Detection Of Influenza A Virus Contamination In Newcastle Disease Live Virus Vaccines And Their Pathological Effects On Visceral Organs
Munir Hussain (2004-VA-64) | Mr. Muhammad Saeed Imran | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Poultry is one of the most vibrant commercial sector which is playing a vital role to
bridge the gap between supply and demand of animal protein foods to cater for its ever
increasing human population 2.1 per cent annually in Pakistan (Sahota et al. 2003).
Vaccination is one of the most effective way to prevent the poultry birds from the
specific diseases. Disease producing microorganisms can be classified smallest to largest as
viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasites. All, except the viruses are sensitive to drugs
when outbreaks occur. Vaccination is basically the introduction of a specific biological substance
(antigen) into the bird to stimulate the antibodies formation or immunity to a particular disease.
Usually the biological substance is avirulent the live disease organisms, which are capable to
protect the bird against the particular disease by producing an immune response. Presence of
these organisms (antigen) in the blood stimulates the body's defense mechanism to produce
antibodies that neutralize the disease causing organisms when the bird is exposed to them
(Kamboh et al. 2009).
A danger of such type of live vaccines is that the live microbes can back mutate to a
virulent form. While, dead vaccines that contain whole killed (usually by formalin or phenol)
microbes are safe. They may contain little or no extraneous material and therefore tend to
produce fewer adverse effects (Palombo and Semple 2001). The vaccines that contain dead
organisms are safe with respect to residual virulence and are easy to store, since organisms are
already dead. While live vaccines may possess residual virulence for the animal by reversion of
avirulent organisms to fully virulent type or spread to nonvaccinated animals. Dead vaccines
have very little risk of ‘alive’ contamination, while live vaccines always run the risk of
contamination with unwanted organisms; for instance, outbreaks of reticuloendotheliosis in
chickens in Japan and Australia have been traced to contaminated Marek’s disease vaccine
Avian Influenza viruses typically produce Syndromes ranging from asymptomatic
infection to respiratory disease and drops in egg production to severe, systemic disease with near
100% mortality (Olsen et al. 2002). Avian influenza initially was recognized as a highly lethal,
systemic disease (i.e., highly pathogenic). HPAI was known by various name including fowl
plague, fowl pest etc. Avian Influenza viruses are classified in the family orthomyxoviridae,
genus influenza virus A (Garten et al. 2009). Avian influenza viruses can be categorized into
four clinical groups:1) highly virulent, 2) moderately virulent, 3) mildly virulent, and 4)
Avirulent (Swayne and Suarez 2000). Avian Influenza further sub type based on serologic
reaction of HA and NA surface glycoproteins. Fifteen sub types of HA and nine sub types of
NA are recognized (Swayne and Suarez 2000). MP AI viruses in domestic poultry produce
clinical sign reflect abnormalities in the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive organs
(Allwright et al. 1993). To date, naturally occurring highly virulent influenza A viruses that
produce acute clinical disease in chickens, turkeys and other birds of economic importance have
been associated only with the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. Influenza A viruses of subtype H9 are
now considered to be wide spread in poultry and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans
(Fedorko et al. 2006).
To date, all outbreaks of the highly pathogenic form have been caused by influenza A viruses
of the subtypes H5 and H7. The disease is transmitted horizontally by direct contact through
contamination. There is little or no evidence of vertical transmission (egg-borne infection).
However, eggshell surfaces can be contaminated with the virus (Potima 2007). Wild and
domesticated water fowl is the major natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. Representatives of
all of the different subtypes of avian influenza A virus have been isolated from birds, particularly
from aquatic species such as ducks, geese, and gulls (Karasin et al. 2000). Wild birds such as
geese, ducks and game birds; they can be carriers of even highly pathogenic strain H5N1
shedding the virus in their feces without clinical signs of disease.
Thus, the present study was carried out to examine the viral contamination (Influenza A
virus) in poultry vaccines manufactured locally and imported from different countries of the
world in Pakistan. The findings of the study have helped us to see the Avian Influenza A virus
contamination in vaccines which are used in field conditions and also help to evaluate the purity
of vaccines. The RT-PCR based technology has been described for the detection of different
RNA viruses such as Newcastle disease virus etc. (Payne et al. 1981) revealed contamination of
vaccines with ALVs, specifically in two Marek´s vaccines, which confirms that these agents are
potential contaminants of viral vaccines applied in poultry. This assay has meant a considerable
advance due to a higher sensitivity and specificity upon differentiating the subgroups compared
with ELISA. It is quicker test for detection of RNA viruses than the viral isolation, which
requires until 10 days and it needs detection by ELISA for the identification result.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2212,T] (1).
Burden Of Respiratory Illness Related To Influenza Among Oupatient And Inpatients Healthcare Facility Centers District Sheikhupura
Ayesha Mukhtar (2014-VA-1052) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected person or infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments.Globally the annual attack rate with influenza viruses ranges between 5 to10% in adults and 20- 30 % in children. The WHO estimates that 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness occur every year resulting in 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide, with most influenza deaths occurring among adults over 65 years of age.
Influenza is the cause of outpatient visits and inpatient hospitalization among population of District Sheikhupura.
A prospective study for duration of 3 months (September to october) was performed in Tehsil Muridke District Sheikhupra. Population of Tehsil Muridke is 4, 52,009. We selected Tehsil headquarter hospital randomly as sentinel sites .Our Target population was cases of ILI and SARI. All cases of influenza like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) who meets the inclusion & exclusion criteria was enrolled. Data was obtained by the face to face interview. A detail investigation form was filled after taking written consent form. Throat swab was collected from patient. The sample was stored at -70°C for further laboratory procedure. We will use Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of type of the influenza virus. RT-PCR allows viral template RNA to be reversed transcribed producing complementary DNA (cDNA) which can then be amplified and detected. So in our Study we used RT-PCR for influenza virus detection.
Data analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence interval. Chi-square test used to measure the association of risk factors (age, sex, occupation, exposure, healthcare worker, travelling etc) and the rate of morbidity and mortality was calculated by using standard formulae.
We identified ILI and SARI cases associated with outpatients and inpatients & also provided data to identify and monitor groups at high risk for influenza and will measure trends in morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2805-T] (1).
Cross Sectional Survey Of Avian Infleunza In Poultry Butchers Of Sentinel Live Bird Markets In Lahore District
Gul Naz Namat (2014-VA-1120) | Dr. MamoonaChaudhary | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: 6.1 Background:
Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live bird markets.
Avian influenza virus is prevalent in poultry butchers working in live bird markets with domestic and pet, wild, exotic birds.
A cross sectional survey of poultry butchers in Lahore was conducted in order to determine seroprevalence of avian influenza Disease. A target population was the poultry butchers/retailers in the District Lahore. A study population was the apparently healthy butchers in Lahore. A sample of 300 butchers was collected. Blood sample from apparently healthy butchers was collected from brachial veins as described in WHO (2010). Three ml blood was collected in the syringe and was allowed to clot to separate serum. Collected sera was stored in freezer at -70°C for further laboratory analysis. Data was gathered by simple random sampling technique. A total of 300 samples were collected. Haemagglutinationinhibition (HI) test applied to detect antibodies sensitivity. The test was followed as described by WHO (2013).
6.4 Statistical Design:
The weighted proportion estimate with 95% Cl (confidence intervals) of the overall seroprevalence was computed by using R-software. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome.
Out of 300 blood samples of butchers of sentinel live bird markets, 171 blood samples are sero positive for H9 virus after HI Testing. The sero prevalence of H9 virus in butchers of live bird markets is found to be 57 %. The results of H5 and H7 are found to be negative.
In univariable analysis, following risk factors which were significant as per criteria of selection in current study (p-value < 0.25); Education, Age, Smoking, Sticks smoke/day, Years of smoking, Having chronic disease, Birds sold/day, Keep birds at home, Access of stray dogs, Access of stray cats, Wash instruments after slaughtering, Do not clean cutting boards, Wearing of aprons.Multivariate analysis determined one factor i-e having birds other than broiler as significant factor having p-value < 0.001.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2804-T] (1).
A Study On Point Prevalence, Etiological And Biochemical Investigations Of Post Parturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes In Tehsil Bhalwal
Muhammad Azeem (2015-VA-430) | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Post-parturient haemoglobinuria is a disease of great economic importance of sub-continent affecting a large number of buffaloes. It is characterized by intravascular hemolysis, haemoglobinemia, haemoglobinuria ultimately leading to anemia. The exact pathogenesis is yet unknown as there are many diversified etiological factors have been associated with this disease. All the relevant information is relatively scanty. Consequently present study has been aimed to study all possible risk factors associated with this disease in tehsil Bhalwal of district Sargodha where a large number of increasing cases were reported by the local governmental body. Etiological, hematological and biochemical risk factors were quantified to facilitate control measures and upcoming research priorities.
This study was conducted from the period of about 4 months from November 2016 to February 2017. Cross-sectional epidemiological observations were documented on hemoglobinuric and healthy buffaloes for hematological and biochemical study related to parturient haemoglobinuria. The sample size was determined to three hundred and eighty four animals.Present study was observed during the period of four months (November 2016 to February 2017). Out of 384, forty animals (n=40) were confirmed with post parturient hemoglobinuria. The point prevalence observed during the period of four months was 10.4%.
Buffaloes showing signs of hemoglobinuria along with parturition history, pale mucous membranes, mild tachycardia and dyspnoea was assumed as affected with post-parturient haemoglobinuria while animals suffering from other problems like babesiosis causing red urine were omitted from the study after verification of diagnosis through giemsa staining. The blood samples were processed for haematological analysis for the final confirmation of positive
haemoglobinuric buffaloes. Blood sample collected and placed in EDTA vacutainerswas processed for hematology to study hemoglobin (Hgb) values, total erythrocytes count (TEC), erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) and hematocrit (Hct), total leukocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) in addition to mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) by using haematological analyzer. Haematological analysis of all the samples was made from Department of Pathology, UVAS, Lahore.Serum samples of all buffaloes were analyzed for biochemical analysis asalkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum urea, glucose,bilirubin, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, copper, and molybdenum. Moreover, urinalysis was done for gross and biochemical analysis.
Results of the study revealed significant difference among complete blood count (CBC) includingHgb, TEC, Hct and TLC, ESR, MCV and MCH. However, there was no significant variation among MCHC values in affected buffaloes. Serum biochemistry also revealed significant difference of various parameters including ALP, creatinine,BUN, total bilirubin, phosphorus, copper and molybdenum. However, no significant difference was detected among the healthy and affected groups regarding blood glucose and serum calcium levels. There was significant elevation in pulse and respiration rates in buffaloes affected with hemoglobinuria.
The results regarding mineral analysis of the soil shows significant difference in phosphorus and copper. Moreover, mineral levels of soil and serum of animals showed significant relation of phosphorus levels, followed by the levels of molybdenum. Calcium and copper levels also showed moderate relationship.
Observations regarding parity/lactation number reveal the highest incidence rate of 35% among buffaloes at 3rd lactation, followed by buffaloes at 4th, 2nd, 5th, 1st and 6th lactation, respectively. Milk production showed direct relationship with buffaloes affected with post parturient hemoglobinuria.
From the present study, it is concluded thathemoglobinuria was observed in buffaloes of tehsil Bhalwal may be due to variation of soil composition particularly the deficiency of Phosphorus which may lead to the lysis of erythrocytes and hemoglobinuria through various pathways. However, efficient replenishment of minerals content in fodder producing soil is necessary to overcome the disease in buffaloes affecting from parturient hemoglobinuria in the aforementioned area.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2847-T] (1).