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1. Pathology And Serum Biochemistry Of Layers Affected With Fatty Liver Hemorrhagic Syndrome

by Ahmad Jawad Sabir | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Fatty liver syndrome is a non-infectious disease of chickens, primarily cage layers, characterized by enlarged, fat-infiltrated livers, with or without subcapsular hemorrhages and excessive abdominal fat deposits. Excessive caloric intake is thought to be one causative factor, and the disease occurs frequently after molting when caloric intake is high. Cage layers move less, using less energy which may contribute to the problem. The present project was designedto study the serum biochemical and pathological changes in the laying hens affected with fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and possible dietary sources responsible for this syndrome. For this purpose healthy and diseased birds from commercial poultry farms having problem of FLHS in their flocks were selected. Three types of samples i.e. blood, tissue and feed samples were collected. Serum samples were processed to quantify concentration of different plasma enzymes including ALT, AST, triglycerides, serum cholesterol, glucose and LDH levels by using standard protocols. Values obtained from both healthy and diseased birds were compared. While liver samples were collected from both diseased and healthy birdsfor study of gross and microscopic changes in their structure. Proximate analysis of feed samples which were collected from each farm having this problem was conducted to check the level of fats and carbohydrates. Data was statistically analyzed by applying student t-test. The average concentration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT),serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase, triglycerides, serum cholesterol, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase were 10.78±2.01 (IU/L), 195.5±28.93 (IU/L), 69.2±5.14 (mg/dl), 217.52±23.63 (mg/dl), 205.14±19.6 (mg/dl) and 2466.06±336.2 (IU/L) respectively in diseased birds. The corresponding values in the healthy birds were 4.12±1.7 (IU/L), 81.16±6.83 (IU/L), 59.44±4.92 (mg/dl), 131.94±8.93 (mg/dl), 188.38±13 (mg/dl) and 1706.64±244.37 (IU/L) respectively. The activities of SGPT, SGOT, serum cholesterol and LDH were significantly higher in diseased than in healthy birds (p<0.05). Some birds in diseased group showed 2-3 times greater concentration of plasma enzymes as compared to healthy birds. For the definitive diagnosis of this problem histopathological studies were conducted on liver samples. Liver from healthy birds showed no changes while diseased birds showed both gross and microscopic changes. Feed samples were collected from respective farms and proximate analysis was conducted. Average fat and carbohydrate content recorded for feed samples was 6.44±1.43% and 57.75±3.79% respectively. While feed analysis of control poultry diets showed a significant difference having fat 03.21±0.89% and NFE was55.77±1.67%. It was concluded from this study that selected parameters of serum biochemistry including SGPT, SGOT, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lactate dehydrogenase could be useful in the diagnosis of FLHS. There is significant increase in concentration of these enzymes in blood of affected birds specially laying hens. Macroscopic and microscopic changes can also be observed but it will lead to delayed diagnosis of this syndrome. Furthermore balanced feed will be helpful in prevention of this problem while farmers and poultry practitioners can seek help through proximate analysis of feed samples that can help in prevention of this metabolic problem. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1609,T] (1).

2. Study On Effect Of Nigella Sativa (Kalonji)Alone And In Combination With Allium Sativum (Garlic) On Histopathology of Tissues Induced by Newly Emerged Newcastle Disease Virus in Broilers

by Saira jabeen | DR. Muhammad Yasin tipu | Dr.Hassan Mushtaq | Ishtiaq ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1921,T] (1).

3. Comparative Hemato-Biochemical Study On Theileriosis In Naturally Infested Punjab Urial (Ovis Orientalis Punjabiensis) And Domestic Sheep (Ovis Aries)

by Sammuel Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. M. Ijaz | Mr. Irfan Irshad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1981,T] (1).

4. A Study On Immunomodulatory Effect Of Nigella Sativa And Allium Sativum Against Escherichia Coli Infection In Broiler Birds

by Fiza Ahmad | Dr Muhammad yasin tipu | Dr. Muti-ur- rehman khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2022,T] (1).

5. Esponse Of Lymphatic Tissues To Dietary Supplementation Of Nigella Sativa And Curcuma Longa In Broilers Challenged With Pasteurella Multocida (strain A)

by Muhammad Akmal raheem | DR. Muhammad Yasin tipu | Dr. Muti ur rehman khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2050,T] (1).

6. Effect Of Nigella Sativa On Embryonated Eggs Experimentally Infected With Newcastle Disease Virus

by Arif Ullah Khan (2013-VA-561) | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Dr. Ali Ahmad Shiekh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In Agriculture Industry of Pakistan poultry sector plays a vigorous, animated and a well known role. There are more than 1.5 million peoples whose financial gain and employments are related directly or indirectly to this sector which provides livelihood to about 60 % rural inhabitants. Meat and eggs are the products of poultry industry. In Gross Domestic Products its constant cost factor is 1.2%, in livestock is 10.4% and in agriculture it contributes 5.76%.In the total meat production quantity of the country, poultry meat contribution is 26.8 % (Anonymous 2013). The member of family Paramyxoviridae, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) contains six genes, single stranded RNA genome without segment and have different strains arranged as virulent which is velogenic, intermediate virulent mesogenic and less virulent lentogenic. The Newcastle disease or pseudo-fowl pest is complete destructive having high death ratio in poultry. The NDV attacks on respiratory system causes distress, produce nervous disorders, disturb gastrointestinal tract and causes hemorrhagic lesions in intestine, downward change in level of egg production and high mortality (Alexander 2000). In embryonated eggs the cells attached with allantoic cavity help to grow and develop the NDV virus which is inoculated for the purpose of propagation. In approximately 24 hours post inoculation the virus reach higher concentration. First of all the virus destroys the live cells in which it is growing and then it is widely spread by the allantoic fluid. If the inoculated strains of virus are virulent i:e velogenic, embryos die within two days post inoculation mostly. The embryos which are dead or alive show histopathological and gross changes remarkably caused by the inoculated NDV (Al-Garib et al. 2003). Introduction 2 To evaluate the value or determine the pathogenicity of the virus or to propagate Newcastle disease virus the embryos of chicken have been usually used. The NDV strains which are virulent means velogenic, kill the embryo within 48 hours, and lentogenic or less virulent(mesogenic) take 5 to 7 days to kill either the embryos or may not kill at all (Lam et al. 1995). It always had an inherited pattern of thoughts to advance the progress in the process of healing by using herbal plants in all the civilizations. All over the world, to provide treatment for diseases in daily life medicinal herbal plants and seeds have been used since hundreds of year ago and in ahead of times. Plants play important role and serves as a base in the development of drugs (Ates and Turgay 2003). For the promotion and well being of health of both animals and humans, since thousands of year ago black cumin seeds which is commonly known as black seed are used. It is stated by Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) that black seeds are treatment for every disease except the final state the death. Its scientific name is Nigella sativa and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. The black seeds contain the main active and wider in scope ingredient named as crystalline nigellone. The composition of other ingredients which are present in these seeds are proteins, vitamins B1, B2, B3, oleic acid, myristic acid, linolic acid, folic acid, thymoquinone, palmitic acid, beta sitosterol and stearic acid. In black seed the main elements are phosphorous, iron, zinc, calcium, and copper. Anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, immunestimulator, anti-inflammatory and anti-histamine are the main effects of black cumin seeds (AitMbarek et al. 2007). Black cumin seeds are a hypothetical remedy for all ills, diseases and disorders, but not to stop growing old and death from happening. In Bible it is identified as black cumin and tending Introduction 3 to restore health (Worthen et al. 1997). The antiviral drugs are not usually used in poultry industry due to economic problems and may cause toxicity, but some drugs shows effect against virus which effect poultry. The antiviral drug Ribavirin was used to compare its effect with a herbal plant to see which one is effective. Higher doses produce toxicity and also were the cause of death. The 20μl/ml dose showed the significant effect and the embryoes remain live after experimentally infected with Newcastle disease virus (Omer et al. 2014). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2255-T] (1).

7. Comparative Effect Of Alpha Lipoic Acid And Butylated Hydroxytoulene On Post Thaw Quality Of Buck Semen

by Muhammad Khurram Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Amongst different livestock species, goats and sheep are the major source of livelihood for over a million livestock farmers in Pakistan. Total goat population in Pakistan is estimated to be 66.6 million. These animals are mostly kept by small holders for whom these are only source of their livelihood. Milk production from goats is 0.822 million tonnes while mutton production from both sheep and goats is 0.657 million tonnes (Anonymous 2014). Pakistani people mostly prefer the goat meat over sheep. All irrigated areas of Punjab including district Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Jhang, Jhelum, Lahore and Multan are the habitat of Makhi Cheeni Beetal goats. The color of its body coat is red spotted or golden brown with white patches. Its body is very well developed and compact. Males have long spiraled horns while females have shorter. It has roman nose with pendulous broad and long ears. It has long teats and well developed udder. Female weighs 37kg and males 46kg. Twins or triplets births are more than 50%. In 130 days of lactation period, there is 290 liters milk yield (Shah et al. 2001). Some breeds of goats especially dairy goats have more demand than the others and these bucks are not available everywhere. To cope with this situation artificial insemination techniques is necessary. Artificial insemination plays a great role in increasing the economics by spreading the superior genetics within a short period of time. Semen is processed by different methods but cryopreservation is considered to be the best method. Cryopreservation has been reported to compromise the quality of processed semen resulting in the loss of sperm motility, viability, in-vivo fertilizing ability, deterioration of plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity, apoptosis and damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (Medeiros et al. 2002; Purdy 2006a). Sperm damage may occur due to various factors like osmotic stress, oxidative stress, low-temperature exposure and combination of different factors (Sarıözkan et al. 2009). Thawing of semen may also cause osmotic changes and the sperm quality is further decreased. It is generally accepted that sperm viability is reduced by as much as 50% during the process of semen cryopreservation (Watson, 2000). Extension of buck semen with egg yolk containing extender may be more injurious to sperms. This is due to the presence of coagulating enzymes of bulbourethral origin named as egg yolk coagulating enzymes (EYCE). EYCE decreases the tenacity of chilled or frozen semen (Roy, 1957). EYCE also catalyze the conversion of egg yolk lecithin into lsolecithin and fatty acid, thus sperm membrane become more fusogenic due to hydrolysis. So there is increase in chromatin decondensation and acrosomal reaction that is harmful for sperm (Leboeuf et al. 2000). Due to excess of poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in sperms, they are more susceptible to lipid peroxidation (Cassani et al. 2005). Lipid peroxidation of PUFA lead to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Alvarez et al. 1995). Small amount of ROS are normally involved in capacitation, acrosmal reaction and ultimately fertilizing ability of sperms. But when the ROS are produced in excess Introduction 3 amount, these may compromise the enzymatic function and sperm fertility (Baumber et al. 2000). At 4-5 ºC the motility and plasma membrane integrity is decrease with the passage of time which ultimately leads to decrease in fertility. One of the cause of this decrease is production of ROS by the lipid peroxidation of spermatozoa’s membrane (Storey et al. 1998). Major decrease in sperm motility and fertility occur during phase transition from liquid crystalline to gel phase (Chakrabarty et al. 2007). Lipid peroxidation leads to irreversible loss in motility and damage to DNA of sperm (Maxwell et al. 1996). Motility of sperm is adversely effected with ROS, when the ROS harm the plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity which ultimately leads to fragmentation of DNA. Sperms have their own antioxidants system which include the glutathione (GSH) , GSH peroxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase and chelators of transferrin, lactoferrin and ceruplasmin (Agarwal et al. 2002). Normally the ROS production and scavenging are in equilibrium but during the semen preservation the excessive production of ROS (superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrile) with low level of scavenging system and antioxidants leads to oxidative stress. During the process of freezing and thawing the natural antioxidants systems are unable to stop lipid peroxidation. Therefore a powerful antioxidant system should be used to avoid the cryo-injuries and lipid peroxidation (Irvine 1996). Different antioxidants are being used i.e. fetuin (F), amino acid (AS), cysteine (CY) taurine, glutathione (GSH) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutamine, hyaluronan, trehalose, Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and Butylated Hydroxytoulene (BHT) (Atessahin et al. 2008; Bucak et al. 2009; Taşdemir et al. 2014). Addition of antioxidants to semen extenders are considered to improve the quality of semen (Rao et al. 2013). ALA is a short chain fatty acid which act as an antioxidant in both aqueous and lipid environments, its therapeutic effects in other tissues like brain (Piotrowski et al. 2001), heart, kidneys and testicles has already been Introduction 4 discussed. It is called as universal antioxidant because of its effect in different parts of body. It is not only involve in scavenging the ROS but also activate the body antioxidants systems against ROS. ALA reduced to dithiol form called dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) which is an excellent antioxidant (Handelman et al. 1994). ALA also regenerates vitamin C from reduced vitamin C in the presence of glutathione (GSH) which also enhance the antioxidant activity (Ibrahim et al. 2008). BHT, a phenolic lipophilic antioxidant that has antiviral activity, have the ability to relieve the cold shock in spermatozoa from several animal species. It stops the auto oxidation by converting the peroxide radical to hydroperoxide as it is also called as synthetic analogues of Vit E (Memon et al. 2011). BHT acts as a membrane lipid protectant which reduces the changes in permeability of sperm plasma membrane in cold shock (Graham et al. 1992). BHT minimizes the effect of cold shock on semen (Shoae et al. 2008), boar (Roca et al. 2004) and goat (Khalifa et al. 2008). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2254-T] (1).

8. Effect of Curcuma Longa on Embryonated Eggs Experimentally Infected With Avian Influenza Virus

by Syed Iftikhar Ali Shah (2013-VA-436) | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD Error Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2264-T] (1).

9. Study On Pathogenesis Of Mixed Infection Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (Ibv) And Avian Influenza Virus (H9n2) In Experimentally Infected Broiler Chicken

by Arsala Khan (2013-VA-605) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Avian influenza and infectious bronchitis are the most devastating contagious and viral diseases, affected poultry in Pakistan and many other Asian countries. Regarding the virulence, Avian influenza may be low, or high pathogenic. Mainly due to its pandemic potential and contagious nature, the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (H9N2) is of major concern in poultry industry especially in Pakistan. Co-infection of poultry with more than one bacterial and /or viral agent is common in field especially in our country due to inadequate biosecurity measures which causes high mortality and confusing the diagnosis of these viruses. Hence the present project was designed to study the pathogenesis of mix infection of IBV and H9N2 through gross, histopathological lesions and antibody titer in experimentally infected broiler chicken. For this purpose a total of 80 specific pathogen free chicks were procured, randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D; and raised under uniform managmental condition in experimental sheds of UVAS Lahore. Group A and B were intarnasally challenged with 0.2 ml infectious bronchitis virus (EID50 = 104.5 per 0.1 ml) at 23rd day of age, likewise group B and C were inoculated with 0.2 ml of H9N2 (EID50 = 106 per ml) at 26th day of age while, group D served as a negative control group. After infection the clinical signs, feed consumed and body weight gain were regularly monitored, the serum samples taken on days 23rd, 26th, 29th, 35th, and 40th day of age were tested for HI antibody titer simultaneously, the necropsy of birds (n=3) sacrificed were conducted to observe the gross lesions, tissue samples including lungs, liver, kidneys and trachea were collected for histopathological evaluation. In IBV infected group, respiratory distress i.e., tracheal rales, nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing, gasping and reduced feed intake were observed during early stages, later up to 10 days post infection watery diarrhea with ruffled feathers were observed. In mix infected group clinical signs manifested rapidly and were persistent with Summary 59 high severity. Gross lesions in mixed infection were more profound, including; severely congested and hyperemic lungs, tracheitis with catarrhal exudates in lumen; pale, swollen and enlarged kidneys with urates deposition in tubules. Six birds died in mix infected group, revealed caseous exudate in trachea extended up to lower bronchi while, in IBV infected group lesions were mild and confined to trachea, lungs and kidneys. Mortality was high in mix infected group (30%) followed by IBV infected group in which two birds died. While, in H9N2 infected and control group none of the bird died. Histopathological lesions in mix infected group were aggravated markedly tracheal epithelium degeneration and sloughing; congestion, interstitial nephritis, leukocytes infiltration, tubular degeneration and necrosis were observed while, in lungs pneumonia of peribronchiolar area and interstitium with lymphocyte and macrophages infiltration, additionally degeneration and vacuolization of hepatocytes with focal necrotic areas in liver were also noted. In IBV and H9N2 infected group microscopic lesions were of mild degree. GMTs against both IBV and H9N2 in mix infected group were significantly different at P>0.05 than individually infected birds. Among the groups, statistically significant increase in FCR of birds in mix infected group was observed. On the basis of these findings it might be conclude that mix infection of IBV and H9N2 causes severe disease as compared to single infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2296-T] (1).

10. Impact Analysis Of Quality Control Practices In Medical Diagnostic Labs Operational In District Lahore

by Tahira Naz Saif (2009-VA-204) | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Medical laboratory services are essential to patient care as laboratory results influence 70% of diagnosis. When tests are performed, there is always some level of inaccuracy. The challenge is to reduce the level of inaccuracy as much as possible. In orders to reduce these errors throughout the lab testing cycle, it is very important to maintain the quality of diagnostic lab. For this purpose standards should be set in the laboratory. These standards have the general requirement for effective management and competent testing. In this study 5 public and 4 private sector medical diagnostic labs in district Lahore were selected. Permission from the competent authorities was taken and information was gathered through questionnaire including parameters such as lab building design, human resource of the lab, equipment and consumables, quality control measures adopted in the labs, environmental monitoring, waste management and customer care covering factors like recruitment policy of staff, Job descriptions of the staff, trainings conducted in the lab, SOPs, quality control and quality assurance program, feedback system, corrective and preventive action implemented in lab, result reporting etc. The data was analyzed statistically through frequency distribution by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0 for development of Graphs and Tables. This study was conducted to help to evaluate the quality system of medical diagnostic labs and to identify the critical points which affect the quality of the testing and diagnosis and are being ignored. Information regarding different parameters was summarized in tabulated form by calculating percentage values. Two types of comparison were done. Firstly percentage value for each lab is calculated to check which labs fulfill maximum requirements of the parameters described. Second comparison was done to find out the percentage of the labs out of total selected labs, which fulfill different factors of the parameters described. After statistical analysis using chi square results showed that there is no significant difference between private sector labs and public sector labs. In the first parameter, lab building design lab 1 and lab 9 got 100% quality points and lab 6 and lab 8 got minimum scores of 20%. In second parameter, human resource of lab 1, 2 and 3 got 100% quality points. Lab 6 and 8 got minimum quality points of 33%. When third parameter equipment and consumables was investigated it was found that lab 7 and lab 9 100% fulfill this parameter and lab 6 and lab 8 fulfill this parameter only 16.6%. In fourth parameter, quality control practices implemented in labs; lab 2 got 86% scores and lab 1 got 82% while lab 8 got minimum quality points of 22%. In fifth parameter, waste management of the lab; lab 4 got maximum quality points of 83% and all other labs got the same score of 66.6% in this parameter. When sixth parameter, environmental monitoring was investigated. It was found that lab 2 and lab 9 monitor the environment of the lab only 66.6% and in lab 8 environmental monitoring is not done. In seventh parameter, customer care lab 9 got 100% scores and labs 3, 4, 5 and 6 got 50% scores. Conclusion: Results show that there is no significant difference between government and private sector labs. Labs do not pay attention to the quality control measures and use same approaches of quality control in their system. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2317-T] (1).

11. Effect of Fish Oil on Response of Lymphoid Organs of Broiler Experimentally Infected With Newcastle Disease Virus

by Muhammad Zahid (2013-VA-441) | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2353-T] (1).

12. Etiopathology Of Tuberculosis Complex In Antelopes And Its Cytokine Profile

by Maryam Saddiqa (2009-VA-366) | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Bovine tuberculosis is a contagious disease of domestic and wild animals with serious zoonotic effects in humans. The economic importance and public health concern of bovine tuberculosis enlist it in the world top priority disease to be eliminated by WHO (World Health Organization). Tuberculosis in antelopes is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis & Mycobacterium avium. This disease in antelopes causes tremendous economic losses. Unfortunately in Pakistan no such study has been conducted on wildlife tuberculosis except one (Zeeshan 2007) his work was on the identification of one specie i.e. M.bovis in deer while this study was on the identification of three different types of species (Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium). A total of 50 blood samples from tuberculosis suspected antelopes were collected. These samples were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) and cytokine ELISA to determine the etiopathology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The results indicated that 10% and 4% of antelopes were positive for M.bovis, M.tuberculosis infection with multiplex PCR and cytokine ELISA respectively. From these results it is evident that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cytokine ELISA for the diagnosis Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex (MTC) and it shows much higher percentage of positive cases. This study provided valuable information about the presence of M.bovis, M.tuberculosis and M.avium in different types of antelopes (Urial, Mouflon sheep, Black buck, Goral and Hog deer). The cytokine profile could be used as a diagnostic marker in future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2549-T] (1).

13. Comparison Of Carcass Grading And Meat Quality Evaluation Of Young Indigenous, Crossbred Cattle And Buffalo

by Muhammad Kashif Yar (2015-VA-460) | Dr. Muhammad Hayat Jaspal | Mr. Jamal Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Pakistan has an agricultural economy in which livestock has a major role. Meat industry in Pakistan is a sub-sector of livestock. Meat from Pakistan is exported to other countries in the form of whole carcass and primal meat cuts. Little work has been reported so far regarding the effect of age on meat quality, grading and meat cuts standardization of indigenous, crossbred cattle and buffalo of Pakistan. The present study was conducted at the Department of Meat Science and Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. In the first experiment samples of meat cuts from total 48 male cattle and buffalo, 12 from 18 months and 12 from 26 months of age groups were taken. The animals were slaughtered in the experimental unit of the department. The color parameters of steaks of different meat cuts were measured with the help of Minolta chroma meter. Steaks were vacuumed packed in polyethylene bagsand cooked in water bath until all the steaks attained the core temperature of 72°C. Cooking loss was calculated in percentage. 1cm2strips of meat were obtained from each sample of different meat cuts parallel to the muscle fibers and were sheared under the 'V-Slot' blade of Texture Analyzer to obtain shear force values which indicated the tenderness of different meat cuts.The second experiment was done on indigenous (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Friesian × Sahiwal) cattle which were brought out from different farms of Punjab and slaughtered in the experimental unit of the department. Total 24 cattle, 12 indigenous (Sahiwal) and 12 crossbred (Friesian × Sahiwal) cattle of 24 months of age were selected for the experiment. Carcass weight and offal’s weight were taken after slaughtering of animals. Carcass and meat cuts grading were done according to "EUROP" and Meat Standard Australia (MSA) respectively. All the data were analyzed by using complete randomized design. The data were analyzed byt-test with the help of SAS (9.1). P ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. The results of this study showed that the color of tenderloin, cube roll and silver side were lighter in 18 months cattle than 26 months. Redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue angle (h) and chroma (c) were non-significant between both age groups. Only rump showed a significance difference in cooking loss. WBSF values of rump, round, topside and silver side were lower in 18 months cattle than 26 months of age. TheL* value of tenderloin was higher in 18 months buffalo than 26 months. The a* values of round and eye of silverside were higher at 18 months whereas, a* values of sirloin, cube roll and blade were lower at 18 months of age. The b* values of cube roll and blade were lower at 18 months of age. The C* values of rump and cube roll were lower at 18 months while C* values of the eye of silverside were higher at 18 months than 26 months of age. The hue angles of cube roll, round, silverside and the blade were lower 18 months. The cooking loss (%) of tenderloin, cube roll and eye of silver side was higher at 18 months of age. The WBSF values of tenderloin and rump were lower 18 months of age. Between 18 months cattle and buffalo, the values of L*, a*, b*, C* and hue angles of most of the meat cuts were higher in cattle than buffalo. Cooking loss (%) of tenderloin and sirloin were lower in cattle. WBSF values of tenderloin, cube roll and blade were significantly lower in cattle than buffalo. Similarly, between 26 months cattle and buffalo the values of L*, a*, b*, C* and hue angles of most of the meat cuts were higher in cattle than buffalo. The WBSF values of tenderloin, blade and eye of silverside were lower in cattle and WBSF values of round, topside and silverside were higher in cattle than buffalo.There was no significant difference in carcass conformation and marbling score. Indigenous breed showed more carcass surface fat than crossbred. Live animal weight, hot carcass weight, weight of offals and weights of meat cuts percentages (Chuck, blade, brisket, cube roll, boneless ribs, fore shin, flank, tenderloin, sirloin, rump, round, topside, silverside hind shin) were non-significant between indigenous and crossbred cattle. CONCLUSIONS Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded from this study that: 1. Meat quality, especially tenderness of most of the meat cuts at the age of 26 months of cattle and buffalo is comparable to the tenderness at the age of 18 months, thus animals should raise at least up to two years of age which will increase the carcass yield and dressing percentage than at 18 months of age without affecting the tenderness. 2. Meat quality, especially tenderness of cattle and buffalo is almost comparable at the same age groups. Thus buffalo meat can be used as the replacement of beef. 3. At the same age group, indigenous and crossbred cattle have same conformation, dressing (%) and meat cuts (%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2793-T] (1).

14. Influence Of Animal Age, Post-Slaughter Chilling Rate And Ageing Time On Meat Quality Characteristics Of Young Cattle And Buffalo

by Muawuz Ijaz (2010-VA-182) | Dr. Muhammad Hayat Jaspal | Dr. Sher Ali | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: In Pakistan, livestock contributes 58.6% to agriculture and 11.6% to overall GDP. While, total meat production is 3873 thousand tonsannually from which beef contributes 56% of it. Most of the red meat is being exported to the Middle East countries. Globally, Pakistan is competing with other countries by slaughtering of young animals. Because processor thinks that meat quality is only affected by the age of animal. While, ignores the other factors like post-slaughter chilling rate and ageing time that also affect the meat quality attributes. Therefore, objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of age (18 and 26 months), post-slaughter chilling rate (delayed and rapid) and ageing time (7 days and 14 days) on meat quality traits of M. longissimus dorsi (LD) of cattle and buffalo calves. In this experiment 48 animals were selected (24 were cattle calves out of which 12 were 18 months and other 12 were 26 months of age; other 24 were buffalo calves out of which 12 were 18 months and other 12 were 26 months of age). After slaughtering, carcasses were splitted into two halves, one for delayed and another for rapid chilling. Temperature and pH were taken at intervals of 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 18 and 24 hours post slaughter. After overnight chilling and achieving the rigor mortis, both strip-loins were deboned and cut down into nine steaks. Nine strip-loin steaks from each treatment (delayed and rapid chilling) were processed at 1, 7 and 14 days of ageing. Thereafter, striploins were evaluated for meat quality attributes like color, tenderness, purge loss and cooking loss %. The results of the present experiment showed that cattle age at slaughter showed a significant effect on warner-bratzler shear force (WBSF) values. Bulls with age of 18 months were tender than 26 months of age. Because, collagen starts depositing within muscles as the age of the animal advances, which is a major factor of texture of cooked meat. Meat redness (a*) and chroma (C*) values were higher at 18 months of animal age. While, buffalo meat showed a non-significant effect of animal age on WBSF values. Moreover, cooking loss percentage was also increased with the advancement of animal age. In both species, chilling rate significantly affect the WBSF values of LD muscle of 18 months old animals. While, effect of the chilling was non-significant at 26 months of animal age. This could be due to lighter weight and leaner carcasses at 18 months of slaughtering age and were unable to hit the pH/temperature window and faced the cold shortening. Whereas only in cattle calves, hunter L* and a* values were affected by rigor temperature and recorded higher during delayed chilling of carcasses from 18 month old animals. While, chilling rate showed a non-significant effect on cooking loss percentage. Similarly, in 7 and 14 day aged strip-loin steaks, WBSF values decreased significantly at 18 and 26 month of animals’ age in both cattle and buffalo calves. The rate of tenderization decreased as storage time increased and recorded a 79 and 82 % reduction in WBSF values during first 7 days in meat of cattle and buffalo calves respectively. The improvement in tenderness during storage of steaks could be attributed to the degradation of myofibrillar and associated proteins with help of endogenous protease enzymes. Likewise, all color parameter values were also improved with the storage of meat in 18 and 26 month old animals of both species. In the same way, cooking loss and purge loss percentage values increased linearly with ageing of meat. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: There is no obvious difference of meat quality between the animals of 18 and 26 months of age in cattle and buffalo. Thus, instead of early age slaughtering, animals should be raised at least up to two years of age, which may help to increase in overall meat production of the country. Immediate after slaughtering, rapid chilling of beef carcasses leads to toughening of meat.The effect is more obvious in 18 month old animals in both species. So it is suggested that, pre-chilling or electrical stimulation of carcasses should be exercised rather than rapid chilling in order to elude the chances of cold shortening. Ageing of striploin steaks improves the tenderness and color of the meat. Effect ismore pronounced during first 7 days of storage. Therefor ageing should be practiced within Pakistan in order to compete globally.Secondly, as beef is being exported by air with high airfreight charges. If this meat is shipped by sea after vacuum packaging at 0⁰C, it may decrease the transportation cost and its ageing will also be done because it takes around 7 days to reach Middle East countries. While in case of other destinations, it will take even more time for shipment.   Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2795-T] (1).

15. A Comparative Study Of Non-Antibiotic Feed Additives On Experimental Colonization Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Enteridis And Intestinal Pathomorphology In Broiler Chickens

by Adeem Rehman Raffie (2010-VA-233) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The utility of antimicrobial agents as a preventive measure has been questioned, given extensive documentation of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria. Non-antibiotic feed additives (probiotics, prebiotics, essential oils and organic acids) are being considered to fill this gap and already a few farmers in the country are using them with good results. The present study enable us to understand and compare the beneficial effects of non-antibiotic feed additives on salmonella enterica colonization and changes in intestinal morphology. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of non-antibiotic feed additives on salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis colonization in intestine of broilers chickens and compare the intestinal morphology between normal healthy, non-antibiotic feed additives supplemented and salmonella challenged broiler chickens. A total of 125 commercial day-old broiler chicks were procured from the local market. The chicks were divided into six groups A (Basal diet, negative control group), B (Challenge + Basal diet, positive control group), C (probiotic + Challenge + Basal diet), D (prebiotic + Challenge + Basal diet), E (essential oils + Challenge + Basal diet) and F (organic acids + Challenge + Basal diet) with 20 chicks in each group and given separate treatments. Two separate experiments were carried out for salmonella recovery from cecal tonsils and intestinal pathomorphic evaluation. Villus length, villus width, villus surface area and crypt depth were measured by micrometery. The collected data from both experiments was analyzed using the statistical technique of comparing more than two groups i.e. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 16.0. Summary 45 There was an overall increase in all the parameters of intestinal morphometric analysis for all the treatment groups except for the control negative group which showed lowest values. Maximum villus height of 1794.2±63.96 μm in duodenum was achieved by group E, which was given essential oils. Whereas maximum villus surface area index of 1662.6±389.16 mm2 was recorded in group D, which was treated with prebiotics. Maximum villus height of 940.35±23.96 μm and surface area index of 568.92±36.27 mm2 in ileum mucosa was recorded in group D, treated with prebiotic. . Recoverable salmonella was most reduced by probiotics and organic acids. Final results show that there is an overall increase in histological parameters of the mucosa of duodenum and ileum in the groups fed non-antibiotics feed additives as compared with control groups. Prebiotics showed the maximum positive effects in histological parameters whereas probiotics showed maximum positive effect for decreased recoverable salmonella count. Hence this study suggests that a combination of non-antibiotic feed additives will be beneficial for the intestinal health of broiler chickens but there is a need for more research on combinations of non-antibiotic feed additives. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2844-T] (1).

16. Identification And Molecular Characterization Of Mycobacterium Bovis And Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis In Wild Cats.

by Zianab Tariq (2010-VA-234) | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Cases of wildlife diseased with Mycobacterium species are existing in Pakistan and result in high morbidity and mortality. Vaccine is the only preventive measure, but in wildlife the vaccine administration is a strenuous job. In Pakistan vaccination practice is not up to the mark and vaccination schedules are not being followed. Mycobacterial diseases have gain popularity due to their zoonotic effect. Scat samples from Lahore Safari Zoo and Lahore Zoo were collected and properly labelled. Conventional PCR along with Touchdown PCR was done using universal primer sets of M. bovis and M. paratuberculosis. The amplicons were run on agarose gel and the bands were observed under Gel Doc system. The objective of the study was to detect the currently prevailing Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in wild cats in Pakistan. However the results obtained from different kinds of PCR were negative, showing that the wild cat population of Lahore Zoo Safari as well as Lahore Zoo were free from Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2845-T] (1).

17. Detection Of Genetic Variants In Interferon Gamma Gene And Its Association With Resistance Against Mycobacterium Bovis In Buffalo

by Awais Nawaz (2010-VA-219) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Bovine Tuberculosis (bovine TB) is a chronic disease of animals and has been known for the significant zoonotic impact. Immune mechanisms necessary for protection against Bovine TB are poorly understood. Interferon-γ cytokine has been reported critically and it is important to study its role in immunity against Bovine TB. Blood samples were collected from 100 Animals from Peri-urban areas of Lahore, Gujranwala and Okara, Pakistan. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples. Specific primers were designed to amplify specific portion of IFN-γ gene. Amplified products were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Interferon-γ assay was performed from blood collected in heparin coated vacutainers for the quantification of interferon-γ cytokine in different groups of animals. Blood samples from mycobacterium infected symptomatic and symptomatic animals were processed in Haematology analyzer for complete blood count. Genetic sequencing of bovine Interferon gamma gene (IFN- γ) help in finding out the Genetic Variations to characterize its role in resistance against Mycobacterium bovis infection. This study help in finding out the confirmed markers for natural resistance against bovine TB that can be used in future selection and breeding programmes. The comparison of hematological values and Interferon gamma level of different groups of animals help us for the detailed diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. The collected data from hematological analysis of Mycobacterium infected symptomatic animals (Group A), Mycobacterium infected asymptomatic animals (Group B) and non-infected animals/control Group (Group C) was analyzed using the statistical technique of comparing more than two groups i.e. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), One way ANOVA through SPSS 16.0. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 71 Mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were found non-significant (p>0.05). White blood cells, Lymphocytes, Platelets, Mean platelet volume and Mean corpuscular volume were found significant (p<0.05). Granulocytes, Red blood cells and Red cell distribution width values were found highly significant. Interferon gamma assay provided confirmation about the presence of disease in the animals by indicating interferon gamma level to insight the undergoing pathogenesis which was helpful in the detailed diagnosis of the disease. Later on it helped us in the confirmation of false positive results by Tuberculin test. Final results revealed four intronic variations in different groups of animals. Three of them were found in Group A and B and one was found in Group C (non-infected animals) by Primer 1 (P1). Intronic variations don’t have significant effect but they may have an impact on the regulation of the gene. We found Transversions (T > A), (A > T), (T > G) were found in mycobacterium infected symptomatic group of animals (Table: 4.7). Transversion (C > G) at and deletion (G >_) was found in this group and exclusive presence of these SNP’s in this group can be considered significant and responsible for the infection. Transversion (A > C) and addition (_ > G) were found in mycobacterium infected asymptomatic group of animals. These two SNP’s are significant as they have been found only in this group. We can infer that the presence of these two SNP's is responsible for the infection along with making them asymptomatic towards the disease. It was noted that Transition (G > A), (T > C) has been found common in mycobacterium infected symptomatic and asymptomatic group of animals. This common mutation at same position in both groups is quite significant and could be attributed to the occurrence of disease. Summary Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2881-T] (1).

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