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1. Clinico-Epidemiology Of Giardiasis In Children And Their Association With [Et Dogs

by Noor-ul-Ain | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2118,T] (1).

2. Comprehensive Retrospective Study Of Dog Bites In Lahore Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill

by Toraiz Ahmed (2012-VA-902) | Dr. Nusrat Nauman | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Mr. Tariq Mahmood | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dog may be the best friend of humans but still they are animals and can bite. Despite of domestication dogs show the behavior of their ancestors as their ancestors (wolves) are voracious, strong, cunning, agile, swift and sharp teeth’s (Keuster et al. 2006). In fact dog bites millions of people every year and half of them are children of age from 5 to 9 (Sacks et al. 1996). One out of every five bite case needs medical interventions and treatment (Shuler et al. 2008). Dog bites are the results of attacks of pet or stray dogs on humans. Humans have close association with dogs in their daily life. This association may be as pet dogs or it may be as stray dogs in developing countries (Shuler et al. 2008). Dog bite injuries vary from common injury to severe condition such as rabies. Most of the studies show the association of dog bites with different breeds and considerable debates are also there that which breed is associated more with dog bites (Patrick and O'Rourke 1998). Regardless the breed, some other things are also important, like dog behavior, human behavior, no supervision of dog or carelessness in control and the scenario or conditions under which the dog is living (Cornelissen and Hopster 2010). Breed is rather not an important point to discuss in developing countries like Pakistan. As in developing countries most of the Dog bites occur due to stray dogs. Mostly the injuries are minor but still dog bites are one of the most important problems for society and health administration authorities as dog bites comprises about 90% of total animal bites. About 4.5 million Americans are bitten by dogs every year and about 30,000 of them require procedures of reconstructive surgery (Wilde 1997). Fortunately the fatalities from dog bites are much less. Dog bite cases turn into fatal condition when patient is bitten by potential rabies virus carrier and infection may occur that can be life threatening. Rabies, a viral disease caused by the bite of an infected animal that can cause acute inflammation of brain in warm blooded animals and humans. It is present in more than150 countries of the world (WHO 2005). An estimate shows that 10 thousand deaths occur worldwide due to rabies. Potentially 3 billion people are at threat of rabies in Africa and Asia and out of the total 84% of rabies deaths occur in rural areas. Millions of cases of dog bites cases go unreported throughout the world. This underreporting hides the actual burden of the problem in the community (Turner 1976). In humans dog bite is one of the complex phenomena that may occur by interaction of three elements, animal, scenario and the victim. Figures on dog bites mostly pool out from studies in public health institutions and hospitals (Jacob John 1997). Most of the studies show the scientific analyzed information only on victim while the circumstances and conditions surrounding the incidence of dog bites remain unknown. Important thing is fatalities from dog bites occur only in very small proportion of dog bites (Cleaveland et al. 2002). However treatment expenses and consequences of injuries have turned the issue of dog bite into significant public health importance (Coleman et al. 2004). The other side of coin is that the aggressive behavior development in dogs leads to relinquishment of shelter and euthanasia, which indicate a problem in term of animal safety (Guy et al. 2001). Public health specialists and Epidemiologists focus that fatal and non-fatal dog attacks can be controlled or prevented through effective preventive measures. For effective and suitable preventive measures it is pertinent to start examining the epidemiological data of the respective community. Epidemiological data is require to define the geographically high risk areas, seasonal patterns associated with the dog bites with respect to the victim, and other triggering factors (Sacks et al. 2000). For the sound preventive and control measures epidemiological data is one of the best tools for better decision making in public health issues (CDC 2003). In developing countries like Pakistan epidemiological studies of dog bites are important and are needed on the multi-dimensional aspects as dog bite incidence and other associated risks are much higher and vary according to area of study. These types of multi-dimensional studies may change the preventive strategy plans with their extra efficiency. Normally control and preventive measures are designed to lessen the risk of dog bites and followed by all communities. Possible control and preventive measures are control of free roaming and unrestrained animals, vaccination, breed or type bans, licensing of dogs, extensive media campaigns specially in rural areas, well defined post bite program, investigation of dog bite incidents (Wilson et al. 2003). Pakistan is among the world highest cases of rabies with about 50 thousand cases per year. Recent estimates show that 570 peoples die annually in Pakistan because of rabies (WHO 1996). In Pakistan people mostly neglect the minor dog bite cases and due to high illiteracy rate large numbers of cases go unreported (Wasay et al. 2008). This is because people suffering from dog bite normally rely on local remedies, such as rubbing red chilies on the wound from the house the dog belongs (in case of pet dog). Rabies virus can be killed upto 65% by washing with soap only (Burki 2008). Vaccination is the ultimate solution for rabies, but very less amount of people knows about the vaccination of dogs. Post exposure treatment is costly in dog bite cases. Cost analysis of post exposure treatment for dog bites shows the actual picture and importance of dog bites in public health sector. Billions of rupees are spent on the vaccines and treatment of dog bites cases (Chulasugandha et al. 2006). A large number of cases report to quacks and go unreported on official database. For the better decision regarding the public health problem the cases must be reported to official database. Weak reporting system is also an important factor in developing countries like Pakistan. As in Pakistan rabies and dog bites are not notifiable disease. No proper surveillance system is there for rabies is at present. Studies and surveys shows that 55% people didn’t even consider dog bites as a predisposing factor for rabies and they even didn’t know that the dog bite can be fatal (Knobel et al. 2005). To prevent and control dog bite it is necessary to have comprehensive epidemiological data that allows the identification of associated risk patterns. Rabies is endemic in Pakistan so this study is aimed to investigate the problem posed by dog bites in Lahore, Pakistan. Lahore is the second most populated city of Pakistan with population of 5.143 million (according to 1998 census). This study will help the officials of public health in making better decision regarding dog bites. This study is aimed at investigating the problems posed by dog bites in Lahore. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2202,T] (1).

3. Status Of Awareness Among Zoo Workers About Zoonotic Diseases

by Tahir Khan (2012-VA-806) | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmed | Shelly Saima Yaqub | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: A zoo is a place where wild animals are kept for exhibition purposes to the public.It includes: aquaria, sanctuaries, bird gardens and safari/wildlife parks. These are centers for wild animal’sconservation and for public recreation and education (Cuaron2005). Epidemiologists, wildlife biologists, veterinarians and conservationists used these for research purpose.According to an estimate Pakistan is maintainingapproximately 27 zoos, deer parks, etc.(Walker 2014). Zoonotic diseases are those which are naturally transmitted from animals to human beings and vice versa. The word Zoonosis is derived from the Greek word zoon (animal) and nosos (disease). The diseases which are transferred from human beings to animals are known as Zooanthroponotic (Greek “Zoon” = animal, “anthrópos” = man, “nosos” = disease) diseases e.g. tuberculosis, measles, giardiasis and amoebiasis. On the other hand the diseases which are transmitted from animals to human beings are known as anthropozoonotic diseases e.g. anthrax, AIDS, psittacosis and rabies (Epstein and Price 2009). Zoonosis can be classified according to their circulation in the ecosystem. These are either classified as synanthropic zoonosis, with an urban (domestic) cycle in which the source of infection are domestic and synanthropic animals (e.g. cat scratch disease, urban rabies and zoonotic ringworm) or exoanthropic zoonosis, with a sylvatic (feral and wild) cycle in natural foci outside human habitats (e.g. wildlife rabies, arbovirus, lyme disease and tularemia). Some zoonotic diseases can circulate in both urban and natural cycles (e.g. chagas disease and yellow fever). A review study identified that 1415 species of infectious organism are pathogenic to human beings. This includes 217 viruses and prions, 538 bacteria and rickettsia, 307 fungi, 66 protozoa and 287 helminthes. Out of these, 868 (61%) are zoonotic in nature (Taylor et al. 2001). More than 60% of the emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and 70% of their reservoirs are wild animals (Cutler et al. 2010). The reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases are wild animals whose causative agents are viral, rickettsial, chlamydial, bacterial, parasitic and mycotic(Bengis et al. 2004). Zoonotic diseases like tuberculosis, plague and rabies have badly affected the mankind since ancient times and the reservoirs of all of these are wild animals (Stone et al. 2009). Some zoonotic diseases in human beings are self-limiting whose signs range from few days to a long term illness e.g. gastroenteritis caused byGiardia, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella species.Some zoonotic diseases may cause abortions (Toxoplasmosis) and fatal encephalitis (Japanese encephalitis). Whereas some zoonotic diseases may causes high mortality e.g. Marburg hemorrhagic fever(MacNeil and Rollin 2012). Zoonotic diseases cause death not only in their natural hosts but also in endangered wild animal species near to extinctione.g. Ebola virus cause high mortality in monkeys (Nunn et al. 2008). It is clear from various studies in different zoos that both anthropozoonotic and zooanthroponotic transmission can occur (Adejinmi and Ayinmode 2008). Zoonotic agents have potential to be used for bioterrorism. The bioterrorism attack is aimed to cause fear, destabilization, stress, illness and death in people, animals and plants. (Lin 2014). Air, water and food may be the warfare biological vehicles for its spread. During World War 1, anthrax was used as a biological warfare in animal populations. Glanders and typhoid were also used for bioterrorism attack in 1910 and 1970, respectively. Several cases of bioterrorism also occurred in the United States due to anthrax in September and October 2001 (Spencer 2007). A Zoo worker should haveknowledge of the transmission of the disease to avoid its transmission. The common ways of the transmission are direct mode (ingestion, animal bites, inhalation, needle prick injuries and skin contact) and indirect mode (vector borne, fomite, long distanceand airborne transmission). In zoo management, the role of veterinarians is extremely useful. Their job exposes them to several health-related threats during routine operations. e.g. animal bites, needle prick injuries, back injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases and even mortality in certain cases (Hill et al. 1998; Kabuusu et al. 2010). The personal protective equipment’s are not used during restraining, treatment, necropsy and cleaning the animal enclosures. It may increases the chances of zoonotic diseases to zoo workers and veterinarians. The disposal of wild animal carcasses, organs, unused food, feces and urine by unscientific methodsenhances the process of pathogens transmission(McLaughlin 2002). Laboratory personnel can also be infected with zoonotic diseases due to lack of good laboratory practices in wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories(Rietschel 1998). Therefore, prevention and control of zoonosis must be an important part of zoo occupational health and safety measures. Preventive measures can be either general or specifically designed for a particular disease. It is possible to prevent many of the zoonotic diseases by following basic hygiene and sanitation procedures.The present study was conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, practice and experience levels about zoonosis among zoo workers of district Lahore(Lahore Zoo, Jallo Wildlife Park and Lahore Safari Zoo). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2229-T] (1).

4. Incidence Of Dog Bite Injuries Reported In Tertiary Care Hospitals

by Ambreen Shahzadi (2012-VA-440) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Animal bites people should be considered an important public health problem. Moreover, the number of pets, specifically the dog, is increasing. (Palacio J et al., 2003).Animal bites, particularly dog bites, are a major public health problem throughout the world (Morgan and Palmer, 2007). Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, can become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body. Dog attacks, by street or domestic dogs, with injuries from very minor to significant and severe to fatal, are not uncommon. According to WHO report, ten million people are bitten by animals (especially Dogs) around the world, considered for prophylaxis and treatment against rabies and almost (55,000) people die from this disease annually (Mohdjunaid et al., Oct 2012). 6.2 Hypothesis: The incidence of dog bite injuries is high in densely populated towns of Lahore when compared to less populated towns of Lahore. 6.3 Methodology: General information about patients and possible causes was collected on a structured questionnaire. All the dog bite victims that were come to emergency ward during three months period were included in the study. Questionnaire include closed questions about the demographics of the victims, circumstances of bite incidents, body parts injured and the degree of injury, type of dog, history of previous bites, the level of knowledge about rabies, post bite home treatment (washing of bite wound etc.) prior to visited the hospital for medical treatment and post exposure treatment at hospital. The densely populated area (ravi town, data ganj bakhsh, shalimar town, samanabad etc) and less populated area (gulberg, azizbhati town, wagah, Allama iqbal town, & nishtar) was be compared. 6.4 Statistical Design Cumulative incidence was calculated as described by Leon Gordis (2008). Chi square test was applied on the data by using SPSS (version 19.0). 6.5 Results In this study, cumulative incidence is 4.653 per 1000 popluation, most of the dog bite victims were male 79.9 % as compare to female 20%.5.7% cases visited Mayo Hospital’s emergency department during the study period, 4.5% cases were reported in Services Hospital and 89.9% cases from IPH Lahore. In this the higher percentage was the patients who were illiterate (47%) and very few patients were those who had intermediate and above education (6%). The occupation of the patients who were attended Hospitals, were farmers (31.56%). The 24% patients were those who had bitten once before in previous years. In those 24% patients 19.2 % those who were bitten by dog and 5% were bitten by others (cats, horse, donkeys, etc). Most of the victims were bitten in rural area (65%) and most of the injuries were from stray dogs (65.9%). Most of the victims had provoked bite (74%) and the high frequency were recorded that the cases had type II wound category (deep scratch but no bleeding) 82%. The cases received treatment in different hospitals were RIG (18%), Tetanus toxoid (32%), Antibiotic (78%) and Suturing (7.9%). Most of the patients were from Ravi town Lahore that is one of the highly densely populated areas of Lahore (38%) and very few cases reported from Nishtar town Lahore (0.5%). The demographic location and the hospitals had no association as the results were insignificant (p-value>0.05). Most of the cases who were bitten by dog and they already bitten by dog in previous years, significant in relation as p-value <0.05. The association between dog status and biting animal was significant, as mostly biting dogs were stray dogs and most of the bite was provoked, there was significant association between biting animal and biting type (p-value<0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2285-T] (1).

5. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors And Treatment Of Cryptosporidium Parvum In Foals

by Choudhry Usman Rasheed Butter (2008-VA-253) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is an emerging waterborne zoonotic disease prevalent throughout the world. There are different strains of cryptosporidium but most important is C.parvum.It is intestinal protozoon belongs to coccidian family that causes damage to intestinal epithelium that leads to villous atrophy so decrease absorption sites from intestine. It is not host specific it can equally infect humans, calves and foals. It is cross transmissible among mammals. In horses, cryptosporidiosis is most commonly seen in foals (most frequently 1–4 weeks of age) and is associated with diarrhea and weight loss. Immuno-compromised foals (including foals with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome) are particularly at risk. The present study was conducted in different studs farms in and around Lahore keeping in view the importance of C.parvum in foals because it is gaining attention as a most important cause of diarrhea in foals so that effective therapeutic measures should be adopted to control infection. There are 323 samples are collected among different stud farms and veterinary hospitals and analyzed by using fecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-neelsen technique. Infection rate of C. parvum in foals in this study recorded was (12.30%) from different stud farms and veterinary hospitals. Infection rate (27%) is higher in foals of age group range between 1day to 3 months while the least infection rate (2.46%) was observed in 9-12 months age group. Infection rate is reciprocal to age as the age increase infection rate decrease. Infection rate is independent of sex. There is no relationship between sex and infection rate. Diarrhea is an important risk factor related to infection rate. In diarrheic foals infection rate is (22.5%) while in case of non-diarrheic foal’s infection rate is (6.5%) which showed that infection rate in diarrheic foals is three time more as Summary 36 Compared to non-diarrheic foals. A significantly higher infection rate was observed in those foals having contact with other animals like rodents, ruminants and dogs. Infection rate (15%) was observed in those foals having contact with other animals and infection rate (6.5%) observed in foals having no contact with other animals. Purpose seems to very important in this study. Game horses have more infection rate which was (15.45%) as compared to draught horses (4.4%). Game horses have three times more infection as compared to draught horses because game horses remain in close confinement and foals have more prone to infection. Management is an important factor infection rate was more in those stud farms having poor management as compared to those have good management. Infection rate is poorly manage farms was (20.97%) and (5.5%) in properly manage farms. The results of the comparative efficacy of nitazoxanide, furazolidone and garlic showed that the Nitazoxanide was the most effective of the three in treating cryptosporidium infection under field conditions. Efficacy of Nitazoxanide in treating C.parvum in foals was (88%) during the study followed by furazolidone which have comparative efficacy of (77%) than garlic with the efficacy of (70%). In conclusion from above discussion reveals that C. parvum is prevalent in stud farms in and around Lahore. Associated risk for C. parvum in foals are age less than 6 months, immune-deficiency, contact with other animals like ruminants and poor management. Infection rate is more in game horses as compared to draught horses because game horses are manage in close confinement so the chances of infection are more. Treatment of C.parvum has long course and effective drug for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in foals is Nitaoxanide than furazolidone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2300-T] (1).

6. Cross Sectional Study Of Newcastle Disease Virus In Wild Captive Peacocks (Pavo Cristatus) In Zoological Gardens Of District Lahore

by Faisal Sher (2007-VA-11) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is RNA virus.It is the member of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1).Its genus is Avulavirus genus. The incubation period ranges from 2-15 days. NDV strains are classified into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic categories. Newcastle disease is a virus disease of birds characterized by variable combinations of gastroenteritis respiratory distress and nervous signs. A cross sectional study was conducted for the duration of 3 months in order to identify the prevalence of Newcastle disease in five zoological gardens of Lahore district. Peacocks were restrained by the trained persons and oropharyngealsamples were collected from apparently healthy Peacocks present in the zoological gardens in Lahore. Sampling of 200Peacocks was done by convenience sampling and stored in freezer at -80°C for further analysis.Virus isolation by egg inoculation was performed to isolate virus and confirmationof (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was done by conducting HI test with specific antisera.Samples were inoculated in 10 days embryonated hen’s eggsand allantoic fluid was collected and tested for haemagglutination (HA) activity. Positive samples were confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Frequency distribution through age, sex, breed, origin, date and site of collection were examined by standard statistical methods to determine the prevalence by virus isolation method in that specified population. The data was analyzed by using two way contingency tables with Chi-square test for association. Test was performed to check the association of NDV with age, sex, breeds, origin, and specimen type. The significance level was kept at p<0.05. 2 samples were found positive. Overall prevalence in wild captive peacocks was 1% (95 CI=.1-3.6). 200 samples were screened by spot HA test and 198 samples were found negative in four zoological gardens while 2 samples that were positive found in private zoo samples. Significant association was found between positive samples for NDV and zoological gardens. Prevalence estimates of (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was generated for Peacock population. Associated factors were identified through this study. Results were shared with international community working for the control and eradication of Newcastle disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2411-T] (1).

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