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1. Protective Role Of Montelukast In Methotrexate Induced Toxicity In Rats

by Saima Malik (2014-VA-230) | Dr. Khalid Abdul Majeed | Dr Muhammad ShahbazYousaf | Dr.Hafsa Zaneb.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolate drug which is used to treat a variety of Autoimmune Diseases e.g rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and different types of cancers. However, MTX toxicity limit its use which include oxidative stress in causing toxicity on the liver, kidney, heart and other organs.Montelukast is a leukotriene antagonist.Recent evidence suggests that montelukast possessesantioxidant and anti-inflammatoryactivity.Thirty (n=30) adult albino ratswere selected and housed in stainless steel cages in the Experimental Animal shed, Department of Physiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The rats were randomly divided into five groups having six rats in each group. Animals were treated by following treatment plan; Group 1: (Negative Control) injected I/P with physiological saline from day zero to day four and then injected with 2 % ethanol from day four to day ten. Group 2: (MK positive control) injected I/P with MK (10mg/kg body weight, BW) from day four to day ten for consective seven days. Group 3:(MTX positive control) injected at day zero I/P with a single dose of MTX (20mg/kg BW) per ten days. Group 4:(MTX-MK 5) injected at day zero I/P with a single dose of MTX (20mg/kg BW) and then injected I/P with MK (5mg/kg BW) from day four to day ten for consective seven days. Group 5: (MTX-MK 10) injected at day zero I/P with a single dose of MTX (20mg/kg BW) and then injected I/P with MK (10mg/kg BW) from day four to day ten for consective seven days. Data was analyzed by one way analysis of variance using SPSS software (SPSS Inc. version 20, Chicago, Illinois). The group differences werestudied by using Duncan’s multiple range tests. The P value <0.05 was considered as significant. Data was presented as mean ± SD. Body weight and feed intake was analyzed by using repeated measure analysis. The current study showed reduction in feed and water intake and shows diarrhea like symptoms which ultimately results in gradual reduction in body weight in MTX treated groups when compared with control group. While non MTX treated groups shows increase in feed consumption and ultimately increase in body weight. BUN and creatinine level were increased after MTX administration which was reduced after MK treatment. MK10mg/kg BW dose administered to G5 after MTX was more effective compared to 5mg/kg BW dose of MK administered to G4 after MTX treatment. Enzymatic level of MDA and catalase in serum, liver and kidney tissue were increased after MTX administration in G3, G4 and G5.There was no highly significant results found after MK treatment due to Low dose of MK which was unable to maintain the enzymatic level after induction of imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant level. Conclusion: From our study we have concluded that montelukast administration after methotrexate induced toxic effect on renal function test and hematological parameters, it can significantly normalize the level of BUN and creatinine also shows significant improvement in Hb and RBCs level. While there was no significant effect found on oxidative stress due to insufficient dose of MK. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2505-T] (1).

2. Effects Of Ethanolic And Aqueous Extracts Roots And Leaves Of Catharanthus Roseus On Serum Biochemical Parameters In Broilers

by Kiran Sabir (2014-VA-05) | Prof. Dr. Habib ur Rehman | Dr. Muhammad ShahbazYousaf | Mr.Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The study was designed to checkthe effects of supplementation of C. roseus in various concentrations (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%) as an alternative to AGPs on various physiological indices of birdshealth. Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used in poultry farms as a drug resistance and drug residues. Now, there is a need to look for safe alternative for AGPs. Catharanthusroseushaving the properties of antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant and growth promoter. Total 260 birds weretaken and divided into the 13 groups. Each group was further sub-divided into four replicates with 5 birds in each replicate. The birds were supplemented with basal diet (Group A) and all other groups were supplemented with diet of aqueous extract of Cathrathusroseus at the concentration of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% in the Groups B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K,L and M for 35 days trial. During the trial period, the birds were vaccinated with Newcastle disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine (IBDV). Blood was also collected on day 35 to determine the concentration of various physiological indices. Statistical analysis was conducted by using Statistical Packages For Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20 USA). To analyzed the data one way ANOVA was used.Post hoc test was carried out using tukey. The results of glucose was found significantly higher (P<0.05) in group H compared to group K and M but similar to group B, C, D, E, F, G, I and J and M. The results of total cholesterol was found significantly higher (P<0.05) in group A, B, D, G, and I compared to group F and J but similar to group C, E, H, K, L and M.The serum Triglycerides concentrationwas no significantly (P<0.05) difference in all treatment groups compared to the control group.The serum ALT concentration was found significantly higher (P<0.05) in group F, G L and M than control group but similar in Groups B, C D E, H, I, J and K.The serum AST concentration was significantly higher (P<0.05) in group K and significantly lower in Groups B,C,I,J,L,M but similar in Groups D,E,F,G,H,A . It was concluded that Catharanthusroseus can be use as a cheaper, easiest and quickly available source as an alternative of antibiotic in the poultry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2504-T] (1).

3. Estimation Of Serum Homocysteine Level In Patients With Ischemic Or Hemorrhagic Stroke

by Iqra Ikhlaq (2014-VA-810) | Prof. Dr. HabiburRehman | Dr. Ahsan Numan | Dr. Muhammad ShahbazYousaf | Dr. Hafsa Zainab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Stroke is the second major cause of deaths and common cause of disabilities worldwide. Increased level of homocysteine is considered as a critical but treatable risk factor for stroke. Homocysteine has many harmful effects on vascular system including thrombosis induction, increased in oxidative stress, stimulating mitogenesis and impaired endothelial function. Stroke patients with elevated homocysteine level have more frequently developed multiple infarctions and cerebral microangiopathy. In the present study, the serum homocysteine level was measured in Pakistani acute stroke patients. Subjects selected for the study was divided in to two groups. Group 1 (Control) having 30 healthy individuals and in Group 2 (Patients) having 68 stroke patients. Both of the groups, controls and patients were sex and gender matched. The stroke subtypes (ischemic and hemorrhagic) was diagnosed by neurologists based on the neuroimaging (CT or MRI). Neurologic functions assessment was based on (NIHSS) Stroke Score. Biochemical parameters i.e. total cholesterol,triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotienand serum homocysteine was measured by using commercially available kits at the end of the experiment. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software. Student's t-test was applied on data to compare serum homocysteine concentrations and other continuous variable of patients and control groups. A chi-square test was used to analyze the qualitative findings. Differences will be considered significant at p < 0.05.Comparison among stroke cases and controls for homocysteine and other stroke risk factors were performed by using binary logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (OR) and 95 confidence intervals (95% CI) were also estimated. The results revealed that serum homocysteine level was significantly higher (p=0.001) in stroke patients. Other risk factor of stroke were also significantly high in stroke patients as hypertension (p=0.000), diabetes mellitus (p=0.009) and smoking (p=0.008). Clinical data revaeled that Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) (p=0.000), diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) (p=0.006), cholesterol (p=0.003), triglyceride (p=0.008), LDL cholesterol level (p=0.006) and serum creatinine level (p=0.010) was also significantly raised in stroke patients. Concluded that in stroke patients, the measurement of serum homocysteine level may be effective and useful to get a clearer image about patients, condition and this is beneficial for disease prevention and management. Treating hyperhomocystenemia may be helpfull in formulating strategies in reducing stroke incidence and its complications in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2721-T] (1).

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