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1. Studies On The Babesia Canis And Ticks Of Dogs

by Abdul Haseeb Khan | Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from September to November, 2000 to find out the prevalence and taxonomy of ticks and Babesia canis of dogs. In addition, their effect on haematological parameters was also studied. To find out the prevalence, 759 dogs were included in the study. The samples were collected from the dogs brought to Dog Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, Private Veterinary clinics and from different Private Kennels present in and around Lahore. Out of the total 759 dogs, 205 (27 %) dogs were found positive for single species of ticks i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineous and 179 (23.5%) dogs were found positive for Babesia canis. Seventy four (9.7%) dogs were infested with only ticks and 48 (6.3%) dogs were found positive for only Babesia canis. Out of total 205 ticks infested dogs, 131 (63.3%) were found positive for Babesia canis. For haematological study from the total examined dogs 80 (60 infected, 20 healthy) were selected and divided in to four groups A (mixed infection of ticks and Babesia), B (ticks only), C (Babesia only) and D (non-infected). Each group comprising of 20 animals. The total erythrocytic count were 2.5x106±0.28/,il, 3.2x106±0.21/iil, 3.6x106±0.13/id and 4.9x106±0.18/j.d of group A, B, C and ID respectively. There was significant difference amongst group A, B, and C as compared to the control group-D. A significant difference amongst A-B, A-C was also noted. But no significant difference between group B and C could be recorded. Hemoglobin estimation in group A was 7.1±0.33 g %, in B was 9.2±0.30 g % and in group C was 9.8±0.30 g %. It was revealed that there was significant decrease in hemoglobin contents as compared to group 'D' which showed 12.01±0.6 g %. There was significant difference between group A-B and A-C, but no significant difference between group B-C (P<0.05) was noted. The animals belonging to group A, B, C and D had ESR as 40.15±3 mm/hour, 32.25±0.17 mm/hour, 25.2±1.1 mm/hour, and 16.3±1.3 mm/hour respectively. There was significant difference amongst the groups A, B, C as compared to group D. There were also significant difference amongst groups A-B, A-C and B-C (P<0.05). The RBC of the groups A, B, and C were found crenated and macrocytic hypochromic. The overall results showed that effects of mixed infection of ticks and Babesia on haematology were more adverse as compared to the single infections of ticks or Babesia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0712,T] (1).

2. Immune Response Of Chicks To Inactivated Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Vaccine And Vitamin E Supplementation

by Zahid Munir | Dr.Masood Rabbani | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Miss Sameera Akhtar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to isolate and characterize avian influenza virus (A IV) involved in high morbidity and mortality in chicken flocks in Karachi area. AIV H9N2 type was isolated from the morbid tissue sample. Inactivated alum precipitated and oil adjuvanted vaccines were prepared from local isolate and inoculated to two groups of chicken. One of AIV-H9N2 vaccine inoculated group was also supplemented with vitamin in feed. This study indicates that AIV-H9N2 was immunogenic and the experimental chicks were immunocompetent as the vaccinated chicks indicated humoral antibodies in their sera. On day 49 the AIV-HI titer range recorded in the serum samples of chicks from group Ai were 64- 256, and titers in sera from group A2 were 64-256. The supplementation of vitamin-E indicated vitamin-E as an anti-stress agent and improved weight gains and FCR in the chicks of group A2. The mean body weights of chicks in group B (control), Ai (vaccinated untreated) and A2 (vaccinated and vitamin-E supplemented) at 63rd day of age were 1750,1750 and 1850 grams respectively. Statistical analysis of the mean thymus body weight, bursal body weight and spleenic body weight indices from treatment groups Ai and A2 and those untreated control B group were significantly different from each other using LSD test (p>0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0716,T] (1).

3. Serological Response Of Broilers To Adjuvant Containing Avian Influenza Virus (H9 Type) Vaccine

by Aayesha Riaz Malik | Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Dr.Muhammad Akram Munir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Avian Influenza due to subtype AIV (H9 N2) caused high mortality in breeder, layer and broilers in different regions of Pakistan, during 1998 and 1999. AIV was obtained from Olympia laboratories, Lahore Road Sheikhupura. The virus was characterized by cultural characteristics in chicken embryos, virus induced death of chicken embryos within 48-72 hours post inoculation. Virus in AAF showed 1-IA titer 1:1024, while its Eli)50 was 1W 84/ml. Virus neutralization test confirmed the virus as AIV (1-19 N2). Virus was inactivated by 0.12% formalin and then 3 adjuvant containing A1V (119 N2) vaccines were prepared with inactivated virus. The vaccines were (a) Alum precipitated Al vaccine (AP-AIV) (b) Aluminum hydroxide gel Al vaccine (AH-AIV) (c) Oil based Al vaccine (0B-AIV). Oil based vaccine was prepared with hydrophile lipophile balance (HLB) values between 5,8 and 9. The vaccine with HLB value 8 was the most stable. Four groups of broiler birds were divided as A. B, C and D (10 birds each). 013- AIV was inoculated in birds of group A at 10th day of age and no boosting of it was required. Birds of group A showed high level of Ill antibody titer till 6 weeks of age. When AP-AIV and AHl-AIV were injected in birds of group II and C' respectively at 5' day of age and boosting with AP-A1V and AH-AIV at 14th1 day of age respectively, then birds of group B and C displayed effective antibody level till the 5 week of age However unvaccinated birds (control group) were negative to HI antibody titer. Cumulative geometric mean titre (CGMT) of 0B-AIV. AH-AIV and AP-AIV were 124.86. 63.56 and 67.74 respectively, while the standard deviation (P>0.05) from the mean of OB-AlV, AH-AIV and AP-AIV was 78.92, 40.56 and 36.13 respectively which showed that AH-AIV and AP-AIV were non significantly different. The result indicated that each of the adjuvant containing vaccine was effective to inchice anti-HI antibody. The cost of three vaccines was calculated and these were 285.2 Rs. for AP-AIV, 287 Rs. for AH-AIV and 365 Rs. for OB-AIV for 1000 doses of vaccines. The oil-based vaccine was cost effective and quality conscious. It is recommended for all types of commercial birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0723,T] (1).

4. Studies On The Cross Reactivity On Vaccinal Strains Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus

by Bushra Zameer | Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Dr.Masood Rubani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Cross reactivity of four different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (D-274, D-1466, 4/91 and H-120) has been studied. All these strains induced stunting growth and increased volume of allanto-amniotic fluid (AAF). Killed oil based vaccine of each strain was prepared and used to produce hyperimmune serum in chickens. The hyperimmune serum was used in cross haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and cross neutralization tests. The results of cross HI showed that D-274 and D-1466 shared 7.48% antigenic similarity with each other and H-120 sharedl3% and 8% antigenic similarities with D-274 and D-1466, respectively. The results of cross Neutralization showed that no cross neutralization present among these virus strains. So vaccine having each strain is required to be used to control the problem. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0801,T] (1).

5. A Study On Bacteriological Examination Of Raw And Pasteurized Milk Marketed In Lahore Area With Particular Reference To Public Health

by Aman Ullan | Dr.Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Dr.Masood Rubani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to study the bacteriological quality of various types of milk being marketed in Lahore. A total of 120 milk samples consisting of equal number (30 each of raw, pasteurized, UHT and sterilized milk) from various sources were examined for standard plate counts using milk agar, coliform count using EMB agar and using milk ring test (MRT) for brucellosis. All the samples were negative for MRT. Average standard plate count (SPC) and coliform counts for raw milk were 2.34x107 cfulml and 2.2x105 cfu/ml respectively. Similarly, SPC and coliform counts for pasteurized milk were found as 2.16x105 cfuJml and 3.28x104 cfu/ml respectively. No raw milk sample fulfilled the International Standards for very good quality milk for SPC or coliform count. For pasteurized milk, only 33.33% samples fulfilled the International Standards for very good pasteurized milk. SPC and coliform counts for UHT or sterilized milk was zero thus fulfilling the International Standards. A total of 162 isolates (88 isolates from raw milk and 74 isolates from the pasteurized milk) were identified. These isolates included Staphylococcus epidermidis, 38 strain (21 from raw milk and 17 from pasteurized milk), Staph. aureus, 30 strains (16 from raw and 14 from pasteurized milk), Escherichia coli, 24 stains (14 and 10), Enterobacter aerogenes, 20 (11, 09), Bacillus cereus, 22 (15, 07), Micrococcus luteus 15, (03, 12) and Klebsiellapneumoniae 13 (08, 05) strains. vitro antibiotic sensitivity tests indicated that all the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol. Escherichia coli was resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics. Overall hygienic quality of raw and pasteurized milk available in Lahore city was graded as poor. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0802,T] (1).

6. Study On Naturtal Quine Strongylosis And Its Control

by Zahida Qadir | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Dr.H.A.Hashmi | Dr.Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Two hundred equines of different age, sex and breed were subjected to coprological examination. A total of 65.51% sample were found to be infected with various helminths. Strongyles were the most common parasites and were detected in 58.5% of total faecal samples. The other species identified in this study included P. jprum (2%), Dictyocalus arnifeldi (1.5%), Gafitrodisus aegvuticus (1.5%), Anaplocepha species (1.5%), Strongvloides westeri (1.5%) and Strongyles + Ascaris (1.5%). The higher infection rate of helminth parasites were observed in spring (78%) and in summer (82%) as compare with autumn (40%) and winter (56%). Highest average EPG of 530 was recorded in summer and lowest EPG of 161 in winter season. Age related susceptibilities indicated a high prevalence of strongylosis in equines of under 10 years of age as compared with horses of more than 10 years of age. A higher egg per gram of the faeces were also recorded in horses of 1-3 years of age (512) as compared with older horses. Males have higher prevalence of helminths (76%) as compared with female (49%). There was no difference in average egg shedding by male (304) and fema1 horses (296). The anthelmintics efficacy of oxafax, ivomec and farbencja were also evaluated. Forty horses found positive for natural strongyle infection were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group A, B and C were dosed with Oxafax, Ivomec and Farbenda respectively as recommended by manufacturers. Group D acted as non-medicated infected control group. Percent egg reduction test indicated an efficacy of 96%, 98% and 81% for Oxafax, Ivomec and Farbenda, respectively on day 14 (post-medication). An efficacy of 100%, 96% and 86% were observed for Oxafax, Ivomec and Farbenda respectively on day 28, Statistically there was a non-significant difference in the efficacy of Oxafax, Ivomec and Farbendazole on days 14 and 28 post medication (P>O.05). However, these drugs showed a significant reduction in average EPG as compared with control group (P >0.05) on both sampling days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0809,T] (1).

7. Prevalence Of Parasites Of Zoonotic Importance In Public Parks Of Lahore

by Mahmood Ahmad Tahir | Dr.H.A.Hashmi | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: To find out the prevalence of parasitic larvae/eggs of zoonotic importance at VaI1OLIS public places, 600 samples (200 canine faeces, 200 lierbage and 200 soil samples) were collected and processed according to the techniques mentioned in the text. Five samples for each material were collected fortnightly from and around five different public parks namely: "lqbal Park, Nasir Bagh, Bagh-e-Jinnah, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Race Course Park" during the period from 1st September to 31st December, 2002. The impact of meteorological conditions on the prevalence of various parasitic eggs/larvae was studied. Forty nine (24.5%) out of 200 faecal samples were sound to he positive amongst which 11(22.45%) were positive for T. canis. and 34 (69.39%) were positive for A. caninum whereas 4 samples (8.1 %) were found positive for other parasites namely: D. canium, Trichuris vulpis, Teania spp. and Strongyloides sp. Out of 200 soil samples 29 (14.5%) were found positive for parasites amongst which 8 (27.59%) and 19 (65.5%) were positive for T canis and A. Caninum respectively, whereas only 2 (6.90%) were positive for other parasites. Out of 200 herbage samples 69 (34.5%) were positive for parasite eggs/larvae amongst which 22 (31.88%), 42 (60.86%) and 5 (7.26%) were positive for T. canis, A. can/null and other parasites respectively. Overall contamination of parks including all types of samples was recorded as 24.5%. It was observed that during the period of study (1st September to 31st December, 2002), the contamination of parks was the highest between 1st October to 30th November, 2002 when environmental temperature became optimal (27-30°C) and humidity being 75-76%. Inspite of the fact, rainfall did not occur during the highest prevalence of contamination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0811,T] (1).

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