Effect Of Soya Protein On Chemical And Sensory Characteristics Of Permented Milk Product
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Increased population, high cost and changing consumer attitude towards animals based proteins has put greater pressure for the consumption of proteins from plant origin. Soya bean contains almost 40% high quality protein which can be used as a source of proteins in various products. There was a need to develop convenience foods with high energy, good nutritional status and extended shelf life from indigenous resources. Thus the present research project was designed to asses the feasibility of incorporating soya protein isolate to improve nutritional quality of kurut and to determine the physico-chemical properties of SPI-fortified kurut with 90 days of storage. For the reason, yoghurt was converted into long life product (Kurut) with the addition of soya protein isolate (SF1) @ 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%, whereas kurut prepared without the addition of SF1 was taken as control.
Storage has influential significant effect on moisture content of the kurut samples; increased from 11.25c to 12.36a% with 90 days of storage period. Moisture content differed non-significantly with the addition of SF1 in Kurut and ranged from 11.57 to 11.86%. Protein content was momentously affected as a function of SF1 augmentation and non-significantly affected with storage and treatment-storage interaction. All the five treatments showed significant differences for the crude protein content of the product (Kurut).The protein content increased progressively with the addition of SPI in Kurut and the significantly highest protein content was noted in T4 (57.85a%), followed by T3 (55.30b%) and T2 (52.70c%) while the lowest crude protein content was found in To (44.77e%).
The means values of fat content of soya protein isolate fermented dairy product differed momentously and To contained the highest value (9.62a %) followed by 8.94b and 8.59c% in T1 (10% SF1) and T2 (15% SPI), respectively. The lowest value (8.Ole %) for the fat content was found in T4, which was prepared from 25% SPI addition in Kurut recipe. The means for the crude fiber content of SF1 enriched Kurut exhibited that T4 (SPI 25%) had the highest significant crude fiber (0.31a %) followed by 0.2Th% in T3 (SPI 20%) 0.23b% in T2 and T1 whereas, lowest fiber value was recorded for control Kurut (0.21b %). The ash content decreased significantly at all levels of SPI addition in the product; decreased from 9.97a% to 7.61e% up to 25% of soya protein isolate addition. The overall range for the NFE content was found to be from 25.89±1.00 to 35.60±1.04%.
Lactose content ranged from 19.90% to 26.90% from beginning to end of the study. Minimum mean value for lactose (22.77%) was observed at 0 day where as increasing trend was observed with progressive increase of storage period. The highest total solids were noted in T3 (88.43a) followed by T4 (88.42a) and T2 (88.38 a), whereas the lowest total solids value was found in case of To also it is controlled treatment i.e. (88.14a) (Table 4.9). The mean values for total solids of different treatments with 90 days of storage are mentioned in Table 4.9 all the treatments different momentously for total solids were noted 88.75a, 88.45a, 88.45a, 87.64a at 0 , 30, 60 and 90 days respectively.
The means value for acidity of various treatments showed in Table 4.10. It ranged from 1.52d to 1.81a % from initiation to end of the study. Minimum mean value for acidity (1.49d %) was observed at 0 day where as increasing tendency was observed with progressive increase of storage period. At 30 days, it was 1.57c % that increased to 1.67b % at 60 days and 1.79a at 90 days. The mean pH values of all the treatments decreased momentously with storage interval. The highest pH value was noted in T4 (4.53a) followed by T3 (4.38b), T2 (4.16c), and Ti (4.Old), whereas the lowest pH value was found in case of T0.
Color scores assigned to control Kurut were highest (12.Ola), which differed non-significantly with scores assigned to 10% SPI fortification (12.18a), 15% SF1 fortification (12.02a) and 20% SPI fortification (11.88a) while scores given to 25% SPI fortification (11.llb) were significantly lowest from all other treatment scores. Storage has significant effect on color of SF1 fortified Kurut. The scores for flavor of Kurut prepared from different SPI fortified samples showed that Kurut prepared from control obtained the highest flavor score (12.35a) followed by T1 and T2 that were assigned 12.22a and 11.78b scores, respectively. The significant lowest flavor scores 9.Old was allocated to T4 (25% SPI). Storage resulted significant effect on flavor of Kurut prepared from different SPI levels. At 0 day, the highest flavor score (11.62 a) was given by the panelists which decreased to 11.18b, 10.72c and 10.25d after 30, 60 and 90 days of storage.
Texture scores differed variably with SPI addition level whereas, decreased with the progression of storage period. Average overall scores for texture ranged from 10.2± 0.88 to 13.6± 1.34 among various treatments throughout the storage period. It is obvious from the findings that panelists rated higher with SPI addition up to 15% (T2).The judges placed T1 (12.47a) at the top for overall acceptability scores which differed non-significantly with control Kurut (12.28ab) followed by T2 (12.03b) T3 (10.07c) while the lowest mean overall acceptability scores were assigned to T4 (9.19d). Storage also has significant negative effect on overall acceptability scores; decreased from 11.80a at the start of the study to 11.41b, 10.92c , and 10.71c at 30, 60 and 90 days of storage interval, respectively.
Generally, soya protein isolate addition in Kurut (fermented dairy product) resulted in improved chemical and nutritional value. SF1 addition resulted in progressive increase in protein and fiber content, whereas fat and ash contents decreased with SPI augmentation. Regarding sensoric acceptability of Kurut prepared with SF1 fortification; organoleptic quality was affected with SPI levels, however, Kurut prepared from up to 15% SF1 level was not much different from control Kurut. Hence Kurut prepare up to 15% SPI addition level with improved nutritional profile, increased level of essential amino acids and acceptable organoleptic quality has a potential to cope protein deficiency in some vulnerable segment of population and is thus recommended for commercial application.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1058,T] (2).
Effect Of Ethanolic Extract Of Catharanthus Roseus On The Electrophysiology Of Jejunum Infected With Escherichia Coli In Goat
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Animal products such as meat and milk are the primary source of proteins and amino acid that can be produced throughout the year. Diseases in animals initiate the biophysical and socio economic impact that varies from localized to global. Different pathogens including virus, bacteria and fungi cause different diseases in ruminants. Escherichiacoli are one of the inhabitants of intestinal tract and are responsible for watery diarrhea, bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis. Diarrheal disease gives rise to global health problem and now a day many plants are used to treat the disease condition. Catharanthus roseusis one of the important medicinal plants used for the treatment of many diseases such as diarrheal, diabetics, wound healing and Alzheimer’s disease. C. roseus maintain the optimum performance of gut barrier by reducing the loss of minerals. The changes in the electrophysiology of jejunum with the addition of C.rouses were measured by Ussing chamber. Objective of this study was to investigate the effects of C.roseus on the barrier function of intestine influenced by E. coli.
Catharanthusroseus may reduce the detrimental effects induced by E.coli and improves the gut barrier function.
Five goats of uniform age and weight were selected and slaughter at local slaughter house. Jejunum was taken from the intestinal part and rinsed with standard buffer. Serosal layer was removed and tissue was mounted in Ussing chamber. After incubation period of 15-20mins different groups were treated with different treatments. Control with no treatment, group B was treated with 10% toxin of E.coli, group C was treated with 1.5% extract of C.rouses, group D was treated with 10% toxin of E.coli and 1.5% extract of C. rouses. After treatment the electrophysiological parameters like Isc and Gt was observed.
C.rouses affected the electrophysiology of isolated jejunum of goats by decreasing the short circuit current which was induced by the E.coli toxin. The decrease of current between the groups is significant (p value < 0.05). ΔIscwas also significant between the groups containing E. coli toxin and C. roseus containing solution. Conductance increased significantly after the addition of E.coli and C. roseus (p value < 0.05).
Data wereanalyzed by using completely randomized ANOVA followed by post-hoc Duncan’s multiple range tests. Level of significance was set at 0.05.
Catharanthus roseus treatment affects the electrophysiological indices of isolated jejunum epithelium of goat presumably by closing the chloride channels and enhances the ions absorption across the jejunum epithelium. This may leads to efficient mineral utilization and better health of animals.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2837-T] (1).