixing, 30 min slow mixing and settling time of one hour. Heavymetals (Zn, Pb, Fe. Ni, Cr, Cu and Mn) have been detected in leachate through Hitachi Z-8230 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Minerals (Na and K) have been detected by using flame photometer.pH, EC and Turbidity were measured by their respective meters. TSS and TDS were determined by gravimetric method. Titration was used for COD, Hardness and Chlorides. BOD readings were measured by BOD5 Incubator (SAYO MIR-153). Expect for TDS, Hardness, K and Cr the three coagulants responding different to all the tested pollutants, mixed coagulant perform the best giving as high as around 90-100 % removal for many of them. Post-treatment concentrations of all the parameters except TDS were significantly related to the coagulant dose. Since Ferric chloride and mixed coagulants had chlorides in them, they resulted in high post-treatment chloride concentration with increase in their doses while Alum its reduction. Alum and the mixed coagulant cause in increase in TDS while Ferric chloride cause an increase in TSS in the leachate at higher doses. Leachate TSS was maintaining constant at around 800 mg/L at all doses. The coagulant doses show positive correlation with Hardness and EC and negative correlation with pH, Turbidity, BOD5, COD, Na, K, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Mn. % removal from as low as 1.1 – 19.06 for BOD5 to as high as 32.59 – 92.7 % for Nickel was achieved as a result of coagulation. Comparison was made with standards for reuse of leachate in landscape irrigation (as prescribed by JS, 2002 in Annexure IV) and open disposal into inland water or sewage treatment plants (as prescribe in PEQS and given in (Annexure V). Stringent FEPA standard has also be included only for Pb. Comparison with standard shown that coagulation is good pre-treatment option as it has help lowering contaminant load from leachate and meeting PEQS standards for disposal into sewage treatment plant as set in PEQS, but it not sufficient to treat leachate to reuse for landfill irrigation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2912-T] (1).

26. Characterization And Physicochemical Optimization Of Phytases Produced By Indigenous Isolates Of Lactobacillus SPP.

by Aanisa Arif (2011-VA-424) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Phytate is one of the major organic storage forms of phosphorous of phosphorus in seeds, cereal, oil and legume; in nature about 75%-80% of total phosphorus is available in this form. Phosphorus is stored in roots and in seeds and cereals as phytate. Phytases are responsible for breakdown of phytic acid (phytate) into inorganic monophosphates and free myo- inositol. Phytases are a class of phophatases which hydrolyze phytic acid into inorganic phosphate and myo inositol or less phosphorylated phosphates. Monogasteric animal like poultry, human and fish lack phytase due to which they cannot derive phosphate from phytate and phosphorus is unavailable to them. So, present study is designed as a first step in a multi-step project to develop indigenous phytase producing probiotic lactobacilli from different sources, the optimization of phytase production and effect of physical & chemical factors on the phytase stability and activity. Lactobacillus isolated from poultry was checked for phytase production on Phytase screening media (PSM). Enzyme from the isolates showing activity were quantified by ammonium molybadate method, the enzyme production were optimized at different physical and chemical parameters such as temperature (30, 35 & 42°C), pH (4,5,6,7 & 8), osmotic pressure (1%,2% and 4%), aerobic/anaerobic conditions, carbon (glucose, lactose, sucrose), nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone & urea) and bile salts (0.3%,1% and 2). Enzyme was partially purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE. In present study 20 samples of poultry droppings (SP01-SP10) and fermented food (SY01- SY10) were processed for isolation of lactobacilli. A total of 90 isolates (PDP01-PDP45; FYP01-FYP45) were selected from MRS plates. Isolates were preliminary confirmed as Gram positive rods with Catalase negative. All isolates were further purified and stored in MRS broth supplemented with 15% glycerol at -20oC. Purified lactobacilli isolates were screened for phytase production on phytase screening medium and zone o f hydrolysis was Summary 77 measured in mm. Out of total of 90 isolates 62 isolates showed phytate hydrolysis. Out of 62 isolates, 16 were selected on the basis of retention of hydrolysis zone after cobalt chloride staining. Out of 16 selected isolates, eight isolates PDP05, PDP09, PDP10, PDP16, PDP23,PDP24, PDP30 and PDP35 were of poultry origin and eight FYP12, FYP15, FYP17, FYP21, FYP26, FYP31, FYP38 and FYP42 were of fermented foods. Selected isolates and retention of their zone of hydrolysis after cobalt chloride staining are given in table 4.4. Phytase activity of selected lactobacilli isolates was checked in modified MRS broth containing 0.2% sodium phytate at 37°C after 24 hrs. Cell free supernatant was used as crude source of enzyme. Enzyme activity was determined by using ammonium molybadate method. Amplification and sequencing of 16Sr DNA (≈1500bp) was done by using universal primers which revealed PDP10, PDP24 and FYP38 had >99% similarity with Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus reutri and Lactobacillus fermentum respectively with GenBank accession no. MF980924, MF980925 and MF980923 respectively. Phytase production by lactobacilli was optimized at different parameters e.g. temperature (30, 35 and 42°C), pH (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8), osmotic pressure 1%, 2% and 4%. The effect of oxygen was determined by growing lactobacilli isolates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions followed by measuring enzyme activity. PDP10, PDP24 and FYP38 showed the best activity at 35°C (6.86 ± 0.15 IU/ml, 5.12 ± 0.12 IU/ml and 5.65 ± 0.13 IU/ml respectively) at pH 5 (6.86 ± 0.15 IU/ml, 5.12 ± 0.12IU/ml and 5.50 ± 0.13 IU/ml respectively). Maximum phytase activity was recorded at 1% NaCl 4.78 ± 0.14, 4.18 ± 0.13 and 5.58 ± 0.12 IU/ml respectively) whereas anaerobic conditions were favourable for the production of phytase by selected isolates. Effect of carbon, nitrogen sources and bile salts was determined by growing isolates MRS broth (0.2% sodium phytate) modified with different carbon (glucose, Summary 78 lactose, sucrose) and nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone and urea) and bile salts (0.3% , 1% and 2%) followed by measuring enzyme activity. In this study isolates PDP10, PDP24 and FYP38 exhibited maximum phytase activity in the presence of 2% glucose as compared to other carbon sources lactose and sucrose (4.36 ± 0.11, 4.38 ± 0.18 and 5.01 ± 0.15 IU/ml respectively). Present study revealed 0.1 % peptone as an optimal source of nitrogen for PDP10 and PDP24 (4.54 ± 0.13 and 4.23 ± 0.19 IU/ml respectively) while FYP38 (4.56 ± 0.14 IU/ml) showed best result in presence of 0.1% tryptone. All the isolates showed maximum phytase activity at 0.3% bile salt concentration as compared to 1% and 2% concentration. Enzyme activity of phytase obtained from PDP10 was not varied while treating it at different pH (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8) at different intervals of time. Enzyme activity of phytase obtained from PDP24 was lower at pH 8 for 15, 30, 45 and 60min (3.41± 0.10, 3.40 ± 0.09, 3.42 ± 0.08 and 3.41 ± 0.11IU/ml respectively). Enzyme activity of phytase obtained from FYP38 was lower down from pH 7 to 8 for 15, 30, 45 and 60min (4.41 ± 0.09, 4.42 ± 0.11, 4.43 ± 0.10, 4.41 ± 0.12 IU/ml respectively) & (4.40 ± 0.09, 4.31 ± 0.11, 4.33 ±0.10 and 4.34 ± 0.12 respectively). Enzyme activity was inhibited at 1mM and 5mM concentrations of Ca2+ while metal ions like Mg2+ and Na2+ addition stimulated the phytase activity. Approximate molecular weight of extracellular protein precipitated from the cell free supernatant of PDP10, PDP24 and FYP38 was ~50kDa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2895-T] (1).

27. Detection And Quantification Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Salmonella With Special Reference To Seasonal Variations In Commercially Sold Ice Cream In Lahore City

by Waqas Anwar (2009-VA-248) | Dr. Waqas Ahmed | Dr. Azmat ullah Khan | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Ice cream is a yummy, nutritious, nourishing frozen dairy food. It is noticed that generally manufacturing of ice cream on small scale production units like local shops doesn't totally follow the standard procedures of ice cream production. Contamination could be there in ice cream if some ingredients have been added after pasteurization or by means of improper sanitation of the equipment and environment. Microbiological quality of ice cream shows sanitary practice during production and is also an indication of food safety. Ice cream is now the favorite and most popular diary food product especially among the children. It contains all the basic food components like carbohydrate, fats and protein, so it is a favorite media for microbes to grow. Another reason for microbial growth is the storage time of ice cream. An ice cream has prolonged storage time. Once it contaminated with microbes then freezing temperature and other parameters could not be enough to make the product safer later. At shops, unchecked storage temperature and extended storage time also affects the quality of ice-cream.. Food can be a major source of disease transmission if a person suffering from a disease is handling the food after pasteurization step, so proper knowledge of food safety is must food the handlers. In countries like UK, USA and China, there are standards for every foodstuff and are followed strictly. While in developing countries the major problem is the accessibility to pure and germ free water supply. Illnesses related to food are caused when someone ingest a food containing microbes or their toxins or other chemicals which can cause serious problems. For this study 50 locally produced samples of ice cream in three different seasons (winter, spring and summer) were carried from different areas of Lahore via convenient sampling. Samples were transported to microbiology Lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and analyzed for the detection of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. Each sample was processed for microbiological analysis for Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) and detection of salmonella spp. Baired Parker agar was used to count S.aureus, Salmonella Shigella agar for Salmonella detection. Out of 50 samples collected in winter season 18 (36%) were positive for S.aureus and all these positive samples falls in unsatisfactory range. Out of 50 samples collected in spring season 22 (44%) were positive for S.aureus and all these positive samples falls in unsatisfactory range. Out of 50 samples collected in winter season 40 (80%) were positive for S.aureus and all these positive samples falls in unsatisfactory range. Salmonella was not detected in any sample in three seasons. This study shows that there is a strong relationship between environmental changes and growth of microorganism. With the change in season, percentage of positive samples also changes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2915-T] (1).

28. Polymorphism Analysis Of Bovine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene And Its Association With Mastitis In Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Samia Tanveer (2011-VA-362) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Various number of factors cause hindrance in the milk production potential of buffalos. Mastitis is the costly and most prevalent disease causing production losses of dairy herds in Pakistan and elsewhere in the world. Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is complex trait influenced by genetic variation of animals. Among these immunity gene variations, the polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor alpha gene (TNF-α) play important role in immune response to virus. Polymorphism in TNF-α gene is associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance. It would be a potential candidate gene for imparting resistance mastitis in dairy buffalos. Blood sample were taken from the 20 Nili Ravi buffalos having clinical and subclinical mastitis. Extraction of DNA was done from frozen blood after thawing, using organic extraction method & also kit method followed by DNA quantification (i.e. gel electrophoresis and nanodrop). Total 5 primers were designed using Primer3 bioinformatics tool. All these primers were optimized using different protocols and a set recipe was obtained for each primer. The amplification of DNA samples was done one by one using all these five primers on optimized protocol. The amplicons obtained were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to check whether we have the required product or not using 100 kb ladder and then amplicones were send for the sequencing. Summary 110 The sequencing analysis of resulted amplicon sequence was done using Bioinformatics software Finch TV. Total of 6 mutations were found while 5 were same in all the samples whereas 6th mutation was found only in clinical samples. It is valuable in accomplishing genetic progress for resistance and to improve the immune response. This study will paved the way for animal breeder for selection of Nili Ravi mastitis resistant buffalos for breeding. TNF-α gene polymorphism based marker is now available for screening of resistant bulls as well. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2936-T] (1).

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