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1. Determination Of The Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Prevailing In The Hepatitis Suspected Patients In District Mardan,

by Suliman Qadir Afridi | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Fariha Akhtar | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1469,T] (1).

2. Histopathological & Immunohistochemical Studies In Experimentally Infected Commercial

by Raoof Aslam | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1704,T] (1).

3. Immunohistochemical Identification Of Adenovirus Type 4 In Liver, Heart, Kidney, And Pancreas Of Broiler Chicken

by Muhammad Tanzil-ur-Rehman | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1736,T] (1).

4. Pathological Findings Of Field Isolated Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (Pprv) In Experimentally Infected Goats

by Qamar Ullah | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Saima Masood | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is the influential disease of small ruminants chiefly goats and sheep. It is highly contagious viral disease of economic point of view. It produces hurdles in farming of small ruminants in areas where it is present such as Africa and Asia. Those areas where the disease is endemic and huge numbers of small ruminants are reared by needy farmers; it threats their subsistence. Epidemically the disease identified since 1991 in Punjab province of Pakistan. The aim of the present study was detection of PPR virus through Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction during period of incubation. The course of the disease was monitored through regular clinical examination and hematological profile. The nature of the disease was evaluated through gross and microscopic lesions. The comparative proteomic analysis of field and vaccinal PPR virus was done through SDS-PAGE. A total of twenty healthy teddy goats were purchased from local market of Lahore and were reared for 21 days. The goats were randomly divided into Group-A (experimental group) and Group-B (control group), with ten goats (n=10) in each group. Experimental infection of field isolated PPR virus was given intratracheally to the goats of group-A. The goats of group-B served as un-infected control group. For early detection of PPR virus through RT-PCR, ocular and nasal secretions were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 10 from experimentally infected goats and on day 5 and 10 from goats of control group. Clinical examination of all goats of both groups was performed on daily basis. For hematological analysis, 2.5 mL blood was drawn from jugular vein on day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21st day post infection from all goats of both groups. Gross and microscopic lesions were recorded after slaughtering one goat from each group at day 7, 14 and slaughtering all the remaining goats of both groups on day 21 post infection. Two goats of the experimental group were died naturally, one goat at day 8 and one goat at day 13 post infection. Proteomic analysis of PPR virus harvested from experimentally infected goats was done through SDS-PAGE and was compared with PPR virus vaccinal strain Nigeria 75/1. The results showed that PPR virus was detected by RT-PCR in PPRV infected goats at day three post infection and before the occurrence of acute clinical signs. The PPR virus was not detected in uninfected goats throughout the studied period which showed that there was no natural circulation of virus in the area of experimental sheds. The clinical examination showed significant increase in rectal temperature, pulse and respiration rates in PPRV infected goats as compared to uninfected goats. From the comparison of hematological parameters in PPR infected and uninfected goats, it was observed that PPRV is linked with some obvious alterations in its hematological profile. PPR in experimentally infected goats led to obvious decrease in the number of leucocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, hemoglobin estimation and packed cell volume but marked increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume as compared to uninfected goats. The gross lesions were specific for PPR which were prominently observed in the digestive and respiratory systems and lymphoid organs. The microscopic lesions revealed that there was congestion in trachea, sloughing in mucosa of rumen, mitotic activity in cardiac myocytes and hemorrhagic & effaced mediastinal lymph nodes of infected goats. From the comparative proteomic analysis through SDS-PAGE, differences in bands of proteins were observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1802,T] (1).

5. Bacterial Growth Inhibition Based Detection Of Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Residues In Milk

by Sana moin | Prif. Dr. Masood rabbani | Dr Ali ahmad | Dr. Yasin tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1954,T] (1).

6. Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For The Simultaneous Detection Of Babesia Caballi Theileria Equi And Trypanosoma

by Muhammad Zeeshan Khalid | Prof. Dr. Asim aslam | Dr. Yasin tipu | Prof. Dr.Habib ur rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2006,T] (1).

7. Efficacy of Various Disinfectants Against Newcastle Disease Virus Isolates In Relation To Different Temperatures

by Momena Habib | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Prof.Dr.Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious viral disease of birds and has been considered as one of the most significant diseases of poultry and other avian species around the globe (Aldous and Alexander 2001). The disease is endemic in Pakistan and causes major economic losses to poultry industry each year (Rehman H et al. 2013). Although incidence of ND in broiler and layers remains higher during the course of year, it reaches its plateau during seasonal stress (January-February and June-July). One report shows that during September 2011 - January 2012, the diseases has killed 45 million birds and resulted into a loss of approximately 65 million US $ to the country (Anonymous). ND virus (NDV) is an enveloped, single stranded RNA virus and grouped into the genus Avulavirus within family Paramyxoviridae(Calibeo-Hayes et al. 2003). Isolates of NDV may be categorized into three main pathotypes (lentogenic, mesogenic and velogenic) depending upon the severity of disease in chickens (Seal et al. 2000). NDV is most commonly transmitted through fecal-oral and respiratory route provided that birds are in close contact (Alexander 1988). Infected birds excrete large amount of virus in their feces (Calibeo-Hayes et al. 2003). Virus is present in most tissue secretions of acutely infected birds even 24 hours prior to appearance of clinical signs. Under certain conditions, NDV can survive up to 20 days in fecal material (anonymous) and presence of organic matter might enhance the virus survival rates (Clarke et al. 1956). In order to control the spread of disease, decontaminate the infected premises is of prime importance. Strict biosecurity measures in conjunction with mass vaccination programs are also employed for the control of the disease. In past few decades, implementation of extensive vaccination programs in commercial poultry has reduced the Introduction 2 disease incidence to some extent in Pakistan. However, this might also led to the generation of novel genotypes under high immune pressure(Miller et al. 2009). Disinfection of farm premises plays significant role to break the disease cycle of microbial pathogens(Fawzia1 et al. 2013). Such procedures gain more significance on the farms that experience disease outbreaks. Dry cleaning, burning and fumigation followed by chemical disinfection is routinely practiced in Pakistan. Although, physical method are helpful to reduce the pathogen load on farm premises but complete disinfection cannot be achieved without the use of chemical disinfectants. Commercial disinfectants employed in Pakistan are grouped into oxidizing agents, aldehydes, quaternary ammonium compounds, and phenolic preparations. The products containing these ingredients are available either alone or various combinations under different brand names. (Stringfellow et al. 2009). All of the disinfectants do vary in their disinfection power but to achieve proper disinfectants appropriate interaction time is necessary. Under clean conditions such interaction time is low but longer contact times are needed in presence of organic matter. Some studies show that environmental temperature influences the interaction time of disinfects with matter/surfaces to achieve proper disinfection. In case of chlorine disinfection of adenovirus inactivation time was increased 2-3 times when temperature was lowered to an extent of 10°C (Clarke et al. 1956). Similarly, virucidal activity of some disinfectants including aldehyde, chlorine and iodine compounds against infectious bursaI disease virus (IBDV) was also decreased at lower temperatures (Benton et al. 1967). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2226-T] (1).

8. Impact Analysis Of Quality Control Practices In Selected Microbiology Based Veterinary Diagnostic Labs Operational In District Lahore

by Faiza Marrium (2009-VA-239) | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Veterinary diagnostic labs are the powerful ally for the diagnosis, prevention and monitoring of animal diseases in any country. Labs are ordered for test for many reasons. Errors could be present in these tests. So to avoid detrimental effects of these errors a quality control system is required. This system is maintained by following the standards given by recognized international organizations like ISO, OIE, WHO, FAO and CDC etc. These authorities make the standards which should be followed by the VDLs to improve their quality of tests and management to give precise and accurate results which will help them in being well reputed lab which give internationally accepted quality of results. In this study 4 private and 4 public sectors Veterinary diagnostic Labs was selected and it was assured to labs that their information will remain confidential as data was used only for the research purposes. Labs were identified by the codes given to them for study purpose. Information required for this study was gained through a questionnaire. Information regarding identity of lab, contact numbers, location and type of testing/diagnosis was gathered. Information about the parameters of quality control like building design, power backup, sections of lab, operating equipments, development of log books, availability of certificate of analysis for chemicals, availability of material safety data sheet was gathered. Quality assurance issues were also addressed by gathering information about internal quality assurance program, proficiency testing etc. Then this data was analyzed by using SPSS to interpret the results. The data was analyzed statistically through frequency distribution by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0 for development of Graphs and Tables. Summary 53 requirements about personnel and equipments were 80% and 87.5% while minimum values were 40% and 25% respectively. Maximum value about quality control measures and waste management were 89.47% and 70% and minimum percentages were 36.40% and 40% respectively. Results have shown that 100% requirements of environmental monitoring and customer care were fulfilled by some labs while some labs only fulfill 20% of these parameters. Conclusion This study shows that in Lahore district veterinary diagnostic labs are not giving proper attention to quality of their system and there is no significant difference between setups of private and public sector laboratories. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2277-T] (1).

9. Assessment Of Variour Nutrient's Intake In Pregnant And Lactating Women Through Food Frequency Checklist And 24-Hour Dietary Recall In Lahore

by Hasiba Munir (2008-VA-435) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Nosheen Aziz | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poor nutritional status during pregnancy is a contributory factor in maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Widespread household food insecurity (58.1% households are food insecure) and poor knowledge about nutrient requirements in pregnant and lactating women are the major cause of nutritional deficiencies. This study is planned to assess nutrients’ intake among pregnant and lactating women and to compare with standard requirements. A cross sectional survey design was used to assess the nutrients’ intake of 110 pregnant and 110 lactating women from 6 Union Councils (two urban, two per-urban and two rural Union Councils) of Lahore and Rajanpur districts. Nutrients’ intake was assessed by using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to interview the pregnant and lactating women at one point in time. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference was measured through anthropometric measures, 24 hour dietary recall, and food frequency was used to assess nutrients’ intake. The data was analyzed bychi-square and cross tabs using SPSS version 20.0 and was presented in percentage, frequencies and charts to assess the nutritional deficiencies.Significance level was defined as p≤ 0.05. The results shows that majority of the women were deficient in energy and nutrient's intake through daily diet. In both districts pregnant and lactating women were not consuming their required amount of various nutrient's according to their maternal status. Results show significant difference in Lahore and Rajanpur districts most of the nutrient's deficiency was present in Rajanpur as compare to Lahore. Severely low dietary intake of various nutrients was calculated and analyzed. According to the results dietary intake of various nutrients was severely low in selected women with following percentage protein was 39.1%, folate 40%, B12 20.5%, B6 74.5%, vitamin C 30.5%, vitamin A 14.1%, vitamin D 69.1%, calcium 26.8%, iron 96.8% and zinc 70.9%. These results shows very adverse situation of important nutrient's intake of pregnant and lactating women through diet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2357-T] (1).

10. Detection Of Amantadine Resistant Variants Among Avian Influenza Viruses Subtype H9n2 Isolated In Pakistan

by Sabir Subhan (2009-VA-32) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Zubair Shabbir | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Avian influenza A virus subtype H9N2 is prevalent in poultry industry of Pakistan. Amantadine is an antiviral drug which is being used as prophylactic measure to control this disease despite the occurrence of resistance against this drug. There is need to monitor the resistance of amantadine in Flu viruses. In this study, we collected 100 samples of broilers birds showing mild to severe respiratory signs. Samples were collected from different locations of Punjab, Pakistan. After initial identification via Hemagglutination test, the molecular identification and confirmation of subtype H9N2 was done by multiplex PCR. To rule out the co-infection of NDV, PCR of NDV was also done. The samples which were pure H9N2 were further processed for the screening of amantadine susceptibility. To do this, titration of viruses was done on MDCK cells in the presence and absence of amantadine at the concentration of 2 ug /ml. The results of TCID5O were compared in the presence and absence of amantadine for each isolate and isolates showing difference of 2 log 10 TCID50/0.1 ml were declared resistant to amantadine as described by Masuda et al. 2000. The results of this study revealed that the viruses circulating in the poultry industry if Pakistan are resistant to this drug as we found that out 10 isolates 4 were resistant to this drug. So, there is need to monitor the usage of this drug in poultry as human cases of H9N2 viruses have been reported and virus was of avian origin. Monitoring is necessary because amantadine is recommended in flu pandemics and this virus possesses the pandemic potential and can cross the species barrier. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2457-T] (1).

11. Pathological Investigations Of Different Isolates Of H9n2 Prevalent In Broiler Chicken

by M. Furqan Shahid (2014-VA-322) | Dr. Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In recent years, H9N2 virus has attained a great importance as its infection has reached panzootic proportions. AIV H9 has different antigenic variants that has made it problematic to diagnose and thus to understand the pathogenicity of this virus is also very difficult. Detection of AI H9 antibodies can be used as a complementary method for sero-epidemiological studies as an indicator of AI H9 infection. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is used routinely for subtyping and detecting an increase of antibodies to AI viruses. Surveillance and early diagnosis of AI virus is essential for poultry. It demands rapid, sensitive and inexpensive diagnostic tests. Thus, it is important to identify different antigenic variants of H9. In this study a total of seven H9 virus samples were isolated out of total 100 collected sample from field outbreaks. These isolates were confirmed by molecular methods like PCR. Then four isolates from these seven isolates were used to infect the experimental broiler chicken. Clinical signs were recorded after the inoculation of H9N2 virus to the broiler. The results of this study showed that clinical signs were more sever upto 5 DPI. The severity of signs was proved by observing the gross pathology and histopathology of organs (Lung, Kidney, Trachea and Liver) of infected birds which were collected on 5 and 9 DPI. Serum of infected birds was also collected on 7 and 14 DPI to analyze the antibody level of infected birds against experimentally used isolate of H9N2. Then cross reactivity of different isolates of H9N2 was also checked against pannel of hyperimmune sera raised against different isolates of H9N2 and their results showed different antibody level against different isolates of H9N2. The sero-biochemical study of serum of infected birds revealed that H9N2 virus has pathogenic potential on kidney and liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2459-T] (1).

12. Studies on Pathogenesis and Molecular Diagnosis of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus In Broiler Chicken

by Beenish Zahid (2003-VA-134) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2510-T] (1).

13. Comparison Of Conventional And Modern Diagnostic Techniques For Bovine Tuberculosis With Associated Risk Factors

by Arslan Tariq (2014-VA-960) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Mansur-Ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial disease of cattle that occasionally affects other species of mammals. It is a zoonotic disease that can be spread to humans, typically by the inhalation of aerosols or the ingestion of unpasteurized milk. The present study was conducted to diagnose tuberculosis in cattle and buffalo by using conventional method of Tuberculin. Later on, the positive samples of tuberculin test were tested on ELISA and PCR. Additionally, associated risk factors including the age, sex, breed and body condition were also investigated. One hundred and ninety-two sexually mature animals of age 2-8 years for detection of tuberculosis were selected randomly from four organized farms in eastern wing Lahore district. The animals were divided into two main experimental groups labeled as group B (Buffalos) and group C (Cows). Each group was further sub-divided into 3 sub-groups namely B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3 with age group of below 4y, 4-6y and over 6y respectively. On the basis of tuberculin test number of positive cases of bovine tuberculosis in buffalo were 7.29 % while in cattle were 11.46% out of total 96 animals of each group. On the basis of diagnosis with ELISA-IFN-γ assay, percentage of positive cases were 71.43% and 72.73 % respectively out of tuberculin positive samples. Whereas the percentage of positive cases in case of PCR of buffalo and cattle were 85.71% and 90.91% respectively. Number of positive cases in buffalo at age below 4 years, 4-6 years more than 6 years were observed as 1, 2 and 4 respectively. While in cattle, number of positive cases were found to be 2, 3 and 6. In case of buffalo, number of positive cases of bovine tuberculosis in male and female were 2 and 5 respectively. In cattle, 4 males and 7 females were declared as positive. In case of buffalo, number of positive cases of bovine tuberculosis in Nili Ravi (pure breed) and non-descript breeds were 2 and 5 respectively. Number of positive cases in case of indigenous and exotic breeds Summary 41 of cattle were 3 and 8 respectively. In buffalo, only 1 animal with good body condition was found positive against bovine tuberculosis, while 2 animals with fair body and 4 animals with poor body condition were observed as positive cases. In case of cattle, only 1 animal with good body condition, 3 with fair body condition while 7 with poor body condition were declared as positive cases. It can be concluded from the study that Modern techniques are more specific than conventional techniques. It is also deduced from study that cattle are more susceptible to bovine tuberculosis rather than buffalo. Moreover, female animals were more prone to infection than that of male, older animals were found to be infected more frequently than that of younger animals. Animals with poor body conditions were at high risk of infection than animals with good body conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2648-T] (1).


by Wasiq mehmood (2009-VA-420) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Poultry is a huge industry as an emerging agribusiness in Pakistan that contributes a lot in GDP of country but infectious diseases contribute as a major obstacle in profitable production of poultry. There is need to study the most current scenario of major diseases together with all the parameters involved. This can help in making effective preventive measures to minimize the losses. In this study we investigated 1008 cases of poultry diseases received at GP Lab, Lahore. Sick and dead birds were received from different locations of Lahore division during November, 2015 to November, 2016. Whole year was divided in to five seasons as winter (15-Nov to 15-Feb), spring (16-Feb to 14-April), hot summer (15-April to June), hot humid summer (July to 15-Sept) and autumn (16-Sept to 14-Nov). Disease was diagnosed on the basis of flock’s history, postmortem findings, isolation and identification of pathogens using various techniques of bacteriology, virology and molecular biology along with different serological techniques. The result of this study revealed that both bacterial and viral health risks are prevailing in Lahore division of Punjab however bacterial problems are greater in number in comparison of viral infections. Prevalence of E. coli infection (Colibacillosis) was greater than any other disease which could be due to poor disinfection and cleaning of control sheds along with poor management of flocks. Avian influenza and ND shared more than 90% of viral problems throughout the year. Mean prevalence of IBD was found to be 1.46% in recent year whereas CAV and adenoviral infection remained up to negligible extent. Very few cases of CRD and necrotic enteritis were reported. Prevalence of diseases has a strong correlation with seasons with incidence highest in winter and hot summer which could be due to challenging management of flocks because of severe climate conditions. Incidence in spring was found out to be 19.46. Hot humid summer and autumn were found to be least harmful seasons with prevalence of 11.23% Summary 66 and 7.11% respectively. In order to cope up with health issues, up to date studies on prevailing poultry diseases needs to be done in upcoming years as well. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2822-T] (1).

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