Clinico-Chemotherapeutic Study On The Occurrence Of Navel Ill In Cow Calves
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Navel ill occurs commonly in young calves. Calves less than 1 week of age are most commonly affected by infections of navel because the umbilical stump usually takes 7-10 days to dry up. Infection of navel develops when pathogenic bacteria contaminated the wet umbilicus under the unhygienic environmental conditions. It may also cause the death of newborns calves due to bacterimia and septicemic shock. The unhygienic environmental conditions like parturition of cow in dirty pen, poor navel hygiene practices, inadequate colostrum feedings within 6 hours after parturition or when umbilical cord is cut too close to abdominal wall of calf, may predispose a calf to navel ill.
The present study was conducted in and around Kahna region of Lahore to find out the disease percentage of navel ill in newborn calves, and chemotherapeutical trials were conducted to see the comparative effect of topical, parenteral and topical with parenteral therapy. For this purpose, 400 newborn calves of 15 days or less than 15 days age were randomly selected from small dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area.
Among 400 calves, 197 calves were randomly selected from different small holder farmers of study area and 203 were selected from small dairy farms. Among 197 calves from different local areas of Kahna, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 46.19% and among 203 calves from small dairy farms of study area, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 12.80%. The overall occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill from dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area was 29.25 %. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study areas was 21.73%, 37.50%, and 14.28%, 22.22% and 14.10% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred female calves respectively. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study area was 22.22%, 88.23%, 16.66%, 33.33% and 40.98% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred male calves respectively.
For chemotherapeutical trials, calves were divided into five groups. Calves of group A (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder, applied to navel cord topically twice a day for five days. The average percentage recovery of group A among males was 41% and among females was 46.5 %, but the overall recovery in group A was 43.75%. Similarly, when calves of group B (n=10) were treated with parenteral therapy of Moxin and Meloxicam for five days, then the average percentage recovery of group B among males was 41.47 % and among females was 48.08 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group B was 43.60 %. Calves of group C (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder plus parenteral therapy of Moxin and Melacam for five days. The average percentage recovery of group C among males was 76 % and among females was 90 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group C was 83 %.
Calves of group D (n=10) were kept as positive control to observe complications. They were of diseased conditions. Among these calves, three calves got maggot wounds; one died due to septicemia, two calves got small hernia and remaining calves showed no further complications except existing signs. Calves of group E (n=10, healthy calves) were kept as negative control. Among these healthy calves, three calves became thin and emaciated but all others remained healthy and showed no clinical signs of any disease.
Finally, the obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Chi Square method (software stata). In conclusion, the statistical analysis showed that occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was more in male as compared to female calves. Similarly, the occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill was high in local areas i.e. small holder farmers as compared to dairy farms of study area. The chemotherapeutic trials conducted among different groups of calves showed variable results. Topical treatment showed some better results than parenteral treatment, but when topical treatment was given with parenteral therapy, the calves showed maximum recovery. On the behalf of this study, it was concluded that the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill is high in calves reared under unhygienic conditions. At dairy farms, hygienic conditions were better due to some good calf rearing practices as compared to local small holder farmers, that's why the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was high at local small holder farmers than that of dairy farms. Similarly, the results of chemotherapeutic trials showed that simple topical or parenteral therapy alone was not effective much as compared to when both topical and parenteral therapy was given at the same time.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1436,T] (1).
Prevalence And Therapeutic Trials On Ticks And Mites In Sheep In And Around Lahore City
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Sheep and goats sustain an expensive profitable and environmental position in Asian agriculture (Devendra 1996). Majority of the livestock owners earn their income through sale of additional animals and their by-products. There are several factors affecting the production potential of livestock. Among these, parasitic infestations are prevalent, affecting different livestock species all over the world. Parasitic infestation especially ecto-parasites are the major veterinary problems in most of the developing and under developed countries of the world. The physical condition and production in animals is severely affected by tick and mite infestation. It is one of the most common problem of sheep characterized by anemia, poor physical condition, decreased milk quality and poor meat production.. The present study was conducted on ticks and mites to study their prevalence, their effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of Ivermectin and Azadirchta indica (neem oil) on sheep in and around Lahore, Pakistan.
In this study 300 sheep suspected for tick and mite infestation on the basis of clinical signs were collected from outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Outreach hospital Sitar wala and Civil Veterinary Hospital Thokar Niaz Biag. The tick sample were collected with the help of foreceps and mites sample through skin scraping. Out of this 300, 198 samples were collected from outdoor hospital UVAS Lahore, from which 84 were positive with prevalence of 42.42% for tick and mite infestation, and 62 samples were collected from outreach hospital Sitarwala from which 24 were positive giving prevalence of 38.70% and 40 samples were collected from CVH Thokar Niaz Biag, out of which 17 samples were positive with prevalence of 42.5%. All the collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory, UVAS, Lhr.
Whereas in the third part therapeutic trials on 20 sheep (n=15 tick and mite infested and n=5 healthy sheep) was done and divided into four groups A, B, C&D. Each group was comprised of 5 sheep .In group A, the infested sheep were treated with two doses of ivermectin 0.2mg/kgS/C 7 days apart, on 7th day its efficacy was 40%and on 14th day it gave 100% efficacy. In group B the infested sheep were treated with neem oil (Azadirachta indica) @1 table spoon, its efficacy was 20% on 7th day and on 14th its gave 40% efficacy, in group C infested sheep were kept as positive control, whereas healthy sheep were included in group D.
In the second part of present project haematological studies on 10 sheep (n=5 tick and mite infested sheep, n=5 healthy sheep) were performed to see the effect of tick and mite infestation on various blood parameters (Hb, PCV,TLC) and it was fsound that Hb and PCV values were decreased whereas TLC was increased in infested sheep.
The therapeutic trials of this study concluded that the Ivermectin was most effective drug against ticks and mites in sheep.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1492,T] (1).
Evaluation Of The Effect Of Probiotic (Bacillus subtillis PB6) On Production Parameters Of Commercial Broilers
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: CD Crupt
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2772-T] (1).
Clinico-Theraputic Trial Of Grain Overload In Cattle
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Ruminants are adapted to digest and metabolize predominantly forage diets; however, growth rates and milk production are increased substantially when ruminants consume high grain diets. One consequence of feeding excessive amounts of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates in conjunction with inadequate fiber to ruminants is subacute ruminal acidosis, which is characterized by periods of low ruminal pH that resolve without treatment and is rarely diagnosed. Dairy cows, feedlot cattle, and feedlot sheep are at risk of developing this condition.
The present study was performed in district Kasur in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Patoki campus and adjacent areas. Clinical examination of 35 cattle of any breed, age and sex with the history of grain overload/carbohydrate engorgement and showing the sign of Distended rumen, Subnormal temperature, Diarrhea, Depression, Dehydration, Inactivity, Weakness and Anorexia. A total number of 30 animals suffering from lactic acidosis were observed. The ruminal fluid and blood of the affected animals were collected pre-treatment as well as post-treatment to determine their pH values and serum lactate. After processing the diseased animals, treatment trials were run.
A total number of 35 animals were included in this study. They were divided into four groups as A, B, C, and control group. Group A, B and C had 10 diseased animal in each while control group had 5 healthy animals for the reference values. Sodium bi carbonate was given as a treatment to Group A animals at a dose rate of 1g/kg of body weight orally once, Magnesium hydroxide was given as a treatment to Group B animals at a dose rate of 500/450kg of body weight orally once and a combination of Ginger and Ajwain was as a treatment to Group C animals at a dose rate of 100g + 100g orally once. No treatment was given to control group of 5 healthy animals. Ruminal fluid samples and blood samples of all animals were collected for pH and serum lactate values.
Grain engorgement is the managmental disease of cattle in district Kasur.A survey was conducted for a period of 6 months. Convenient sampling was adopted. 5ml of whole blood was collected into test tube from jugular vein using 16 gauge needle and was allowed to clot at room temperature for 1hr to obtain serum.
Serum pH was measured by using vide range of pH indicator paper and pH meter. The ruminal fluid was collected through stomach tube. Ruminal fluid pH wasmeasured by using pH indicator paper and pH meter. A detail predesigned questionnaire was developed for data collection according to inclusion criteria i.e. age, breed, sex, history, severity of signs, management system and vaccination etc.
Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA technique. After this study we are able to know and reduce the major causes & risk factors associated with grain engorgement in large Ruminants.We are able to adopt the different protocols for diagnosis and treatment of grain engorgement.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2812-T] (1).