Development And Quality Enhancement Of Cottage Cheese Made From Nili Ravi Buffalo Postpartum Milk (Colostrum)
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Colostrum is milk obtained from mammals secreted after parturition. It differs from normal milk
as it contains numerous bioactive components which include growth factors, lacto-peroxidase,
lacto-ferrin, Igs, lysozyme, nucleosides, vitamins, oligosaccharides and peptides, which are health
promoters. Cottage cheese is an excellent source of cyanocobalamin, riboflavin and pyridoxine.
Using colostrum for making cottage cheese can give opportunities to increase cottage cheese
quality which may be more functional, healthier with high yield. Preservation of colostrum in the
form of cottage cheese can be supportive for obtaining functional cheese with enhanced shelf life.
Nili Ravi Buffalo postpartum milk was used for the production of Cottage cheese. While the
control was prepared from Nili-Ravi buffalo normal milk. Milk was pasteurized at 63 °C for
around 30 minutes in batch pasteurizer. Then the milk temperature was brought down at 37°C for
inoculation with the mother cultures mentioned above at 2% level. Three replicates for each
treatment was prepared. Incubation continued for 30 minutes at 42°C. Then 1.7 ml CaCl2 was
added and after 10 minutes 1.7 ml of rennet solution was added in cheese milk and left for another
40 minutes for coagulation. Then the curds was cut into 1cm3 and healed for 10 minutes. The
temperature is raised to 55°C for cooking for 30 minutes. Then whey was drained for 24 hrs. The
curd was pressed and shaped into mold and then wrapped in aluminum foil and stored at 4°C for
7 days for further analysis. The physicochemical analysis such as pH, Acidity%, Fat %, TS %, Ash
%, Chlorides %, Casein %, Protein% and Lactose% of Colostrum and Colostrum based Cottage
cheese with respect to control was carried out by standard methods as described in AOAC. The
data thus collected were analyzed through one way analysis of variance under Completely
Randomized Design (CRD). Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR)
Test (SAS 9.1 Statistical Software).
Physicochemical analysis of Colostrum showed that pH is in the increasing trend with the increase
of age of milk and results showed that Colostrum pH values lower than milk values and were
related to the high proteins content that is usually revealed in colostrum obtained 2-3 days after
birth. While the trend of titratable acidity %, fat %, chlorides %, specific gravity, ash %, Total
solids %, Total protein % and casein % is decreasing with an increase in the age (Days) of
Physicochemical analysis of Colostrum Cottage Cheese showed that the trend of pH of colostrum
cottage cheese remained constant with the increase of age. The trend of lactose% and ash % is
increasing with an increase in the age of postpartum milk. While the trend of titratable acidity %,
fat %, chloride%, total solids %, total protein % and casein % of cottage cheese is decreasing with
an increase in the age (days) of postpartum milk.
Microbiological analysis of Cottage cheese was examined. Coliforms remained absent (<10 cfu/g)
during whole storage time. Total Plate Count (TPC) was not significantly different throughout the
storage period as it renders growth if there are hygiene and proper storage conditions available.
Sensory evaluation was be carried out using criteria of appearance, taste, color, flavor and whole
acceptability on a hedonic scale of nine points. T0, T3, T4 and T5 showed cheese like aroma, T1
showed yoghurt like aroma while T2 showed cheese like/ slight acidic aroma after 7 days of storage
period. T0 and T5 showed whitish appearance, T1 showed light yellow appearance, T2 showed
slight creamy like color after 7 days of storage period while T3 and T4 showed off white
appearance after 7 days of storage period. T0, T4 and T5 showed light acidic flavor, T1 and T2
showed slight saltish / most bitterness in taste while T3 showed acidic taste after 7 days of storage
period. T0 and T5showed granular texture with no creaminess, T1 showed soft yoghurt like
texture, T2 showed meaty / hard texture while T3 and T4 showed harder toffee like texture after 7
days of storage period.
Colostrum is the most proteinaceous food as compared to milk and improves the nutritional aspects
as well as quality and yield of the products. So Cottage cheese made from Colostrum is more
nutritious, functional with probiotic characters as well as enhanced physico-chemical properties
with high yield.
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Effect Of Drinking Water Quality On Growth Performance Of Post Weaned Holstein Friesian Calves
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Information on production potential of Holstein Friesian calves raised under various
sources of drinking water with different levels of TDS as well as its adaptability has not been
documented yet in central Punjab. In this regard, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of
drinking water sources on physiological and production parameters in Holstein Friesian calves.
Holstein Friesian calves exposed to increasing level of TDS water conditions at dairy
farms may exhibit variation in water intake and reduce dry matter intake that might ultimately
lead to deviation in growth performance from normal range. In order to test this hypothesis, the
proposed study was carried out.
To evaluate the physiological and productive profile of Holstein Friesian calves subjected
to various sources of drinking water with different levels of TDS and minerals concentration
under subtropical conditions, the proposed experiment was conducted at Dairy Training and
Research Demonstration Farm Ravi Campus B Block, Pattoki, University of Veterinary and
Animal Sciences, Lahore. For this purpose, 18 Holstein Friesian calves of the similar age and
weight were randomly selected from the herd maintained at Dairy Training and Research
Demonstration Farm and were divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C with 6 Holstein Friesian
calves in each group. The calves from group A were provided turbine water for drinking
Similarly, calves from group B and C were subjected to normal tap water and processed water
from reverse osmosis unit, respectively. The availability of water was made possible for 24 hours
in front of animals. The water was provided under the shed to these calves. The water troughs
were kept neat and clean during whole of the experimental period. The calves were given free
approach to water trough. The water from three sources were supplied to study the comparative
performance of calves. The data on water intake and dry matter intake were observed daily.
Whereas, weight gain was calculated on fortnightly basis. Feed digestibility was done at end of
trial. Blood mineral profile sampling was done at start and end of trial, all serum samples were
analyzed by spectrometer. The data thus collected were analyzed using analysis of variance
(ANOVA) techniques through (SAS, 2004). Difference among treatment means will be tested
through least significance difference.
The results of experiment were helpful to determine the appropriate water quality (1632.0
TDS to 172 TDS) to enhance the growth of Holstein Friesian calves in central Punjab. This will
also provide useful guideline for safe use of drinking water in the areas having water quality
problems. Calves exposed to low TDS water showed higher water, feed intake and weight gain.
Feed digestibility and blood calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels were not affected with
increase in salinity of water while ALT values are slightly higher in high TDS water group.
It was concluded that provision of different sources of water with varying levels of TDS
(1632.0 to 172 ppm) had no significant affect on growth of post weaned calves. More research is
to be required to investigate the effect of water quality on growth at different stages of calves for
more prolonged duration. Similar studies are suggested for the indigenous animals for long
period of time. So that a comprehensive findings may be achieved in this regard. It is suggested
that livestock may be offered water of same quality which is consumed by human beings.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2894-T] (1).