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1. Stock Assessment Of Trout Soecies In Upper River Swat

by Tariq Khan | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Dr. Arshad Javaid | Dr. Noor Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1700,T] (1).

2. Role Of Cyprinus Carpio In Innutrient Dynamics Of Fish Ponds Under Polyculture System

by Muhammad Ahmad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Prof. Dr. muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present project was planned to study gradual replacement of Cirrhinus mrigala with Cyprinus carpio and its impact on pond ecosystem. 900 fish individuals belonging to six species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophythylmichthys molitrix and Cyprinus carpio were stocked in four earthen ponds. The dimensions of each pond were 220 X 198 X 7 feet length, breadth and depth. The stocking density in pond 1 (T1) was C. catla 150, L. rohita 200, C. mrigala 200, C. idella 150, H. molitrix 150 and C. carpio 50. The stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in pond 2 (T2) was 150 and 100, in pond 3 (T3), 100 and 150 and in pond 4 (T4) it was 50 and 200, respectively while the stocking density of all the other four fish species remained constant in all the four ponds. All the fish were fed with a diet of 25.16% crude protein @ 2% body weight. C. idella and C. mrigala showed maximum growth in T1, C. catla and H. molitrix in T2, L. rohita and C. carpio in T3. Maximum growth was observed in T3 followed by T4, T1 and T2. Among fish species C. idella and C. carpio showed higher growth rates than the rest of fish species. Our results reveal that in polyculture system stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in a ratio of 1: 1.5 gives better results. In treatment 1 pond higher SGR 0.552% was observed in H. molitrix and lower 0.238 in C. carpio. Similarly, in T2 pond maximum SGR 0.703% was observed in H. molitrix and minimum 0.260% in C. idella. Maximum SGR 0.409 % was observed in H. molitrix in on T3 pond while it was minimum 0.153 in C. mrigala. In T4 pond maximum SGR 0.322% was observed in L. rohita while it was minimum 0.139 in C. idella. During present study major water quality parameters remained in the favorable range for fish culture, average value of temperature remained in the range 27.08 to 28.66 oC, salinity 0.86 to 0.99 ppt, DO 5.15 to 5.91 mg/L, EC ranges from 2.23 to 2.32 Ms/cm and pH ranges from 8.04 to 8.23 were observed within the optimum range throughout the experiment. Statistically significant variations in nitrate content of water were observed in T1 and T4 ponds while non-significant differences for nitrates were recorded in T2 and T3 ponds. Similarly, phosphates in water showed significant differences in T1 as compared to T3 and T4 ponds while T2, T3 and T4 showed non-significant differences for phosphates. Light penetration varied significantly between T1, T2 and T4 ponds and its values varied from minimum 18.17±0.946 cm in T4 to maximum 25.50±1.057 cm in T1 ponds The phytoplankton density was similar in ponds during the given period except the start month of study the low plankton values in April due to the ponds being filled with fresh water and immediately stocked with fish. The density of zooplankton components was higher under T3 where silver carp gained more weight. A total of 11 species of Bacillariophyceae, 10 species of Cyanophyceae, 30 species of Chlorophyceae, 2 species of Euglenophyceae, 3 species of Cladocera, 4 species of Copepoda, 9 species of Myxophyceae, 9 species of Crustacea, 11 species of Rotatoria and 1 species of Olygochaeta were identified. The number of identified species was relatively small, consisting of eurytopic species only, possibly as a result of the heavy activity these ponds suffered. Microcrustaceans, being valuable food organism for many fish species, were represented by genera Daphnia, Cyclops, Bosmina, Moina and Scapholeberis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1705,T] (1).

3. Possible Causes Of Selective Lernaea Attack On Different Fish Species

by Farzana Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Arshad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study was managed to investigate the possible causes of selective Lernaea attack in different fish species. Planned studies were conducted in five trials. During the first trial lernaea susceptibility and infestation were observed in indigenous major and exotic Chinese carps. Studies were conducted in 4 earthen ponds with two ponds per experimental group. Fishes in the both groups were fed isonitrogenous diet containing 40% crude protein formulated with different feed ingredients. Fishes were identified and examined for the presence of Lernaea species. The parasites were removed and preserved in vials containing 5% formalin. Other growth parameters i.e. average weight gain, average increase in length while physico-chemical analysis including dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Phosphates ions (PO4-2), nitrates (NO3) and secchi disk visibility were recorded. The fishes were treated with Tender, an organophasphate (DDVP (Dichlorvos) or 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) for the control of lernaea. The results showed that C. catla is the most susceptible fish to L. cyprinacea infestation and its appropriate control for conservation of this precious and declining fish is of extreme importance. Thunder is biologically safe as it is biodegradable and degenerated after 36 h without causing any negative effect on the water quality parameters and other water flora and fauna. Treatment of L. cyprinace with 'Thunder' (0.10-0.25ppm) gives promising results without adverse effect on fish life. Though DDVP worked well in its control but its heavy infestation really weaken fish incapacitating its feeding and competing abilities with its counterparts. In the 2nd trial, comparison of bio-chemical profile was observed on healthy and infected Indian and Chinese major carps. The experiment was managed in four earthen rearing ponds (59m x 30.5m x 1.8m). There were two-groups, one group without any treatment served as control and the second as treatment. At the outset of trial all the fish species were weighed, measured and comprehensively examined for presence of L. cyprinacea and general health condition. Fishes from both groups were dealt uniformly except administration of regular applications of DDVP (0.25ppm in treatment group while no any medication in control group. Water quality parameters DO, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, chloride ion (Cl-1), phosphate ions (PO4-2) nitrates (NO-3) and light penetration were recorded. Samples of healthy and infected fishes of each species were collected for proximate composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat) and minerals (Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Copper and Magnesium) and phosphorous analysis. The results showed that dry matter, fat and crude protein percentages were significantly decreased in lernaeid fishes. Moisture and ash contents of fishes increased in infected fishes as compared to healthy and treated fish. A slightly lower level of protein (12.65±0.49) and fat (7.30±0.28) in C. catla was observed than rest of the species. The protein was the highest (26.00±4.24) in L. rohita while the fats were the highest (10.55±0.92) in C. mrigala and C. carpio the second highest. Similarly looking at mineral profile there is not much difference, so it is hard to say that level and type of nutrients are solely responsible for L. cyprinacea attack. Mineral composition of infected fish indicated that minerals balance upsets during disease condition. Pathogenicity is a complex of so many factors, which encompass environmental, biological, and physiological so still lot remains to be explored before issuance of any concrete conclusion and recommendation that which factor is more active and critical in inviting and attracting this parasite. In the third experiment, various blood indices were compared among Chinese and Indian major carps from the perspectives of their resistance against lernaeaosis that included probable role of blood and its components in reception of L. cyprinacea in some commercially important locally culturable herbivorous fish varieties while repulsion in others living under similar environment. Healthy samples of each fish species were selected and blood was immediately drawn by puncturing gill lamellae, caudal vein and heart of both male and female of each representative experimental species. Blood parameters including Red Blood Cells (RBC, 10 -6/µL), White Blood Cells (WBC, 10-3/µL) and Platelets (10-3/µL) in blood from experimental fish species were counted by placing sample on haemocytometer grids. Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC), red blood indices, blood chemistry and ESR were determined for males and females of experimental fishes. The results revealed that females of each species have relatively higher values for blood indices as compared to males. C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. C. catla has the lowest values for the immunoglobulin Ig M as compared to the species which showed less susceptibility. In the 4th trial, healthy fishes of major and Chinese carps were collected from commercial rearing and grow out ponds. Each fish weighed 830 ± 316 g on the average. For mucus collection, fishes were bathed in Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution (8.0 ppm) to remove microbial or fungal infection/infestation. Samples were centrifuged at 12000×g at 4 ?C for 10 minutes and stored at -40?C in biomedical freezer. Bradford Micro Assay technique was applied to determine protein contents. Bradford protein solution (50 ?L) was added to each well and absorbance was recorded at 595nm. Standard curve was drawn from various but consecutive dilutions of BSA solution and protein concentrations in different samples were calculated. Electrophoresis was carried out with slight modifications. 15% separating and 4% staking buffer were used to run the SDS- PAGE under constant voltage of 120. Fermentas PageRuler™ protein ladder was used as the standard marker for non reducing protein. The gel was stained with PageBlue™ (Fermentas) stain for identification of protein bands for molecular weight determination. Lectin activity and Alkaline Phosphatase test were determined. Mucus was incubated with 4 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate in ammonium bicarbonate buffer (100 mM) with 1 mM MgC12 (pH 7.8) at 30°C. The increase in optical density (OD) was measured continuously for 2 to 3 hours at 405 nm using a micro plate reader. The results showed that lectin activity was the highest in C. idellus (109) indicative of low resistance while it was the lowest (21) in H.molitrix which was completely parasite free. Alkaline phosphatase level was the highest in C. catla, C.idella was the second highest and was the lowest in C. carpio. Protein concentrations were the highest in C. idella (3.29 ± 0.13 mg/ml) and C. catla (3.02 ± 0.57 mg/ml) while it was the lowest in C. carpio (1.80 ± 0.09). C. catla contained the highest molecular weight proteins (100 kDa) while C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. In the 5th experiment, the lernaea were observed in the month of June to August. Lernaeied infestation was observed in all experimental fishes except in C. carpio. After appearance of infestation fishes were treated with Thunder (DDVP- an organophasphate) to eliminate the parasite. Parasite free C. idellus, H. molitrix, L. rohita, C. mrigala, C. catla and C. carpio were collected with an average weight of 830 ± 316 g each were used for studies on whole-body amino acid composition. Triplicate samples of each species were over dried after evacuating their gut contents. Dried samples were then finely powdered, sieved and vacuum hydrolyzed in 2 ml of 6 N HCl at 1lO°C for 24 hours. Total amino acid composition was determined by o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) method using an Agilent chromatograph, revers-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the essential amino acids (arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine and leucine) play a major role in the immune system. It is revealed that amino acids will widely become cost-effective neutraceuticals for improving health and preventing infectious disease in animals. C. carpio have no infestation due to increased numbers and concentrations of essential amino acids when compared to other species of Indian and Chinese major carps. C. catla, C. idella and H. molitrix have the lowest number and concentration of essential amino acids and hence appeared more susceptible to lernaea attack. Finally it was concluded from the entire study that C. carpio may have high resistance for the L. cyprinaceaea as compared to the other experimental fishes. It possesses higher values for Ig M-immunoglobulin as compared to C. catla that indicated its high immunity against the parasite. Similarly C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes (WBCs, esinophils, basophils and lymphocytes) that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus revealed that C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. This protein band may indicate the presence of lysozyme enzyme that actively participates against the invading pathogen. Essential and non-essential amino acids concentrations were also higher in the C. carpio that play a vital role in immunity especially arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, leucine, glutamic acid and aspartic acids. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1787,T] (1).

4. Studies On The Reproductive Biology And Induced Spawning Of Murrel, Channa Marulius

by Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1832,T] (1).

5. Studies On The Effect Of Aflatoxin B1 On Growth And Histology Of Various Development Stages Of Catla Catla

by Syedah Andleeb | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Sumaira abbas | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1990,T] (1).

6. Prepration Of Cost-Effective Aquafeeds For Labeo Rohita Using Plant Based Feed Ingredients

by Afifa Bari (2009-VA-422) | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Abdul Razaaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In Asia Carp culture is dominated which is mostly extensive and semi-intensive. Now a days aquatic plants used in animal feed became very popular. Aquatic plants have been used to enhance the growth, reduce stress, induce appetite and play a major role as Immunostimulants that have antimicrobial effects in fin fish and shrimp. However, exact percentage contribution needs to be determined to obtain its benefits as over dose can have harmful effects. These plants are mechanically removed at a high costs and dumped. So, the use of unusual feed resources is a way of significant reduction in the cost of feed. Addition of Aquatic plants upgrade growth, enzyme level, body composition and immunity of Labeorohita (rohu) fingerlings.This study will produce useful information for aqua feed and fish industry concerning possible utilization source of aquatic plants for carp. It will also be helpful to save the increasing cost of aqua feed industry because of cheaper source of energy inproving health of fish thus enhance production. To compare the growth performance and meat quality of Labeorohitaunder different treatments Experiment was designed in glass aquariums and with two replicates in each treatment. The effect of inclusion of aquatic plants in the feed of Labeorohitawas also observed on histology under different treatments in aquariums. Before stocking all aquariums was disinfected with KMnO4. Each aquarium was stocked with 15 Labeorohitafingerlings and their morphometric parameters i.e,body weight and total length was recorded at the time of stocking. The physico-chemical parameters (DO, pH and Temperature) was monitored on daily basis from each treatments. For proximate and histological studies organs of fish was collected at the end of experimental. The feed was formulated for treatment T1, T2, and T3 having 35%, 30% and 25% of plant (Vallisneriaspiralis). The fish samples were captured randomly from each of the treated aquarium and their morpho-metric characteristics viz. total body weight and total length were recorded on weekly basis. And after obtaining the data the fish were released back into their respective aquarium. At the final harvest, the proximate composition of fish meat sample was studied. The findings of the present experiment are summarized as follow. 1-The average body weight of Labeorohitaremained as 91.2, 71.3, 62.2 and 58.2g under the treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively.Fish attained the maximum average body weight in T1 which was treated with 35% plant.Among the different treatment, maximum body increment in body weight was recorded in T1 as 91.2(g) whereas minimum body weight was recorded in T4 as 58.2 (g).. 2-Labeorohitashowed the minimum value of specific growth rate as 0.422 and 0.463 in T3 and T4. Maximum value of 0.789% of specific growth rate was noted in T1. 3-Among different treatments the maximum condition factor was observed as 2.717% in T1 while minimum was gained as 1.918% in T4. 4-Among different treatmentsLabeorohita showed the highest growth rate with the highest crude protein contents 18.70% under the treatment T1. while17.85%, 17,60% and 17.35% in T2, T3 and T4. 5-The maximum moisture content was observed as 75.22% in T1 and minimum moisture content was observed as 73.20% in T4 6-The maximum value of total fats was observes as 1.29% in T4 and minimum value was observed as 1.13% in T1 treatment 7- Among the abiotic factor water temperature played major role towards fish growth as higher increase in body weight was observed for all the treatments during July and august while minimum increase in body weight was observed in September and October which perhaps due to low water temperature.Maximum water temperature was observed as 24.6 °C in T1 and T3 treatments. While minimum was recorded as 21.3 °C. 8-The physico-chemical characteristics of water remained within the favourable limits for fish culture.and shows non-significant under all treatments. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2699-T] (1).

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