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1. Effect Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis On Some Blood Parameters And Its Treatment With Three New Anticoccidial Drugs In Broilers

by Arshad Latif Arshad | Dr. Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmed | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: One hundred and fifty day 01(1 broiler chicks were obtained from a local hatchery. They were reared upto day 26. All the birds were given feed having no coccicliostat. At the age of 26 clays the birds were divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E. The D and B were control groups. The test groups were infected with 75000 sporulated oocysts On 26th day of age, group D was infected and non medicated while group E was kept non infected and non medicated. The group A, B and C were treated with clopidol, monensin and salinomycin respectively after the appearance of clinical symptoms. The total oocyst counts in all groups on zero day of infection were nil and on 1st, 5th and 9th day of medication, groups A, B, C, D showed 25800, 20400, 23800, 197500 oocysts counts respectively, while group B examined nil being control non infected group. The mortalities observed in groups A, B, C, D and E were 6, 2, 3, 8 and nil while percent mortality was 20%, 6.66%, 10%, 26.66% and 0.00%. In treated groups, monensin showed least mortality. The feed intake and feed conversion of groups A, B and C were almost equal. While group D (infected and non medicated) was relatively poor. As far as group E (non infected and non medicated) is concerned it showed better results. In haematological studies the average values of haemoglobin levels, erythrocytic count and total serum protein were lower post infection as compared to the respective control group E (non infected and non medicated). The total leukocytic count was increased in all groups as compared to group E (non infected and non medicated). The differential leukocytic count, the lymphocyte decreased, heterophils and monocytes increased. The eosinophils and basophils showed variation in their number. The study showed efficacy of Monensin, Salinomycin and Clopidol in descending order respectively. Monensin was to be drug of choice against coccidiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0428,T] (1).

2. Extra Articular Substitution Of The Cranial Cruciate Ligament With Patellar Tendon

by Huma Noor | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Mubasher | Dr. Muhammed Younas | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is the most common cause of hind-limb lameness in the dog. Many techniques have been used for the repair of ruptured cranial cruciate ligament including intra-articular techniques both using synthetic and viable materials. Viable materials have proved better then synthetic due to lesser chances of rejection and infection. Extra-articular techniques are also though better than intra-articular repairs as whole of the joint is manipulated in the latter which increases the chances of trauma. In this project 12 dogs were used in which 2 were the control dogs. The dogs underwent repair of the ruptured cranial cruciate ligament by using extra-articular technique in which a strip of the patellar ligament along with the superficial half of the patella was screwed to the lateral side of the lateral femoral condyle in a way to eliminate the cranial drawer sign. The joint was approached through a medial parapatellar artrotomy. In the control dogs the cranial cruciate ligament was cut but not repaired. All the dogs were kept in Kennel cages for a period of twelve weeks and evaluated clinically by various physical tests at regular interval. Euthanasia was performed after twelve weeks and the stifle joints of all the operated dogs were explored for gross abnormalities. In case of the repaired dogs, majority of the results confirmed that the joints remained stable throughout the experimental period. However, in case of control dogs the post-euthanasia evaluation was clearly indicative of the complete rupture of cranial cruciate ligaments. Hence it was seen that the surgical technique used in this study provided adequate stability to the stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ii gament was ruptured experimentally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0431,T] (1).

3. Comparative Study On The Performance Of Male And Female Parent Meat Lines With Commercial Broilers Of Hubbard

by Javed Hassan Hashmi | Dr.Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Prof. Dr. Muhammed Aslam Chaudry.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The present study was planned to compare male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent meat line breeders of Hubbard strains with commercial broiler chicks of the same strain. The objective of the study was to ascertain the genetic potential for the growth of these three different lines and their use as a commercial broilers. The following observations were recorded for the each strain: 1. Mean feed consumption. 2. Mean weekly body weight. 3. Mean feed efficiency. 4. Mean dressing percentage 5. Mortality (if any) 6. Economics of meat production. All the three groups i.e. A, B and C were reared in the brooder batteries under optimal environmental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to all the groups. The statistical analysis of data revealed that feed consumption and body weight were higher in group B having female chicks of the male (sire) line of Hubbard strain, and non significant differences were observed in feed efficiency and dressing percentage among the groups. The economic evaluation of all the three groups for meat production showed that the birds of group B having female chicks of male grand parent line proved to be the most economical. Recommendations: Male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent lines can be used as commercial broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0484,T] (1).

4. Characterization And Antibiotic Sensitivity Of Pasteurella Multocida Isolates From The Field Cases Of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia In Buffloes Of Punjab

by Puran Das | Dr. Muhammed Amin Sheikh | Dr. Syed Ata-Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The research project accomplished was primarily concerned with the isolation and characterization of P. multocida strains involved in field outbreaks of HS in buffaloes of Punjab Province of Pakistan. In addition, isolates were also examined for their sensitivity to various antibiotics and suipha drugs. Isolation attempts, made both on blood samples of live diseased animals and long bones of the dead/slaughtered animals, yielded 10 strains of the organism, solely from the long bones. All the strains of P. inultocida isolated were uniform in their sugar fermentation and other biochemical reactions, giving a positive reaction for glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, sucrose, sorbitol and xylose, producing acid only and no gas. Like wise a positive reaction was also recorded for catalase, oxidase, indole production, nitrate reduction and H2S production tests. All the strains were however, unable to ferment arabinose, inositol, lactose, maltose, salicin, dulcitol and raffinose sugars and were negative for methyl red, voges proskauer, urease activity and gelatin liquefaction tests. All the isolates of P. multocida were serologically identified as Roberts type I. All the isolates proved highly pathogenic both to rabbits and mice alike. The antibiotic sensitivity results against 10 field strains and one reference strain of P. inultocida showed amoxicillin to be the most effective antibiotic. The rest of the antibiotics, placed in accordance with their effectivity, in descending order are ampicillin, chloramphenicol, norfloxicin, kanamycin, gentamycin, oxytetracycline and sulphamethaxazole + trimethoprim. None of the antibiotics except amoxicillin, was able to display equal effectivity against all the 11 strains of P. multocida examined. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0486,T] (1).

5. Studies On Efficacy Of Alum Precipitated Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Vaccine (Bacterin)

by Saeed ul Hassan Khan | Dr. muhammed Amin Sheikh | Dr. Muhammed Khushi Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The research project undertaken concerned efficacy of alum precipitated HS vaccine (bacterin). conducted on buffaloes maintained at Livestock Production Research Institute (LPRJ) Bahadurnagar, Okara. Primarily the study was aimed at examining the efficacy of three different dosage levels of the vaccine comprising 1 mg, 1.5 mg and 2mg dry weights of the bacteria, tried on animals of different body weights. In addition, the immunopotentiating effects of levamisole, on HS vaccine, were also studied on one of the groups of experimental animals. The best results were those given by 2mg dry weight of the organism, observed in animals weighing 600 kg or above, with a GMT value of 48.5 observed on day 42nd post-vaccination. The second best result was of the dose carrying 1.5 mg dry weight of the organism. Unfortunately the young animals having a body weight of 60-80kg did not give a response worthy of some concrete conclusion against all three aforesaid doses of the vaccine which was thought to be due to some sort of ill effects of their substandard health status on the immune response. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0487,T] (1).

6. Seasonal Variation In Breeding Patterns Of Buffalo In Punjab

by Col. Ahmed Khan | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr. Muhammed | Prof.Dr. Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Buffalo plays a pivotal role in the economy of poor and landless farmers. Seasonal calving trend of buffalo has caused shortage of milk during the Summer season when it is required more. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of season on reproductive and productive traits of buffaloes. In this project Artificial Insemination data of 5 Districts of Central Punjab and breeding data of the Livestock Experimental Station, Rakh Dera Chahi, Lahore were used. Analysis of variance was applied to study the effect of season on Artificial Insemination and Farm data. Data analysis indicated a significant effect of season on breeding, fertility and calving. Both Artificial Insemination and Farm data indicated high (P<0.05) breeding trend during Autumn and Winter season. Fertility were significantly (P<0.05) low during Autumn. There was no significant effect (P>0.05) of calving season on the calving interval and milk production. The conclusion revealed that the provision of ideal management, avoiding the extreme weather conditions, ensuring the availability of balanced adequate ration throughout the year and protection from other stresses of diseases etc., it may be possible to derive all the productive and reproductive traits from this versatile animal round the year without any significant effect of the various seasons. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0489,T] (1).

7. Comparative Study Of Early And Delayed Skin Autografting On Front Of The Canine Knee

by Azhar Hanif Khatana, M | Dr.Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Muhammed | Dr. Muhammed Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Cutaneous injuries particularly when quite massive are burning problems for the working clinicians. Healing in such injuries is unduly prolonged with subsequent granulation and scar formation resulting in uncosmetic look of the skin. Wounds of the canine knee have plagued both the veterinarian and the owners since long. Most of these wounds fail to respond to conventional methods of treatment. In such cases skin grafting serves as a good alternative for successful covering of the lesions. The study was done on 20 randomly selected mongrel dogs of either sex. A skin defect starting from 3 cm above and going the same distance down the joint encompassing the medial, cranial and lateral aspects was created and covered with a full thickness skin graft harvested from the lateral aspect of the thigh. In half of the dogs the grafts were fenestrated whereas in the other half they were kept unfenestrated. In each of the group the right knee was grafted fresh while the left knee underwent delayed grafting when the wounds were uniformly granulating without any clinical signs of infection. The animals were kept under observation for a period of 21- days. The survival rate of the unfenestrated grafts was 70% (7 out of 10) and 50% (5 out of 10) for the right and left limb respectively whereas in the fenestrated group the success rate was 90% (9 out of 10) in the right limb and 60% (6 out 10) in the left limb. The results indicated that the fenestrated grafts had an edge over the unfenestrated ones whether they were used to cover a fresh or an old granulating wound on the cranial aspect of the canine knee. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0491,T] (1).

8. A Study On Clinico Serilogical Observations By Experimental Aflatoxicosis In Quails

by Mahmood Farooq Qureshi | Dr. Muhammed Athar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the effect of orally administered aflatoxin in feed was observed in quails. Clinicopathological picture was recorded and serum levels in tile liver and intestines of the quails were tested. At the fifth week of age healthy quails in groups A, B, C and D were given feed containing aflatoxin at a rate of 20 PPM, 40 PPM, 60 PPM and zero PPM (control group) respectively. The average (four weeks) mortality rate for groups A, B, C, and D was 21.53%, 44.80%, 54.03% and 0.07% respectively. The average four weeks case fatality rate for group A, B, C and 0 was 82.15%, 90%, 70.33% and 87.50% respectively. The average four weeks aflatoxin level in the intestinal contents was 9.09 PPM, 10.02 PPM, 11.31 PPM and 3.67 PPM in group A, B, C, and 0 respectively. The various levels of aflatoxin in the liver during the four week averaged 0.06 PPM, 5.19 PPM, 16.57 PPM and 0.05 PPM in group A, B, C and O respectively. The various levels of aflatoxin in the serum, were a four week average of 0.11 PPM, 3.69 PPM, 12.44 PPM and zero PPM in group A, B, C, and 0 respectively. The clinical signs mainifested the birds were ruffled feathers, gathering in the corners of the case, drowsiness, whitish to yellow dilcoloration of eyes, cynchitis, watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils, loose yellowish-white faeces. irregular movement with nervous signs, stiffness of the joints and dehydration. The necropsy findings were enlarged liver, gastro-entertis and petechial haemorrhages on the amasal ad serosal part of the body, deposition of a yellowish white fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavity. There wa also pen cardial fluId and asciise in the body. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0495,T] (1).

9. Studies Of Antibacterial Activity Of Azadirachata Indica Leaves (Neem)

by Naeem Butt, M | Dr. Muhammed Sabir | dr. Khushi muhammed | Dr. Razzaq Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: One hundred, day old chicks were reared in the college room. Before the introduction of chicks to the shed, the room was washed and disinfected. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves were used in the form of powdered, aqueous and methanolic extracts in three major groups i.e. A, B and C (containing 30 birds each) and D with 10 birds, which were kept as a control group. The powdered, aqueous and methanolic extracts were given in the feed to each sub-group at 10,15 and 20mg/Kg body weight to A, B and C i.e., A1, A2 and A3 B1, B2,and B3 C1,C2 and C3 respectively. The N.D. vaccine was administered after 2 days of start of medication. The blood of the experimental and controlled birds were taken at the age of 28, 35 and 42 days. The medication was started at 21 day of age. The sera collected from the blood samples were tested for antibody response against N.D. vaccine. No antibacterial activity of extracts of Neem leaves against Staphylococcus aureous and Pasteurella multocida was observed. the titre of each group at one week post vaccination of ND vaccine to the birds, were determined. It was noted that the water extract of 10mg Neem leaves did not effect the antibody response of birds. The feed conversion ratio of the experimental and control birds were also determined weekly as shown in the Table No.14. There is no apparent different in F.C.R. among the dosage level of powdered, aqueous and methanolic extracts as shown in the Figure-i. During the experimental period ii birds died. The postmortem findings showed E. coli infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0496,T] (1).

10. Efficacy Of Different Conjunctival Flaps For Corneal Ulceration In The Dog

by Mubashra Mukadas | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Muhammed Arif Khan | Dr. Shahkeel | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The use of conjunctival flaps is one of the procedures adopted for the repair of cornea in cases of corneal ulceration where the medicinal therapy has limited or no effect. In the begining of the twentieth century many ophthalmic surgeons of human side as well as veterinarians used conjunctiva for the repair of corneal ulcers. They adopted many procedures for this purpose but only a few were found to be successful. These procedures were used to relieve the animal from keratopathies such as infectious keratitis, severely chemically burnt eye, damage of the cornea during accident and progressive deep ulcers. These conditions mostly cause discomfort due to ocular pain and impairment of vision and corneal surgery becomes a necessity. During this study, fifteen healthy mongrel dogs of either sex were used. These dogs were divided into 5 groups of 3 animals each. The animals of group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were operated upon for the repair of experimentally produced corneal ulcers using conjunctival hood, bridge, complete and pedicle flaps respectively. Group No.5, was kept to serve the purpose of control animals. The cornea was superficially scratched with scalpel blade in all the animals from group No.1 through group No.4 to produce corneal ulcers. The animals were then kept for 15-20 days till corneal ulcers were fully developed. The corneal ulcers thus produced were repaired afterwards, using four different types of conjunctival flaps mentioned earlier. For preparing conjunctival hood flap, a 1800 incision was made in the bulbar conjunctiva at the limbus and the conjunctiva was superficially dissected towards the fornix. The flap was then pulled centrally and sutured to the sciera with simple interrupted sutures using 6-0 silk. The complete or double hood flaps were prepared by continuing the limbal based conjunctival incision 360° around the limbus. Superficial dissection of the conjunctiva was performed 1-1.5 cm towards the fornices, thus dorsal and ventral flaps were created (by mobilizing the bulbar conjunctiva) and advanced over the cornea to meet centrally. These flaps were apposed with horizontal mattress sutures of 6-0 silk. To prepare bridge or bucket handle flaps, the conjunctiva was first superficially dissected from the limbus and the flap was created via a second incision in the conjunctiva 1-1.5 cm from and parallel to the limbal incision. The flap was then made free and shifted over the corneal ulcer and sutured with simple interrupted sutures using 6-0 silk. The pedicle flaps were dissected and advanced from the limbus and sutured to sciera, covering the corneal ulcers, with simple interrupted sutures of 6-0 silk. The conjunctival defects were left un-sutured. These procedures were first carried out on the left eyes of all the dogs and then repeated on the right eyes after the healing of left ones. It was concluded on the basis of this study that: 1. The raw bulbar surface of conjunctiva providing direct access of vascular and fibrous connective tissues can be used, to repair the corneal ulcers. 2. Vision remains almost normal during post operative period without the use of any contact or intra ocular lens. 3. There was no recurrent corneal erosion or penetrating infection, so deeper layers of cornea as well as other intra ocular structures remained normal. 4. Use of topical and/or systemic antibiotics for a long time in the post operative period was not needed. The successful attempt at repairing the corneal ulcers with the conjunctival flaps strengthened the belief in cases where there was no other way of saving the animal's vision except surgical intervention. So, it is incumbent upon the veterinarian to involve himself devotedly in the operative procedure with the aim of achieving good results. Whether he succeeds or otherwise, he must have a satisfaction of being loyal to his profession. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0499,T] (1).

11. Physicochemical Factors Effecting The Survival Of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus

by Akif Masood | Atta-ur-Rehman Rizvi | Dr. Muhammed Shakeel akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: About 417 duck eggs were collected from a duck farm. These eggs were incubated at 37oC in automatic incubator for 10 days. At the 11th day the eggs were candled to confirm the fertility of eggs, either they are embryonated or not. Fertile eggs were then be inoculated with the physically and chemically treated EDS-76 virus which have already been treated and stored in plastic vials at -20oC. About 0.1 ml of the sample was inoculated per egg. Four eggs were set for each of the factor i.e physical and chemical. The physical factors were temperature, pH and U.V light. The current project was conducted to study the survival of EDS virus when it was subject to various physical and chemical factor. As far as the physical factors were concerned it was observed that at different temperatures i,e -2oC, +4C°, 331::0 and 37C°. The virus survived at each temperature far 35 days and the same virus survived at 56C° for 90 minutes. AS far as the pH was concerned it was examined that EDS virus remained viable at pH 1,47,10,13 for 24 hours. Following exposure of virus to WY light it was observed that EDS virus servived for 45 minutes. Similairly, the results of chemical factors showed that formalin of 0.067. could not inactivate the virus but 0.12% and o.24x formalin solution killed the virus in time from 6 to 24 hours. Losan with 0.5%., 1.0%. and 1.5%. killed the EDS virus in 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively. The results of this endeavor show that the formalin and Losan in other words chemical like these should be one of the options for farmers to disinfect their sheds to prevent the occurrence of infection from EDS virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0500,T] (1).

12. Comparative Study On Physico-Chemical ,Microbiological & Chemical Adulterants Of Raw & Processed Milk.

by Qasim Raza | Prof.Dr. Muhammed Ayaz | Prof. Dr Muhammed Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Milk production, handling, storage, transportation and marketing of milk is handled in a primitive way in Pakistan. Mostly middle man and contractors are involved in the collection, marketing and distribution of milk. Most of the milk is produced in rural sareas and transported to cities where it is supplied to milk plants and also to house consumers. During transportation and distribution there is no refrigeration involved. Middle man adds ice to keep the milk cool and prevent from spoilage. In addition, they also add chemical to kill bacteria and prevent spoilage of milk. Adulteration of milk is one of the most serious issue in the dairy sector of Pakistan, causing not only major economic losses for the processing industry, but also major health risks for the consumers. Milk is a perishable item and to prevent the spoilage of milk various chemicals are added. In addition to that microbiological quality of milk is very important which directly concern not only with milk spoilage but also consumer health Keeping in view this study the main object of this study is to determine the hysico-chemical, microbiological and adulterants in raw and processed milk available in Lahore. The raw milk samples ware collected from local market of Lahore city Gawalas, Retail milk shops, Small Dairy Farms sale points and Milk Plants collection centers. A total of 80 samples of raw and 40 samples of processed milk were collected from Lahore Raw milk samples were collected from Retail milk shops and Gowalas at four different locations of Lahore city i.e. Defence, Allama Iqbal Town, Samanabad and Inside the wall city, from Small Dairy Farms sale points Sakhian pul and Shadera Town areas. Five samples were also collected from experimental dairy farm of UVAS and collection centers of 4 companies. UHT and Pasteurized milk samples of five different brands were collected from Lahore. A total of 120 milk samples were collected for Physico-chemical, Microbiological and Chemical Adulterants study. Physico-chemical, microbiological analysis and adulterants detection tests were performed in WTO Laboratory , University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Color, Taste and flavor of most of the samples were found normal in color, taste and flavor except a few samples of raw milk from shops and Gawalas. Temperature of raw milk was ranged from 4.80±0.096 °C to 30.48±0.611 °C. UHT brands were at ambient temperature and Pasteurized milk brands were stored at refrigeration temperature. Density in raw milk was ranged from 18.100±0.575 to 27.738±0.16203, lowest in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk ranged from 26.142±0.088 to 28.222±0.3 15 and in pasteurized milk ranged from 26.280±0.527 to 27.377±0.147. The highest mean of freezing point recorded was -0.325±0.0 10 °C in Gawalas and lowest -0.542±0.003 °C observed in UVAS Dairy milk. URT milk ranged from -0.487±0.006 °C to -0.463±0.007 °C and in pasteurized milk brands ranged from -0.480±0.002 °C to - 0.455±0.008 °C. Fat in raw milk ranged from 4.038-0.056% to 6.340±0.060% lowest was in shops and highest in UVAS Dairy milk. UHT fat ranged from 3.472±0.006% to 3.492±0.006% and in Pasteurized milk fat ranged 3.452±0.020% to 3.495±0.005%. SNF in raw milk ranged from 5.386±0.13745% to 8.226±0.026% lowest in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk fat ranged from 7.465±0.033% to 8.082±0.09151% and in Pasteurized milk SNF ranged from 7.563±0.125% to 7.905±0.023%. Protein in raw milk ranged from 2.131±0.060% to 3.162±0.017%, lowest was in shops and highest was in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk protein ranged from 2.99 1±0.026% to 3.2 10±0.038%, in Pasteurized milk protein ranged from3.001±0.053 to 3.146±0.009. Lactose in raw milk ranged from 2.768±0.067% to 4.364±0.041%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk lactose ranged from 3.827±0.011% to 4.107±0.050%, in Pasteurized milk lactose ranged from 3.870±0.070 to 4.020±0.044. Ash in raw milk ranged from 0.512±0.017% to 0.786 ±0.004%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy farm. In UHT ash ranged from 0.698±0.0 1 1% to 0.739±0.007%, in Pasteurized milk ash ranged from 0.689±.008% to 0.739±0.007%. Water added in raw milk ranged from 0 to 36.527±1.945%, lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest Gawalas milk. In UHT water added ranged from 5.939±1.094% tol2.229±0.407% in Pasteurized milk water added ranged from 6.975±0.045% to 12. 150± 1.769%. pH in raw milk ranged from 6.726±0.019 to 7.052±0.027, lowest was in UVAS Dairy and highest was in Gawalas milk, In UHT milk pH ranged from 6.839±0.019 to 6.870±0.0 19, in Pasteurized milk pH ranged from 6.800±0.024 to 6.886±0.03 1. Acidity in raw milk ranged from 0.147±0.001% to 0.161±0.000%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest was in Dairy plant collection centers. In UHT milk acidity' ranged from 0.158±0.003% to 0.161±0.003% and in Pasteurized milk acidity ranged from 0.158±0.003% to 0.161±0.003%.To study the microbiological quality, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and S. aureus count were made. TPC in raw milk ranged from 2.9 x iO± 2.2 x i04 to 1.7 x l0 ± 8.1 x 10± 8.1 x 106. Lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest was in Gawalas milk, in Pasteurized milk TPC ranged from 5.0 x 10±l .2 x i04 to 6.8 x 10±2.3 x 104. Coliform count in raw milk ranged from 3.1 x i0± 3.0 X 102 to 4.4 x i05 ± 4.3 X i03. Lowest was 3.1 x i± 3.0 X 102 in UVAS dairy farm and highest was in Gawalas milk. In Pasteurized milk Coliform count ranged from 58±3.856 to 344±161.272. Staph aureus Count in raw milk ranged from 6.4 X l0±6.7 X 102 to 8.7 X 10±2.2 X i0 Lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest was in Shops milk, in Pasteurized milk Staph aureus Count ranged from 61.87lO.901 to 276.62±105.178. All UHT brands were found negative for TPC, Coliform count and Staph aureus count. The qualitative tests adulterants were performed by (M.A.T). Kit. In raw milk the major adulterants found were Urea, Formaldehyde, Hydrogen peroxide, Neutralizers, Boric acid and QAC. All adulterants were found negative in the milk of UVAS dairy farm. In UHT and Pasteurized brands the adulterants found were Salt, Sugar, Starch and Hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion On the basis of present finding, it is concluded that multiple factors can markedly affect the quality of milk. Water addition was one of the major adulteration present in every step of milk marketing. All the raw milk samples were found inferior for their Phsicochemical quality. In processed milk the fat percentage was in the normal range while other parameters were inferior. Microbiological contamination was also higher in raw and pasteurized milk samples. Adulteration of milk with chemicals such as caustic soda, urea, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, sugar and salt were also detected in raw and processed milk. The high microbiological contamination and presence of chemical adultrants in raw and processed milk showed that the milk constitutes a potential public health hazard. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1062,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Vegetable Oils Blend On Physico Chemical Sensory Characteristics Of Low Fat Ice Cream

by Gohar Abbas Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammed Abdullah | Dr. Jalees | Muhammed Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Ice cream is the most popular dairy product and equally liked by people of all ages. Milk fat is important to ice cream because t increases the richness of flavor, produces a smooth characteristic texture, gives body to the ice cream and contributes good melting properties. intake of milk fat has been associated with coronary heart disease. Vegetable Cats are used extensively as fat sources in ice cream. Palm oil having low melting point and high iodine value which is also used in ice cream manufacturing as source of vegetable fat. In this research work of ice cream manufacturing, milk fat was replaced with palm oil and sunflower vegetable oil to find out the optimum level at which milk fat could he replaced with vegetable oil blend and to develop a more health friendly ice cream which has lower level of saturated fatty acids and no trans fatty acids. The experiment was involved in making five types of ice cream and fifteen batches of ice cream were prepared. Mix was heated to 80 °C. homogenized in a clean and sanitized double stage homogenizer. Pasteurized and homogenized mix was cooled immediately to 4 °C and will be aged at this temperature for 24 hours. The mix was then frozen. Analysis of ice cream for chemical tests including pH, acidity, fat, protein, ash, total solids and physical tests including color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability, physical parameters of ice cream for whippingability, hardness, overrun measurement, melting test, viscosity and storage study was determined. The data obtained was statistically analyzed to find out the effect of treatment and storage intervals. Compositional attributes like fat, protein, ash and total solid contents were not influenced by the addition of vegetable oil blend at all levels i.e from 25% to 100% replacement. Compositional attributes were not influenced by storage period of 60 days. Addition of vegetable oil blend did not have significant effect of pH and acidity of different treatments. During storage of 60 days pH slightly decreased while acidity increased non significantly. The addition of vegetable oil in different treatments of ice cream tended to decrease the whippingability with increase levels of vegetable oil blend. Whippingability decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. Decrease in whippingability may be due to increased level of vegetable oil blend in ice cream. Overrun varied between different treatments of ice cream .The maximum level of overrun was observed in T2 (81.91) and minimum level in T4 (65.11). Decrease in overrun may he due to increased level of vegetable oil blend in mix of ice cream. Effect of storage on treatments was significant. The interaction between treatments and storage was also non significant. Melting resistance varied between different treatments of ice cream and maximum level of melting resistance in T2 (45.83) and minimum level in T0 (2 9.83). l) Decreased in melting resistance may be due increase level of vegetable oil blend in mix of ice cream. Flavor of different treatments of ice cream varied significantly among each other and the maximum score for flavor was in T2 (8.08) and minimum in T4 (6.74). Flavor slightly decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. Statistical data for color of different treatments of ice cream indicated that all treatments varied significantly among each other and the maximum score for flavor was in T2 (8.97) and minimum in 14 (5.64). Color slightly decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. The mean scores for taste of modified vegetable fat in different treatments of ice cream showed that maximum level of score of taste was in 12 (8.23) and minimum in 14 (5.89). Decline in flavor score may be due to increase in modified vegetable oil in ice cream. Overall acceptability scores were affected significantly with different treatments of ice cream with modified vegetable fat addition and storage interval and also significant. Judges placed 12 (8.08) at the top which differed significantly with other treatments of ice cream while the lowest mean overall acceptability scores were assigned to '1,4 (5.77). Storage also had significant effect on overall acceptability scores. The main objective of this research work was to replace milk fat with vegetable oil blend in the production of ice cream. Replacement of milk fat at 12 level i.e (50% milk fat and 50 % vegetable oil blend) did not have adverse effect on fat, protein,ash, total solids, pH and acidity of ice cream. As evident from the sensory scores T2 obtained maximum score for color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability and did not influence significantly from control. It is concluded that satisfactory quality ice cream can be manufactured by replacing 50% milk fat with 50% vegetable oils blend Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1152,T] (1).

14. Dna Based Characterization Of Triacyl Glycerol Lipase Gene From Geobacillus Sp. Sbs-4s

by Maheen Aslam (2012-VA-803) | Dr. Muhammed Tayyab | Ms. Asma Waris | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Lipases are hydrolases responsible for the liberation of fatty acids from triglycerides (Akoh et al. 2004). With the exception of hydrolysis, lipolytic enzymes can also catalyze transesterification, esterification and interesterification in low aqueous conditions (Goldberg et al. 2005). Under micro-aqueous conditions, lipases have exceptional ability to catalyze the reverse reactions that leads to acidolysis, alcoholysis and esterification (Jaegar and Reetz 1998). Previously production of lipases has been reported from various sources like microorganisms, animals and plants (Lee et al. 2006). Lipases extracted from different sources have broad spectrum properties depending on their sources regarding pH optima, positional specificity, thermostability, fatty acid specificity, etc (Gupta et al. 2004). Thermostable lipases are important for many industries due to their distinct feature (Demirjian et al. 2001). Psychrophilic lipases have high activity at low optimum temperature so they are fascinated for the production of relatively frail compounds and their use has been increased in the organic synthesis of chiral intermediates (Joseph et al. 2008). Alkali stable lipases have ability to work optimally at alkaline pH and are highly suitable to be used in detergents (Sarethy et al. 2011). Lipases are the component of additives in biotransformations, environmental bioremediations, molecular biology applications, food and detergent industry and heterologous gene expression in psychrophilic hosts to prevent formation of inclusion bodies (Houde et al. 2004). Lipases occur in almost all organisms from bacteria to complex organisms. In complex eukaryotes, pig and human pancreas are the main source for lipase production. In eukaryotes, lipases carry out lipoproteins metabolism, fat digestion, reconstitution and adsorption. Lipases have also been extracted from plants. They are found in higher plants and energy reserve tissues. (Treichel et al. 2010). However, microorganisms are preferred for the production of enzymes over plants and animals because of their shortest generation time, the high yields, great flexibility in environmental conditions, ease of cultivation conditions, variety in catalytic activities, regular supply due to absence of seasonal fluctuations, simplicity in genetic manipulation and quick growth of microorganisms on economical media (Gurung et al. 2013). The production of microbial enzymes is safer and more expedient and they have more stability than their corresponding animal and plant enzymes (Messaoudi et al. 2010). Lipases share a common architecture of α/β-hydrolase fold and a highly conserved pentapeptide catalytic triad G-X1-S-X2-G, where G for glycine, S for serine, X1 for histidine and X2 for glutamic or aspartic acid (Widmann et al. 2010). In the highly conserved catalytic triad there is a nucleophilic residue comprising serine and a catalytic residue containing aspartic or glutamic acid and histidine (Anobom et al. 2014). Lipases have alkyl groups on the surface of their structure due to which they are strongly hydrophobic. Broad substrate specificity is another remarkable characteristic of lipases. Also they catalyze the hydrolysis of alcohols with various chain lengths and esters of fatty acids. The long chain fatty acids of varying chain lengths hydrolysis form triglycerides correspondingly (Patil et al. 2011). Lipases are biotechnologically important enzymes and they have vast applications in leather, food, textile, pharmaceutical, detergent, paper, cosmetic industries and in biodiesel formation (Gupta et al. 2004). Lipases are used in processing of food by the esterification and transesterication of oils and fats. These enzymes are involved in the enhancement of flavor, prolong shelf life and improves aroma of bakery goods, beverages, dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In food Introduction 3 industry egg yolk is treated with phospholipase to hydrolyze egg lecithin and isolecithin which improves its heating stability and emulsification capacity. This treated egg yolk is then used for the processing of mayonnaise, baby foods, custards, salad or food dressings and sauces. Lipases are also used to remove fats from meat and fish (Aravindan et al. 2006). In textile industry lipases are used in processing of fabrics, thus improving its quality and absorbing ability by removing size lubricants. Polyethylene terephthalate is an important synthetic fiber in the textile industry (Araujo et al. 2008). Lipases action on that fiber improves its hydrophilicity and anti-static ability (Contesini et al. 2010). Lipases in therapeutics are involved in the synthesis of macrolide products. Macrolide products have potential antitumor activity against a broad spectrum of human tumor lines including multidrug resistant cell lines. In pharmaceutical industries, lipases are used for esterification, transesterication and asymmetric hydrolysis of racemic alcohols and carboxylic acids to produce their enantiomeric forms. Many β-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-asthamic drugs are pharmacologically active in their one enantiomeric form while toxic in other form like “profens and ibuprofen” are pharmacologically active in their (S)-enantiomeric form whereas (S)-thalidomide has severe side-effects (Jegannathan and Nielsen 2014). Leather manufacturing industries use lipases for degreasing which is the process of removing fats and grease from skins and hides of cattle. Organic solvents and surfactants are also used to process leather but these methods are not eco-friendly and results in the emission of volatile organic compounds. Besides fat dispersion lipases also improve the quality of leather by making it water proof and low fogging (Horchani et al. 2012). Lipase is used as a catalyst in the tranesterification of vegetable oil or alcohols to form emollient esters like myristyl myristate. Emollient esters due to their moisturizing properties are Introduction 4 used in beauty creams. Lipases have also been used in anti-obese creams and they are added as texturing agents to improve the consistency of creams and lotions (Sharma and kanwar 2014). Laundry detergents have surfactants as their primary constituent which remove stains. But they require a considerable amount of energy and also they are toxic to our environment, released in water even they are harmful to aquatic life. The detergent industries are developing trends to use such agents that are eco-friendly and require less energy. Nowadays enzymes are being used in the detergents to remove tough stains and give softness, resiliency to fabrics, antistaticness, dispersible in water and mild to eyes and skin. Lipases are used specially to remove oil and grease stains (Ghuncheva and Zhiryacova 2011). The demand of industries for lipases has grown in the past decade for their environment friendly nature, biodegradability, high specificity and high catalytic efficiency. The commercial applications of lipases are a billion-dollar business that comprises their use in a broad spectrum of industries. Many techniques are being used nowadays to improve the features of lipases e.g., stability, activity, specificity and selectivity, reduction of inhibition (Rebeiro et al. 2011). The main advantage of using immobilized lipases is that it is possible to reuse them, since they can be easily recovered, thus making the process economically feasible, not interacting chemically with the polymer, thus avoiding its denaturation in detergent industry and ester formation (Sharma and Kanwar 2014). Genetic engineering has been used to modify the industrial enzymes to enhance its properties (Adrio and Demain 2014). For lipases as potential candidates of detergent industry, these have to be thermostable, alkali stable, stable against proteolysis, action of oxidative compounds and other chemicals used in detergents. In food and pharmaceutical industry usage Introduction 5 lipases should be more stable in organic solvents and they must show high stereospecificity (Verma et al. 2012). Geobacillus sp. SBS-4S is a thermophillic microorganism that was isolated from Gilgit bultistan, Northern areas of Pakistan. It was found to be gram positive, rod shaped aerobic endospore-forming bacterium. It grows optimally on pH 7 and temperature 55 °C. It produces several industrially important extracellular enzymes including amylases, proteases and lipases (Tayyab et al. 2011). The present study deals with the characterization of triacylglycerol lipase gene responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2234-T] (1).

15. Bioconversion Of Agricultural Waste To Alginate By Azotobacter Vinelandii Using Fermentation

by Shagufta Saeed (2008-VA-742) | Dr.AbuSaeed Hashmi | Prof. Dr.Ikram-ul-Haq | Dr. Muhammed Tayyab | Dr. Ali Raza Awan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Alginate is an exopolysaccharide composed of varying ratios of β-D mannuronic acid and its C5 epimer α-L-guluronic acid linked together by β-1,4 - glycosidic bond. It has wide range of industrial applications particularly in food sector as a viscosifier, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, gelling and water binding agent. Commercial alginate is extracted from brown algae but due to variation in composition of biopolymer isolated from species of different locations, there is growing interest in bacterial alginate. At present two strains of bacteria are reported to produce alginate, Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. Hence present study was designed to produce alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii utilizing cheap substrates to save the foreign exchange. To achieve the goal, different physio-chemical parameters were optimized to have hyper-production of alginate through submerged fermentation. Different agricultural wastes like wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses were utilized as substrates through fermentation with Azotobacter vinelandii.On fermentation of 7.5% (w/v) wheat bran by A.vinelandii, maximum alginate production (5.21 g/L) was observed at 48 hours of incubation time with 6% (v/v) inoculum size, pH 7.0, 300C and agitation speed of 200 rpm. Addition of different optimum levels of ionic salts i.e. 1.5% CaCl2 and 2% MgSO4. 7H2O in the growth medium gave significantly (P< 0.05) higher quantity of alginate (6.08 g/L) where as addition of KH2PO4 and NaCl reduced the yield of alginate. Among different nitrogen sources tested, 2% corn steep liquor resulted significantly (P<0.05) higher yield of alginate (7.46 g/L). The bacterial strain was improved by exposure to physical (UV irradiation) and chemical mutagens (Nitrous acid and ethidium bromide) to obtain more than 90% killing. The survivors were screened for hyper-production of alginate against the wild strain of A.vinelandii using pre-optimized conditions. The highest alginate production (13.8 g/L) was obtained by the ethidium bromide treated strain (EtBr-02). The mutant strain was used for optimization of fermentation parameters. The maximum concentration of alginate (15.61 g/L) was obtained by utilizing 10% (w/v) wheat bran, 8% (v/v) inoculum at 48 hours of incubation, pH 7.0, 300C and an agitation speed of 200 rpm. Inclusion of 2.5% cornsteep liquor raised the alginate concentration to 15.8 g/L. Batch fermenter studies were carried out in 2 L fermenter with working volume of 1.5 L using the mutant strain A.vinelandii, EtBr-02. Optimization of process parameters like agitation, aeration and pH in the fermenter showed that maximum alginate (16.8 g/L) was achieved at 300 rpm, 2.5 vvm aeration and controlled pH condition at 32 hours of incubation time. The alginate produced was identified by FTIR spectrum after precipitation. The purity of alginate was estimated by HPLC against the standard alginic acid from Sigma-Aldrich and was found to be 98% pure. The alginate produced was used at 3% concentration for immobilization of yeast cells. Immobilized and free cells were compared for ethanol production using 10% sucrose as the carbon source in fermentation medium. The maximum amount of ethanol obtained was from free cells i.e. 38 g/L whereas immobilized cells produced 32.5 g/L ethanol. The advantage of immobilization is that beads can be reused in eight sequential fermentation cycles of 10 h each. Thus a cheap and practical bioprocess of alginate production was developed, that can be exploited commercially to save foreign exchange. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2460-T] (1).

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