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1. Comparative Efficacy Of Finney Pyloroplasty And Jaboulay Pyloroplasty As Method Of Treatment For Pyloric

by Mumtaz Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1608,T] (1).

2. A Study On Variable Degrees Of Angles In Z-Plasty Technique To Evaluate Extent Of Relaxation Of Contracted Skin

by Muhammad Asif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1648,T] (1).

3. Comparative Study Of Different Closure Methods And Suture Materials For The Closure Of Jejunal Enterotomy In Dogs

by Farooq Ahmad Ch | Prof. Dr. Muahmmad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1682,T] (1).

4. Comparative Efficacy Of Limited Contactdynamic Compression Plate (Lc-Dc) And Dynamic Compression Plate

by Farah Ijaz | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1753,T] (1).

5. The Effects Of Xylazin-Butorphenol And Detomidine-Butorphenol On Clinico-Biochemical Parameters During Castration in Dog

by Nadir Hussain (2006-VA-07) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Anesthesia is a reversible process and derived from Greek word “anaisthaesia” meaning “insensibility” and used to desensitize the whole or any part of the body. Anesthesia is classified by method of administration i.e. intramuscular, inhalational and intravenous. Injectable anesthesia includes Propofol, Diazepam, Acepromazine, Medetomidine, Xylazine and Ketamine. Anesthetic agent can be used alone or in combinations (Gonzalez et al. 2003). The purpose of Anesthesia is to produce a convenient, safe, effective, and economical means of facilitating surgical procedures while minimizing stress, pain and discomfort and adverse side effects. There are many routes of administration of anesthesia; in intravenous route, the onset of action is immediate. Peak effect is rapidly obtained, duration of action is short, and effects are more intense/ profound than other routes.Many combinations of anesthesia are in use in dogs for different surgery xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with butorpjanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with oxymorphone (0.05mg/kg IV) , xylazine (0.4 mg/kb IV) combine with morphine (0.25mg/kg) , Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg combine with butophanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg IV) combine with oxymorphone (o.05 mg/kg) Xylazine (0.4mg/kg) combine with Ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg IV) acepromazine (0.05 to 0.2mg/kg IV or SQ) in combination with morphine (0.4 to 0.8mg/kg IV) and diazepam or midazolam(0.2 mg/kg IV) with hydromorphone or oxymorphone( 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV) use in dog and cat (Greene 1999). Detomidine is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with useful sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxation properties and is widely used as a tranquilizing or pre-anaesthetic medication in veterinary medicine But it induces cardiovascular side-effects such as hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia and dysrhythmia.detomidine. It produces prolonged and intense analgesia. Nature of the analgesic effect appears to be wide, producing a reduced response to be a secondary result of the central nervous system experimental stimulation and exhibiting a clinical effect in the horse with colic. Detomidine can be used as a safe and effective pre anaesthetic resulting in smooth induction and recovery (EL-Kammar et al. 2014). Xylazine Hcl has been widely used as a preanesthetic drug and for immobilizing dogs for diagnostic procedures (Short 1987).Xylazine is the shortest acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist..A problem with alpha2-adrenergic agonists is that they may respond suddenly to stimulation, especially to touch. The combination of opioid drugs with the alpha2-adrenergic agonists appears to reduce such sudden reactions and a synergistic effect regarding sedation and antinociception has been suggested. Additionally, all alpha2-adrenergic agonists have a dose-dependent effect on cardiovascular function. By adding an opioid drug, dose requirements of alpha2-adrenergic agonists may be reduced and cardiopulmonary function improved. The addition of opioids does not further impair cardiovascular function.The combination of xylazine and butorphanol at the doses generally used in clinical practice produces minimal and transient haemodynamic effects and no significant respiratory depression. There is no ‘blinded’ randomized crossover study regarding the xylazine sparing effects of butorphanol on sedation of horses. There are limited reports on the respiratory effects of butorphanol alone or in combination with the α2-agonist xylazine in horses, but the effects of the combination on pulmonary gas exchange have not been clarified (Ringer et al. 2012). Butorphanol is an opioid agonist-antagonist with good analgesic effects. Butorphanol is used in veterinary medicine as pain reliever and cough suppressant. It induces only mild sedation and has minimum adverse effects to the cardiovascular system. It may cause mild lowering of the heart rate and arterial pressure or slight respiratory depression. It exerts a depressive action on the respiratory system. It should not use in patient with liver disease because it cannot be eliminated and may accumulated to toxic level (Raušer and Lexmaulova, 2002).It is believed to be more effective against visceral rather than somatic pain. The antagonist property towards μ-receptors results in a ceiling analgesic effect with increasing doses. However in dogs doses between 0•2 and 0•8 mg/kg have been reported to provide visceral analgesia in vivo .Butorphanol is a dose-related respiratory depressant and causes small decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (Vettorato and Bacco 2011). Castration is indicated for reproductive neutering, modification of behavior patterns, testicular neoplasia, severe testicular or scrotal trauma or injury, refractory orchitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal gland adenoma, perineal hernia, and scrotal urethrostomy in dogs. There is no specific anesthetic method for castration. Routinely castration surgery can be performed under general anesthesia or local anesthesia (Kim et al. 2004). Unlike other laboratory animals that are commonly used forresearch purpose, non-human primates and dogs are also used for research work. Their use in the biological researchrequires special considerations, regarding their care and housing, and more specifically their handling and restraining. Since non-human primates and dogs present special hazards to handlers, particularlybecause of the danger of bites and zoonotic infections (Fortman et al. 2001). Deaths due to anesthesia are lesser in dogs (1 in 601) than rabbits (1 in 72) that are the third most commonly anaesthetized pet animal in the United Kingdom (Brodbelt et al. 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2185,T] (1).

6. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever

by Ghazanfar Ali Chishti (2007-VA-51) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment. One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals. Introduction 2 During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore. BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012). Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2243-T] (1).

7. Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Brucellosis In Ruminents In District Skardu Of Gilgit

by Sajid Hussain (2008-VA-77) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is among the vital zoonotic and transmissible bacterial diseases of most of the animal’s worldwide (Shafee et al. 2011). Various types of brucella species are the causative agents of bovine brucellosis. In bovines, brucellosis is mainly triggered by Brucella abortus, less repeatedly by Brucella melitensis and sometimes by Brucellosis suis. As it is a zoonotic disease so, the public health is near thoughtful risk. According to (Pappas et al. 2006), it is considered to be the collective zoonosis worldwide, moreover 5, 00,000 cases of brucellosis are reported annually in both animals and humans. It is a common problem of under developed countries with poor health programs. This disease has been eradicated from USA, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand however; it is still an uncontrolled hazard in highly endemic regions of Africa, Latin America, Middle East and Asia (Refai, 2002). According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and Office International of Epizootics (OIE), brucellosis is considered the most wide spread zoonosis in the world (Schelling et al. 2003). The infection transfers via contact with the body secretions, aborted fetus, contaminated milk feeding, licking of aborted fetuses and also venereal disease. In animals, reproduction, fertility, reduced survival of newborn, decreased milk production and noticed able mortality of the adult are the main effects of brucellosis. (Al-Sous et al. 2004). It is characterized by abortion during 3rd trimester of pregnancy, weak calves, still births infertility, placentitis, epididymitis, orchitis and the excretion of organisms in milk and uterine secretions. According to public opinion brucellosis is work-related disease it has more effects on INTRODUCTION Page 2 Veterinarians, slaughter house and farm workers likely butchers and shepherds (Yagupsky and Baron 2005). Brucellosis occurs in cattle, Sheep, goats, swines, camels, dogs and it may also affect the other ruminants and marine mammals. The other names of brucellosis are Enzootic abortion, Contagious abortion, Bangs disease, Undulant, Malta and Mediterranean fever. It also causes significant losses in those animals which are sexually matured (Forbes and Tessaro 1996). The main causative agent of bovine brucellosis is Brucella abortus (Ali et al. 2014). The animals and persons, who are directly or indirectly in contact with infected animals, its products and by-products, may acquire infection easily. The main source of human infection is the raw milk of the infected animal as it excretes brucella in milk (Shimol et al. 2012). The Serological, Bacteriological and Molecular Methods are used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the farm animals and humans. Bacteriological method is considered to be the most standard method among all of the above mentioned methods (Sathyanarayanan et al. 2011). However, due to non-availability of ‘BSL-3 laboratory’ for culturing and isolation, time taking nature and because of the safety concerns of the laboratory workers, it is not widely applicable. According to Alton et al. (1998), in Pakistan, at animal and herd level, the molecular tools, like ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction’ (PCR), are not economical for screening due to limited resources. ‘Milk Ring Test’, a serological test, is economical and mostly used for the diagnosis of brucellosis however according to Huber and Nicoletti et al. (1986), its specificity and sensitivity is doubtful even now. In most of the countries, for the control and eradication of the disease the serological diagnosis is widely used. Although, different techniques are used to detect the brucella antibodies but, different antibody isotopes were detected by each one of the technique to INTRODUCTION Page 3 determine seropositive animal to brucellosis (Nielsen et al. 2001). The serological test is more sensitive as compare to the culture techniques but its specificity was quite low (Al-Attas et al. 2000). Diverse studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate different brucella diagnostic techniques. ELISA was found more sensitive and specific as compared to other serological techniques and the findings confirmed that standard tests, like Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) only detect antibodies to the LPS (lipopolysaccharides) antigen of Brucella abortus so, it has low specificity (Al-Attas et al. 2000). The advanced in specificity and sensitivity levels of the ‘Serological Diagnosis’ as compared to the other conventional technique are due to the introduction of the indirect immuno-enzymatic technique (Mousing et al. 1997). The indirect ELISA uses cytoplasmic proteins to measure the immunoglobulins of classes M, G, and A. The clinical situation can thus be interpreted better further it also overcomes some of the short comings of serum agglutination test. A comparison shows that ELISA is more specific and sensitive than SAT (serum agglutination test) Almuneef and Memish (2003). According to certain studies conducted worldwide and also in Pakistan, it has been proved that ELISA tests are more accurate and reliable than other tests like Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT), showing high seropositive samples. Shafee et al. 2011 confirmed by using i-ELISA for the prevalence of brucellosis in Quetta city and the result was found to be 3 and 8.5 percent overall prevalence in cattle using MRT and indirect ELISA respectively. The Gilgit Baltistan is at developing stages in the livestock sector, small farmers owning 95% of the Gilgit Baltistan’s livestock and are landless, providing an opportunity for improving INTRODUCTION Page 4 the quality of their livestock. The areas selected for the study were the villages (Shagaribala, Shagari kalan, Kathpanah, Chunda, Kachura, Hussain abad and Sadpara) of Skardu district, which are very important from livestock point of view. There is a dire need of screening these animals for the zoonotic point of view. It is the first time that effort for the diagnosis of brucellosis in Gilgit Baltistan by using the serological test like Rose Bengal Plate Aggulutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has been made. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2246-T] (1).

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