Your search returned 66 results. Subscribe to this search

Not what you expected? Check for suggestions
|
1. A Study On The Taxonomy & Prevalence Of The Species Of Genus Ancylostoma & Effects On Natural Infections On Various

by Kamran Ashraf | Mubasher Saeed Mian | Asif Rabbani | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Ancylostomes (Hookworms) in dogs, taxonomy of the species of the Genus Ancylostoina and their effects on various blood parameters of the infected canines. For above purpose, samples were collected from dog hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences and different pet clinics in the city. Faecal and blood samples were stored in the refrigerator, of Parasitology Laboratory. Only those dogs which had high prevalerit in Ancylostomes were examined by different faecal examination methods, were selected to get mature ancylostomes, after killing the dogs. Preservation and staining of Ancylostimes was carried out by adopting the prescribed methods. The taxonomy of the species of the genus Ancylostoma was studied with the help of keys. The collective over all prevalence of different types of Ancylostomes recorded in stray and pet dogs was 28%. The species of Ancylostomes identified in our area were: Ancylostoina Caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma duodene1e. The percentage of the above mentioned species were 100%, 33% and 2.5% respectively. Blood of infected dogs were exposed to various haematological studies including Hb estimation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total serum protien level (TSP) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). liaematological examinations were made to compare the blood picture of healthy and infected dogs. For this purpose 20 blood samples each from healthy and infected dogs were examined. The results of haematological examination showed a significant decrease in haemoglobin estimation total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and total serum protien level, whereas a significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and differential leukocyte counts, like neutrophils, eosinophils and very little increase in basophils were also seen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0284,T] (1).

2. Study On The Prevalence Of Genus Trypanosoma And Effects Of Natural Infection On Various Blood Parameters In Dogs

by Afzal, M | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. M. sarwar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of genus trypanosome and the effects of natural infection on some blood parameters in dogs. For this purpose blood samples of 500 pet dogs (250 adult dogs and 250 pups) were examined at Dog Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. Giemsa staining procedure was admpted to stain glass slides having blood smears made from blood samples. Out of 500 ogs, 30 dog were found positive for tryponosomiasis. It revealed that only 6% prevalence of trypanosomiasis in dogs was estimated. In case of adult dogs out of 250 dogs, 13 dogs (5.2%) and in pups out of 250 dogs, 17 dog (6.2%) were found trypanosome infected. So pups were found more susceptible as compared to adult dogs. During research it was also noticed that mot of the dogs which were found positive being kept with horses. Then blood samples of 10 adult dogs and pups each which wre positive for trypanosomiasis and 10 adult dogs and pups each which were healty (as control) were further examined for the estimation of haemoglobin paced cell volum, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and total serum protein to check the effects of natural infection on mentioned blood parameters. The blood parameters of trypanosome infected and healthy adult dogs were compared and similarly blood parameters of trypanosome infected and healthy pups were compared. For this comparison unpaired 't' test was applied. By calculation it was found that haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total serum protein of trypanosome infected adult dogs and pups were significantly decreased as compared to healthy adult dogs and pups, respectively. But the erythrocytes sedimentation rate was found significlantly increased in case of trypanosome infected adult dogs and pups as compared to healty, adult dogs and pups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0564,T] (1).

3. A Study On The Effect Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis On Weight Gain And Haematological Parameters And Its Control In Qualis

by Abdul Razzaq | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to see the effects of the experimentally induced coccidiosis on weight gain and some blood parameters and its control with medication and vaccination. For this purpose, 150 day-old quail chicks were purchased from the local hatchery and were reared under control managemental and coccidiosis free condition upto the 42 days of experiment. A commercial coccidiostat free feed and drinking water were provided ci libitum throughout the experiment. The birds were divided in five separate groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E, each comprising of 30 birds. Group A was kept as a non-infected, non-medicated and non- vaccinated. The chicks of groups B, C, D and E, were administered 50,000 oocysts of. tenella directly into the crop at the 18 days of age, the chicks in group C were immunized against coccidiosis with a locally prepared vaccine on 3rd and 10th day of age, while those of group D with an imported coccidiosis vaccine (Coccivac) on 7th day of age. The chicks of group E were medicated with Salinomycin on the appearance of clinical symptoms and OPG of the infected birds. No oocysts were seen in the droppings of group A chicks, throughout the experiment, while group B, chicks had the highest OPG count after induction of infection, the highest peak being in the 3rd week post-infection. The highest mortality recorded in the infected B group and low in other infected C, D and E groups and highest mortality in 3rd week of induced infection in all infected groups. The birds in groups A and E attained highest weight gain as compared with groups B, C and D but the difference was non significant. The lowest Hb and TEC values were recorded in infected group B, while in other infected groups C, D and E both these values were also decreased but comparatively lesser than B group. Similarly, values of TLC were increased in infected group B as compared with other infected groups i.e. C, D and E and the difference was statistically significant. In case of differential leukocyte counts there were increased heterophil and monocytes values in group B, while decreased values lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils were recorded in other infected groups than the other i.e. C, D and E. The postmortem lesions observed were swollen intestines petechial haemorrhages on the wall of the intestine and dehydrated liver and lungs in infected carcasses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0590,T] (1).

4. Incidence Of Molluscan Intermediate Host And Faecal Diagnosis Of Bovine Schistosomiasis In And Around Lahore

by Naeem Irshad | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Khalid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: An investigation was undertaken to find out the prevalence of molluscan intermediate host, identification of the infected and non infected snails harbouring the intermediate stages of Schistosoma bovis and the role of coprological examination in the diagnosis of bovine schistosomiasis. Four places in and around Lahore were selected for the purpose of collection of snails, isolation of cercariae from these snails and collection of faecal samples for coprological examination Four hundred snails were collected, 100 from each of 3 ponds and a natural habitat. The Snails were collected fortnightly from October 1997 to December 1997. Prevalence of Lymneae acuminate, L. luteola, Indoplanorbis exustus, Physa acuta Melania tuberculata and Gyralaus was found to be 37.75%, 3.25%, 58%, 20.83%, 1.92% and 1.33%, respectively. Only Indoplanobis exustus was infected with intermediate stage of schistosomes, i.e. C. nudifurca and C. indice with total infection of 12792 (C nudifurca) and 7930 (C.indice) in Bansinager fish pond and Mustafabad drain Kahana, Distt. Lahore during the period from October, 1997 to December, 1997. Out of total 200 faecal samples, 32% were positive for Schistosoma infection with 3 species of genus. The positive cases showed S. bovis (100%), S. Japonicum (75%) and S. nasalis (7.8%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0593,T] (1).

5. Prevalence And Taxonomical Studies On Haemoparasites Of Equine And Their Effect On Blood Parameters During Winter

by Wasim Shehzad | Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Asim Aslam | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was conducted between November 1999 and January 2000 to find out the prevalence and to study the taxonomy of haemoparasites of horses. In addition, their effect on haematological parameters was also studied. A total of 40 out of 435 horses were found positive for haemoparasites. The prevalence recorded was 9.20%. Out of positive animals 22(5.06%) were positive for babesia species, of which 10 (45.45%) were infected with B. equi, 6 (27.27%) were infected with B. caballi and 6 (27.27%) were positive with mixed infection of B.qui and B. caballi. out of remaining positive cases, 14 (3.22%) were positive for T.evansi and 4 (0.92%) were positive for P.multipapillosa. Animals of group A, belonged to all the places of other groups. Animals of group B showed 10.52 % prevalence for haemoparasites, Babesia species was present in 6 (6.3l%) and T.envansi was present in 4 (4.2l%) animals respectively. Horses of group C showed prevalence as 14.28% haemoparasites out of which 6(8.57%) were positive for babesia species, and 4 (5.71%) positive for T.evansi . Similarly, animals in group D, indicated 11.11 % prevalence of haemoparasites including babesia species 3 (3.33%), T.evansi 3 (3.3%) and P.multipapillosa, 4 (4.44%) respectively. Ten out of 180 (5.56%) horses of group E were positive for haemoparasites and 7 (3.89%) were positive for Babesia spp. and 3 (1.66%) were positive for I.evansi. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin estimation, packed cell volume, neutrophils and basophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in lymphocytes and eosinophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses of group A. From the results of the present study it may be concluded that the horses belonging to the poor community need due attention for the control of haemoparasite diseases. Services must be extended to educate owners of these Tonga ponies for the control of haemoparasitic diseases and their vectors. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0648,T] (1).

6. Comparative Prevalence And Taxonomy Of Amphistomes Infecting Cattle And Buffaloes And Their Effect On Various Blood Components

by Fareed Ahmad | Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr.Asinm Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to determine the incidence and taxonomy of various gastric amphistomes in buffaloes and cattle. I addition the effect of these amphistomes on different haematological parameters (TEC, PCV, Hb, ESR and DLC) was carried out. For this purpose 151 compound stomachs (70 buffaloes and 81 cattle) of slaughtered ruminants were examined at Lahore abattoirs. The worms were collected and identified and taxonomical findings were recorded. In addition, faecal samples from the positive cases were also collected and examined to record the EPG count. The blood samples were also collected from the above mentioned animals to study the effect on different haematological parameters. The animals awaiting slaughter were selected irrespective of age and sex. A total of 70 buffaloes and 81 cattle had to be examined to obtain the 50 positive buffaloes and 50 positive cattle, infected with different species of amphistomes. The overall incidence of amphistomes was found to be 71.42% in buffaloes and 61.72% in cattle. The various species of gastric trêmatodes identified were as follow i.e. Paramphistomum cervi, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothvlax crumenifer and Carmverius spatiosus. The incidence of . cervi infection was higher both in buffaloes (54.48%) and in cattle (44.34%) as compared with the other species of the family Paramphistomatidae. The incidence of Cotvlophoron cotylophorum was found to be 50% in buffaloes and 39.5% in cattle. The incidence rate of Gastrothylax crumenifer and Carmyerius spatiosus was found to be 38.57% and 28.57% in buffaloes while 29.62% and 19.75% in cattle respectively. The EPG of affected buffaloes and cattle carcasses was also undertaken and the average EPG recorded was 44.67 eggs/gram in buffaloes and 39.78 eggs/gram in cattle. Haematological findings revealed that the Hb, PCV and TEC were decreased while the neutrophils and eosinophils were increased both in buffaloes and cattle suffering from amphistomiasis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0657,T] (1).

7. Study On The Comparative Efficacy Of Phenothiazine, Levamisole And Ivermetin Against Gastro Intestinal Nematodes In Horses

by Ashfaq Ullah Hashmi | Dr . Nisar Ahmad | Dr . Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The study was undertaken to find out the comparative efficacy of Phenothiazine, levamisole and Ivermectin against GIT nematodes in horses at Lahore. For the purpose one hundred horses irrespective 'of age, breed and sex were exam for the presence of various species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in horses. The coprological examination showed a positive percentage of 64% while 36 cases (36%) were found to be negative. The positive cases had mixed infestation of large and small strongyIids, Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi species. Forty naturally infested horses divided in four groups (A, B, C and D), were selected for the drug trial. The drugs used were Phenothiazine @ 55 mg/kg body weight, levamisole @ 7.5 mg/kg body weight (1 mI/2 kg b.w) Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight to the groups A, B, C and D, while the animals of group D acted as non-medicated control. The mean EPG count was carried out pre-medication and post medication of the said anthelmintics. Based upon EPG count, conducted on 3rd, 7th and 14th day for each anthelmintic; it was revealed that the mean EPG count of group A (Phenothiazine) showed 62.99, 82.67 and 95.27% reduction in ova output while the animals of group D (medicated with levamisole exhibited 53, 82 and 93% reduction in the said equines). The group C (medicated with Ivermectin showed reduction ofEPG as 79.83,95.16 and 100% on 3rd, 7th and 14th day post medication). From the results of this study it is concluded that Ivermectin was the most effective as compared to Phenothiazine and levamisole. Therefore, it is stressed that Ivermectin should be used in equines for the effective control of gastro intestinal nematodes. The drug is quite safe and without any adverse effects on these animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0682,T] (1).

8. Comparative Effecacy Of Different Prophylactic Measures Against Cocidiosis In Broilers

by Faisal Masood | Dr. kamran Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Muhamad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The study was designed to look into the comparative efficacy of different prophylactic measure against coccidiosis in broilers. One hundred and fifty, day old broiler chickens were reared under controlled conditions. They were equally divided into five groups, on day 1, i.e. A, B, C, D and E. Group 'A' was kept as uninfected, unmedicated control whereas all other test groups B, C, D and E were infected with 30,000 sporulated virulent oocysts. Group 'B' acted as infected and unmedicated control at day 20 and 30 of age. Group 'C' acted as infected and treated with Diasul-S at the rate of 1/2 gm/lit of drinking water for 3 days and group 'D' was treated with coxicure A-K at the rate of 1/4 gm/lit drinking water for 3days. The birds of group E received locally prepared Eimeria tenella vaccine (ETV) on day 3 and 10 of age of birds. No coccidiosis in the birds of group A and E was noted through out the experiment. The oocysts per gram (OPG) of faeces in group A and E was nil Members of group 'B' showed the highest counts than any other group. The birds of group 'C' and 'D' showed the moderate counts but towards the completion of experiment, the OPG counts gradually reduced in both groups. Weekly average weight gain record showed that average weight gain by the birds of group 'A' were the highest as compared with all other groups. The average weight gain of group E showed the second highest weight gains. The members of group 'B' showed the lowest weight gains while the members of groups 'C' and 'D' were ranked as 3rd and 4th in weight gains. The weight gains observed in groups A, C, D and E as compared with groups B were significantly higher (PO.O5) N. P.. In groups 'A', 'C' and 'E' the morbidity was nil. While in groups 'B' 30% morbidity was observed. Group 'D' showed low morbidity and one bird died due to coccidiosis. The best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in groups 'A' and followed by groups 'E', 'C' and 'D'. The feed conversion ratio in groups 'C' and 'D' was equally good. Worst feed conversion ratio was observed in group 'B'. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0740,T] (1).

9. Prevalence And Taxonomical Studies On Haemoparasites Of Equine And Their Effect On Blood Parameters During Winter Season

by Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was conducted between November 1999 and January 2000 to find out the prevalence and to study the taxonomy of haemoparasites of horses. In addition, their effect on haematological parameters was also studied. A total of 40 out of 435 horses were found positive for haemoparasites. The prevalence recorded was 9.20%. Out of positive animals 22(5.O6%) were positive for babesia species, of which 10 (45.45%) were infected with 6 (27.27%) were infected with B.caballi and 6 (27.27%) were positive with mixed infection of and B caballi out of remaining positive cases, 14 (3 22%) were positive for T.evansi and 4 (0.92%) were positive for P.multipapillosa. Animals of group A, belonged to all the places of other groups. Animals of group B showed 10.52 % prevalence for haemoparasites, Babesia species was present in 6 (6.31%) and T.evansi was present in 4 (4.21%) animals respectively. Horses of group C showed prevalence as 14.28% haemoparasites out of which 6(8.57%) were positive for babesia species, and 4 (5.7l%) positive for T.evansi. Similarly, animals in group D, indicated 11.11 % prevalence of haemoparasites including babesia species 3 (3.33%), T.evansi 3 (3.3%) and P.multipapiltosa, 4 (4.44%) respectively. Ten out of 180 (5.56%) horses of group E were positive for haemoparasites and 7 (3.89%) were positive for Babesia spp. and 3 (1.66%) were positive for T.evansi. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin estimation, packed cell volume, neutrophils and basophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in lymphocytes and eosinophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses of group A From the results of the present study it may be concluded that the horses belonging to the poor community need due attention for the control of haemoparasite diseases. Services must be extended to educate owners of these Tonga ponies for the control of haemoparasitic diseases and their vectors. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0767,T] (1).

10. Prevalence Of Toxocariasis In Dogs And Its Treatment With Nigella Sativa Saussurea Lappa And Ivermectin

by Adnan Mushtaq | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0773,T] (1).

11. Prevalence And Treatment Trials Against Gastrodiscus Infestation And Its Effect On Various Blood Components In Horses

by Muhammad Ali | Prof. Dr. khalid pervez | Dr. kamran ashraf | Dr. muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was conducted to work out the prevalence of gastrodiscus infection in Lahore area and to check the comparative efficacy of one patent (Albandazole) and two Herbal Drugs i.e. Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Nigella Sativa (Kalonji) against Gastrodiscus infection in Horses and its effect on various blood components including Hb, TLC, and DLC the purpose of this experiment was tomention extensive Pharmacological Experimentation on indigenous drug which result in the discovery of some potent Anthelmintic Drugs which would be a break through in limiting Gastrodiscus infection in horses. Furthermore, it could contribute to the improvement of our economy by making an industrial use of these resources and by saving foreign exchange via exporting these medicines abroad. In addition to these, studies were expected to contribute to the rationalization of Eastern / Unani system of Medicine, practiced by HKIMS and SIANAS. To accomplish the study six hundred faecal samples of horses were collected and coprologically examined by fresh smear method to determine 40 naturally infected horses by Gastrodiscus infection. The 40 infected animals were divided into four groups i.e. group A, group B, group C, and group D comprising 10 animals. Each groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Kalonji, respectively were as group D was control and remain untreated. The prevalence of Gastrodiscus infection at Lahore areas was found to be 6.6%. The Egg per gram (EPG) counts was estimated by using Macmaster technique at zero day (pre-medication), 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day (post-medication). Groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Neem and Kalonji seeds dose rate of 10ml/10kg body weight, 500 mg/kg body weight and 1gm/kg body weight, respectively. After medication at 3rd, 7th and 10th day EPG count was measured. It was observed that at 3rd day, Albandazole Neem and Kalonji showed the efficacy 50%, 4769% and 9.09% respectively. At 7th day, the efficacy of albandazole neem and kalonji was found to be 66.66%, 53.84%, 20% respectively. At 10th day, the efficacy of albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 95%, 60% and 27.27, respectively. The average efficacy of Albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 70.5%, 53.6% and 18.78%, respectively. Hence, Albandazole, and Neem showed better results as compared to Kalonji. It was concluded that Albandazole and Neem were safe against Gastrodiscus in Horses. HAEMATOLOGY In the present study forty blood samples from naturally infected horses with different intensities of infection were examined for haematological studies to know the changes in the blood picture due to Gastrodiscus. The blood samples were collected premedication i.e. on Zero day and then on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post-medication. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected animals on Zero day. The normal haemoglobin value was 10.5 to 15.5 g/dl. This value became near to normal on 7th day post-medication and went on increasing upto 10th day as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The study regarding the total leukocytic count concluded a mild increase values of TLC, but after treatment these values decrease to normal level as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The haematological finding of the present study are in complete accordance with the results of Chaudhry et al., (1991) and Peal et al. (1989). The reported that there was decrease in hemoglobin values of infected animals as compared to healthy animals. It is tempting to speculate that the decrease in haematological values may be due to the blood sucking habit of the parasite. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0851,T] (1).

12. Identification And Chemotherapy Of Ectoparasites Of Camels (Camel Us Dromedarius) In Dera Ghazi Khan

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. H. A. Hashmi | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Syed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project has been designed for identification and chemotherapy of ecto-parasites of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different areas of Dera-Ghazi-Khan. For this purpose 300 camels were examined during the period October to November 2004. Out of 300 camels 109(36.3%) were found infested with ecto-parasites. Two types of ectoparasites were found to be active during those days. Sixty three camels were infested with ticks. After collection these ticks were mounted for identification, with the help of their morphological characters. The only tick found to be identified was Hyalomma dromedarii and the tick infestation was found to be 21% in those areas during October-November 2004. Similarly, 85 suspected camels were examined by skin scraping in the District Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Dera-Ghazi-Khan, for identification of mites 46 camels weie found to be infested with mange mites and the mange mites infestation was 15.3%. The species of mites identified was Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli. For chemotherapeutic trails 60 positive ecto-parasitic camels were divided into 3 groups i.e. A, B and C, 20 camels in each group. For further procedures these groups were divided into sub-groups i.e. A (Al + A2), B (Bi + B2) and C (Cl + C2) where each sub-group contained 10 animals (camels). Al, Bi and Cl were infested with mites and A2, B2 and C2 with ticks. The group A was treated with Ivermectin (Baymec; Bayer) at dose rate of 1 m1150 kg body weight sub/cut. Similarly the group B was treated with Neguvon (0.15%) solution with spray machine. Where the group C acted as infected, non-medicated control group. The efficacy of Baymec on 7th day was 75% and on 14th day was 80%. But the efficacy of Neguvon (0.15% solution) on 7th day was 65% and on 14th day was 75%. The camels of group C were not treated and acted as control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0895,T] (1).

13. Occurrence And Importance Of Enteric Protozoan Infections On Different Goat Farms In District Swat

by Farooq Shah | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmed hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: A study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence and importance of enteric protozoa in goat population. A total of 225 faecal samples were collected from fifteen different goat farms in district Swat. These samples were collected from three age groups i.e Group I (day 1 to 6 months), Group II (7 - 12 months) and Group III (over one year). These samples were processed by Direct Smear method, Sheather's Flotation and Zinc Sulphate Flotation technique for the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Eimeria cysts and oocysts. Overall prevalence of Eimeria 37.77%, Giardia 12.44% and Cryptosporidium 6.22% was recorded. Age related prevalence showed highest the number of Eimeria 53.33%, Giardia 18.66% and Cryptosporidium 8% in Group I which comprised animals of I day to 6 month. Among 225 faecal samples 73, were collected from diarrhoeic and 152 from non diarrhoeic animals. The infection rates were higher in diarrhoeic animals, Eimeria 45.22%, Giardia 21.9% and Cryptosporidium 10.99% than non diarrhoeic animal. 34.6% faecal samples were found positive for other parasites such as Haemonchus 10.22%, Trichostrongylus 8%, Trichuris 20%, Strongyloids 6.6%. A large number of faecal samples (58.66%) were found positive for parasitic infections. Results of this study indicated widespread prevalence of' parasitic diseases in goat population and especially Eimeria and Giardia are the predominant protozoan parasites Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0897,T] (1).

14. Occurrence And Importance Of Enteric Protozoan Infections On Different Sheep Farms In District Swat

by Habib Ali | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of various enteric protozoan infections in sheep. A total of 225 fresh faecal samples were collected from different sheep farms in District Swat N.W.F.P. These animals belonged to three different age groups i.e. Group I (up to 6 months of age), Group II (7-12 months of age) and Group III (above 1 year of age). Faecal samples were processed for the detection of Eimeria spp. oocysts, Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts and other parasites by three different techniques. By Direct smear method, Sheather,s sugar flotation and zinc sulphate flotation technique. A total of faecal samples found positive for Eimeria oocysts 63 (28%), Giardia cysts 35 (15.55%), Cryptosporidium oocysts 16 (7.11%) and mixed parasitic infection 58 (25.77%). Data recorded for various protozoan infections indicated that prevalence rate in Group-I (Eimeria 37.33%, Giardia 22.66% and Cryptosporidium 12%) was higher than the Group-II (Eimeria 28%, Giardia 16% and Cryptosporidium 3%) and Group-III ( Eimeria 18.66%, Giardia 8% and Cryptosporidium 5.33%). Prevalence rate was also higher in diarrhoeic animals (Eimeria 35.71%, Giardia 23.80% and Cryptosporidium 16.66%) than the non diarrhoeic animals (Eimeria 26.22%, Giardia 13.66% and cryptosporidium 4.91%). A large number of faecal samples (25.77%) were found positive for various other parasitic infections. No significant difference was noted in males and females. Results of this study indicated wide spread prevalence of parasitic diseases in sheep population and mostly young animals were found to be infected by different protozoan parasites. It can be concluded that enteric protozoan infections in sheep can be controlled through improved managemental practices, hygienic measures and avoidance of overcrowding the animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0901,T] (1).

15. Application Of Different Control Measures Against Argas Persicus

by Qaiser Siddique | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: To final out the comparative efficacy of different control measures against Argas persicus, In-Vitro and In-Vivo studies were carried out for the in-Vitro studies three thousand soft ticks Argas Persicus at different stages of their development were used in the experiment. The ticks were divided in to 5 groups A, B, C, D and E having 600 ticks in each group. The ticks of each group (600) were further divided in to three replicates having 200 ticks in each. The ticks were maintained in small plastic boxes containing tick rearing medium at a controlled temperature of 25 Co and 60% relative humidity. The 5 treatments are applied with a small (1 liter) hand held sprayer at the rate of 20ml per box 345 cm2 surface area. The first application was made after 24 hours and repeated twice at 48 hours intervals. On day 0,3,5,7 and 10, the ticks were separated from the manure by immersing the manure in water and retrieved the ticks with the help of sieve. The ticks relating to each group were counted and the counts of each group were compared. The reduction in the counts in test groups as compared to control group A indicated the efficacy of the treatment. It was noticed by the comparative mortality of the ticks in the replicates of different groups that in mortality of ticks in Group A occurred as 6.17% in B as 67.67% in C as 70.67% , in D as 100% and in E as 71.83%. The findings of the In Vitro experiment showed that the efficacy of Tiekide was 100% and in ranking order was placed at No. 1 amongst the test groups and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) as compared to B, C and E groups. However the findings of Groups B, C and E were not significant amongst each other (P>0.05). For the In-Vivo studies, the experiment was conducted on a layer farm infested with Argus persicus. A total of 100 layers infested with Argas persicus were reared under experimental conditions on particular farm. One hundred infested birds were divided into 5 groups i.e A,B,C,D and E, each group consisting of 20 birds. The ticks of all members of the groups were counted on day 0,3,5,7 and 10. Group A acted as infested and non treated, B was treated by application of EM1 under the infested wings, C was applied EM5, D was applied Tiekide (Homoeopathic formula) under the wings the medicine was also orally administered @ 2 drops in 1 ml water and members of Group E were applied 1% solution of Ivomec (Ivermectin). The results indicated that the reduction in the mean tick counts was 95.74% in Group D which was placed at No. I, in descending order the mean tick counts reduced by 70.97% in Group E, 68.59% in Group C, 67.63% in Group B and only 1.93% in control Group A. The Tiekide was claimed to be a drug of choice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0932,T] (1).

16. A Study On The Occurrence Of Enteric Protozoa Of Pet Dogs

by Dr. Khalid Qasir | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asim Khalid | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This study was designed to record the occurrence of enteric protozoan parasites of pet dogs. A total of 150 faecal samples of pet dogs of different age, breed and sex were collected. These dogs were equally divided into three age groups i.e. group A (< 6 months of age), group B (> 6 months and < 1 year of age) and group C (> 1 year of age). These faecal samples were examined by direct smear method, Sheather's sugar flotation technique and zinc sulfate flotation technique. Information regarding the clinical status of animals, age, breed and faecal consistency were also recorded. The overall prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites was 35.3 percent. Prevalence of various species belonging to Genera Giardia, Isospora, Cryptosporidium Entamoeba and Balantidium was 18.66, 14.66, 5.33, 1.33 and 1.33 percent. Prevalence of enteric protozoan was higher (44%) in pet dogs of group A, followed by 36.0 and 26.0 percent in group B and group C, respectively. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal protozoan in domestic dogs passing normal faeces was 33.65% and passing abnormal faeces was 39.13%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0935,T] (1).

17. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Warble Fly Infectation In Buffaloes In District Dera Ghazi Khan

by Mahboob Akbar | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Wasim | Dr.M.Mazhar Ayaz Khosa | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The present studies were conducted on the prevalence and chemotherapy of hypodermosis in cattle and buffaloes in D.G. Khan and Rajanpur districts of Punjab (Pakistan). Studies included assessment of prevalence of hypodermosis in the Veterinary hospital, houses holds, study fields and Livestock farms, the second part of the studies comprised of chemotherapy of hypodermosis. The prevalence of hypodermosis in cattle examined in Veterinary hospital, house holds, study fields and livestock farms in D.G. Khan and Rajanpur districts were recorded as 18.75%, 15.25% and in buffaloes the prevalence were recorded as 6.25% and 6.00%. Chemotherapeutic trial of two insecticidal drugs Viz Ivermectin (1%) at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight subcutaneous injection and Neguvon (Trichlorophon) at a dose rate of 5 gram in one litre water topical application was carried out to evaluate their efficacy against hypodermosis in cattle and buffaloes. Ivermectin was found to be 100% and Neguvon 90%( Trichlorophon) effective for the control of hypodermosis. During the studies the economic losses were also studies and it has found that 50% loss to the local hide merchants in the area. Investigations on the estimation of economic losses based on the infested hides were carried out in Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur Districts. Twenty hide merchants in different areas were interrogated to find out the prices of warbled and warble-free hides. This price index was used to estimate the economic losses in terms of rupees. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0942,T] (1).

18. Different Control Measures Againts Musca Domestica Associated With Poultry Farms

by Muhammad Shoaib | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0959,T] (1).

19. Seropervalance Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection In Indigenous Poultry And Their Dressers

by Kashif Shahzad Hashmi | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Kamran Ashraf (Assistant | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: In present study a total of 100 serum samples from indigenous poultry and the dressers were analysed for determination of Toxoplasma specific anti-bodies. Under aseptic measures 1-2m1 of blood was withdrawn by veinpuncture and serum was separated. All the serum samples were analyzed for specific IgG anti Toxoplasma ant-bodies using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT). Positive reaction was visualized by the naked eyes or magnifying hand lens. Commercially available Toxoplasma Latex test kit was used to determine the serum antibodies. Results were interpretated, data obtained was analyzed statistically by calculating the percent sero-positivity of Toxoplasma gondii in indigenous poultry. Toxoplasma is one of the most common zoonosis worldwide.It is caused by toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular parasite that attacks warm blooded animals,birds including humanbiengs.Felines are the definite hosts where the parasite carries out its sexual cycle resulting in oocysts that are taken to the environment by the feces.Man birds and animals acquire the infection by ingesting oocysts that contaminate water,foodstuff, and pasture in that environment. In the present study the overall seroprevalance of toxoplasma gondii infection in indigenous poultry and dressers are 12% respectively by using Latex agglutination test. In indigenous poultry seroprevalance of toxoplasma gondii was 10% out of 100 hens examined, (3) were seropositive at screening dilution of 1:256 suggesting possible recent contact. (2) were seropositive at 1:128 which was due to acquired or evolving immunity, while (1) were seropositive at screening dilution at 1:16 indicating residual or non specific immunity. Toxoplasma gondii infection is increased with age because of constant exposure to contaminated environment and increased contact with cats. In dressers (butchers) seroprevalance was 12% out of 50.Two were seropositive at screening dilution of 1:256 suggesting possible recent contacting.Two were seropositive at 1:128 which was due to acquired or evolving immunity,whike two were seropositve at screening dilution at 1:16 indicating residual or non specific immunity. Due to increase prevalence of toxoplasmosis in humans,birds and animals daby day it is very necessary that public should be aware about the zoonotic importance of this disease and preventive measures to be adopted. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0978,T] (1).

20. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Various Nematodal Infection In Local And Imported Broiler Japanese Quail Reared At Floor and Cage System

by Umer Farhan | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Kamran Ashraf | Zafar Iqbal Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Quail (Cotumix coturnix) came from Japan where they have selected for their singing ability. During the last 150 years, they have periodically been released in several sites as potential game birds but without success since they migrate away from the release point (Williams, 2000). The present study was carried out at Avian Research Institute, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore and postgraduate laboratory UVAS, Lahore. To record the prevalence of various nematodes of Coturnix coturnix, a total of 400 faecal samples were collected (200 reared at floor and 200 in cages) under different managemental conditions. Faecal samples were examined by three different tecimiques i.e. Direct smear, Flotation and Mc Master Egg counting technique. Out of 200 samples 67 (33.5%) quails were positive in cage system and 75 (37.5%) were positive on floor system. Overall prevalence in both the systems of management was 142 (35.5%). Chemotherapeutic trails were conducted by using Tetramisole and Piprazine. For this purpose a total of 45 birds from the 142 positive birds were selected. These were randomly divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C having 15 birds in each group. Birds in group A and B treated with tetramisole and piperazine at their recommended dose rate respectively wherease birs in group C were not given any treatment. The efficacy of tetramoisole and piperazine was 97.54% and 82.68% respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1021,T] (1).

21. Prevalence & Chemotharpy Of Cestodal Infestation In Three Local & Imported Stocksof Japanese Quail Atpre Peak,

by Ghulam Yaseen | Kamran Ashraf | Azhar Maqbool | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: A total of 480 matured quail belonging to 4 inbreed stocks (one imported and three local three age groups and in each there were live replicates each having three females and on male were included in these studies. Faecal samples were collected from each replicate in a clean polythin bag at Avian Research Institute, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. The prevalence of cestodes in breeder quail was recorded during their production cycle. Five birds from each group were slaughtered and eviscerated to study the lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Out of 480 faecal samples 149 (34.58%) were positive for cestodes infection among positive cases Raillietina tetragona was found in 13 3(27.7%) faecal samples followed by Raillietina cesticillus 72(15%), Raii7ietina echinobothrida 111(23. 12%), Cotugnia digonopora 97(20.2%), Choanotaenia inJindibulum 79(16.45%) whereas the lowest 29(6.04%) pravelancve of Amoebotaen/ci sphenoids. The age wise incidence of parasites in group "I" at 6thi weeks of age was 20%. at I 8° weeks of age was 32.5% and at 36th weeks of age was 145%, in group "LI" at 6 weeks of age was 15%, at l8 weeks of age was 37.5% and at 36thi weeks of age was 42.5%. in group "L2 at 6thi weeks of age was 22.5%, at 18° weeks of age was 30%) and at 36th weeks of age was 35% and in group "L3" at 6° weeks of age was 22.5%, at 18° weeks of age was 32.5% and at 36th weeks of age was 37.5. Chemotherapeutic trails were carried out by using 80 brids (20 negative and 60 postive0 Sixty birds were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C. Birds in group A and B were treated with albendazole and fenbendazole at their recommended dos rate. Birds in groups C and D were kept as positive and negative control. Efficacy of the drugs as calculated on the basis of reduction in faecal egg count. From the result it was reported that efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole was 96.6 85.39 preent repsetively. No side effets were reported with both of these drugs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1028,T] (1).

22. Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii From Water And Matrices (Soil,Fruits &

by Adeela Ajmal | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Kamran ashraf | Dr.Aftab ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan disease capable of infecting a variety of animal species. Felids, both domestic and wild, are capable of serving as definitive hosts, shedding T.gondii oocysts in their faeces. People acquire toxoplasmosis posnatally by ingesting T.gondii oocysts from contaminated environments or by consuming T.gondii tissue cysts in inadequately meat products, raw meat containing tissue cysts or by ingestion of resistant oocysts from environmental matrices (soil, water, fruits and vegetables). However, the impact of oocysts in toxoplasmosis epidemiology needs to be specified because they are suspected to be associated with T.gondii seroprevalence in some emerging outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans from soil or water. They are probably responsible for a significant part of infections in animals that could be later consumed by humans. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental samples is great challenge as this coccidian parasite can be responsible for severe infections in humans and animals via ingestion of a single oocyst from contaminated water, soil, fruits or vegetables. The present proposed study was designed to develop methods for the detection of oocysts from Water, soil, food and parks environment. The results of recovery test showed that it was possible to detect Tooplasma gondii parasite from water samples collected from various sources i e, drinking water from muncipility, lakes, pools, various reservoirs around farms and from tube wells. From the results ,The highest (13%) prevalence was reported from water around farms followed by lakes & pools (9%) then water reservoirs (7%) whereas the lowest from drinking water & tubewells i e 6 & 6 percent respectively. A total of 250 samples of fruits and vegetables were collected for detection of T. gondii . From the results, it was noted that overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in vegetables i e 5.6 % than fruits (4 %). A total of 250 soil samples were collected from urban and rural areas. Of these 125 were from urban areas and 125 from rural areas. From the table-3 it was shown that the highest prevalence of T. gondii infection was noted in gardens and back yards of homes and gardens i e 20 & 20 % respectively. In these places cats often defecate and become a source of infection. Then followed by public enclosures where infection was 14.3%. The lowest i e 13.3% infection was noted at homes of urban areas. T. gondii infection in rural areas indicated that It was highest (20% ) in home back yards followed by homes (16.7%) then public enclosure (14.5%) whereas the lowest (13.3%) at gardens of rural areas. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1161,T] (1).

23. Antigenic Relatedness Of Caecal Eimeria Species In Broilers By Sds-Page

by Muhammad Tayyub | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is caused by various species of Eimeria. Avian coccidiosis is divided in two types (intestinal and caecal). Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix cause caecal eimeriosis.E.tenella is the most pathogenic species and its infection is causing huge economic losses to poultry industry world wide. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Kasur and Sheikhupura). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. The prevalence of coccidiosis was higher (65.25%) in both districts. Coccidiosis was found more prevalent in district Kasur (66.5%) as compared to Sheikhupura (63%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional methods like Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation.. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 67.5% and 12.25% respectively in 400 suspected caecal samples. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Kasur (67.5%) as compared to district Sheikhupura (63%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Kasur (13%) than district Sheikhupura (11.5%). Protein profiling of all E. tenella strains was performed to check antigenic related ness between different isolates of E.tenella. More tan ninety percent isolates were antigenically identical which showed that E.tenella isolates in both districts were antigenically related. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1239,T] (1).

24. Comparative Efficiency Of Routine Identification Methods With Molecular Technique (Pcr) For Detection Of Caecal Eimeria Species in Broilers

by Muhammad Yasir | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Caecl coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix and poultry industry is facing huge economic losses due to this infection world wide. Eimeria tenella is the most common cause of caecal coccidiosis but E. necatrix is also isolated rarely. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Lahore and Gujranwala). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. Prevalence of coccidiosis was found 68%. It was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to Lahore (64.5%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional (Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation) and molecular technique (PCR). Polymerase chain reaction was found the most sensitive ands accurate technique for species identification as compared to all conventional techniques. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 68% and 12.5% respectively. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to district Lahore (64.5%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Gujranwala (13.5%) than district Lahore (11.5%). The difference in percent prevalence of coccidiosis and species of Eimeria may be due to difference in farm management, farming type, biosecurity measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1274,T] (1).

25. Git Helminthiasis Indigenous And Commercial Layers In District Quetta.Balouchistan

by Rizwan ullah hashmi | Dr. Khalid saeed | Dr. kamran ashraf | Dr. muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The study was conducted to identify and compare the extent of gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous poultry and commercial layers. For this purpose, 200 gut samples (100 each from indigenous and commercial layers) were collected from different sources of Quetta district. All the material was brought to disease investigation lab, Quetta, for detailed postmortem and coprological examination. The overall incidence of nematodes in indigenous chickens and commercial layers was 87% and 08% respectively. Three species of nematodes were recovered from both indigenous chickens and commercial layers. Ascaridia galli was the most common specie of nematodes recovered from small intestine while Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti were isolated from the caeca of the sampled birds. The incidence of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti was 75%, 25% and 16% in indigenous chickens and 06%, 04% and 03% in commercial layers respectively. The overall incidence of cestodes was lower than those of the nematodes. It was found to be 78% in indigenous chickens and 05% in commercial layers respectively. Five species of cestodes recorded from the gastrointestinal tract of indigenous chicken and were Raillietina tetragona (60%), Raillietina echinobothrida (21%), Raillietina cesticillus (14%), Cotugnia digonopora (29%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (13%). On the other hand, following two species of cestodes were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of commercial layers and included Raillietina tetragona (04%), and Choanotaenia infundibulum (02%). Older birds have higher prevalence as compared with younger birds in indigenous and commercial layers. Slightly higher infection rates were recorded in females (51.7%) as compared with males (48.2%). On coprological examination, a greater proportion of birds were found infected with various helminthes and infection rate in indigenous birds was 66% as compared with commercial layers which was 3%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1300,T] (1).

26. Prevalence Of Trichomonas Foetus In Large Ruminants Of District Hafiizabad

by Amjad Atta Bhatti | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Trichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a protozoan parasite of reproductive tract of large ruminants and causes abortion. This organism is found in males and females associated with varied pathology and clinical symptom. Disease has venereal transmission and male remain infected throughout the life. Pakistan is a developing country and artificial insemination facility is not available to all farmers and some are reluctant to avail it. This study was designed to check the prevalence of T. foetus in large animals in district Hafizabad. One hundred and fifty preputial and vaginal samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes 75 each. These samples were from 100 females and 50 males. Vaginal mucus from females was thoroughly examined for T. foetus in direct smear and in smear stained by Giemsa stain. Male samples were subjected to examination by direct smear, centrifugation and stained smear performed from sediments for detection of T. foetus. Overall prevalence of T. foetus was 12.0% (18/150) in sampled animals and species wise T. foetus infection was 8% (6/75) for cattle and 16% (12/75) for buffalos. Sex related prevalence of T. foetus in cows is 6% (3/50) and in buffaloes was 14% (7/50). Infection was more common in buffalo bulls 20% (5/25) as compared with cow bulls 12% (3/25). There was no difference in diagnosis of T. foetus in females by direct smear or by examination of stained smears. Whereas stained smears prepared from sediments of preputial washings were more sensitive in diagnosing of T. foetus infection as compared with direct smear method. Study also indicated that infection was exclusively seen in animals that were involved in natural breeding. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1438,T] (1).

27. Mosquitocidal Efficacy Of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae And Its Combined Therapy

by Aalia Riaz | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1489,T] (1).

28. Prevalance Of Endoparasites In Common Carnivorous Fish In Lahore.

by Imtiaz Aziz | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Due to intensification of fish culture practices, there is more likely the occurrence of various diseases in general and parasitic in specific in fish. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the prevalence of various parasites in local fish especially fishes of fresh water. Therefore, the present study has been planned to investigate the prevalence of various parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and liver of Wallago attu(Malee) ,Rita rita (Khaga), Channa marulius(Saul) and Mystus seenghala(Seenghari). Therefore, it was hypothesized that there is a variation in the occurrence of various endoparasites in various species of fish. A total fifty gut samples from each of breed of fish (Wallago attu (Malee),Rita rita (Khaga), Channa marulius(Saul) and Mystus seenghala(Seenghari) were collected from various fish markets located in Lahore City like Bhatti Gate, Samnabad, Tollinton Market, and were analyzed to determine the prevalence of various endoparasites in the intestine. The gut samples were collected in 0.9% physiological saline and were preserved in 4% formalin. The recovered parasites were fixed and identified on the basis of morphology to calculate the prevalence rate. The data thus collected was analyzed using a Pearson's chi-square. Results showed that out of 65 fish samples collected from Tollinton market that included Rita rita (n = 20), Wallago attu (n = 15), Channa marulius (n = 15) and Mystus seenghala (n = 15), 7 (10.76%) samples of gut harbored various parasites. Similarly, the prevalence rate of parasites in two other localities were 17.39% in Bhatti-gate fish market and 18.18% in Samanabad Fish market. The overall prevalence rate was found to be 15.5%. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence rate when data was assorted on the basis of localities. Both single and mixed infections were noted in fishes collected from all three localities and all four species of fresh water fish. The various parasites revocered from the intestines of the gut from all species included P. heteropneustus Cucullanus sp., Cucullanus sp., Phyllodistomum sp. and R. magna. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1499,T] (1).

29. Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Haematiology And Therapy Of Toxocariasi In Dogs And Humans.

by Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1505,T] (1).

30. A Study On Occurrence Of Round Worm Infection And Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal And Conventional Drugs Against The Natural intestinal Nematodiosis in Cats

by Bushra Ejaz | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr.Syed Saleem | Prof.Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The study was conducted to check the intestinal nematodes in cats and comparative efficacy of herbal and convention drugs against intestinal nematodiosis. Therapeutic trials were conducting by using three herbal drugs Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, 77 Citrullus colocynthis and one conventional drug i.e. Mebendazole (Vermox). A total of 400 samples of cats were examined for intestinal nematodiosis of these 77.50 % were found positive for intestinal nematodiosis .The parasites found in order of frequencies were Toxocara cati (93.54%), Toxascaris leonine( 75.80%) and Ancylostoma tubaeforme (48.38 %). . Over all high prevalence was recorded in cats less than one year of age than above one year. There was no difference in prevalence of parasitism between males and females. Result of chemotherapeutic trials showed that among herbal drugs Nigella sativa was found to be very effictive 95.94%, followed by Citrullus colocynthis (93.63%) and then Punica granatum (85.90%). Vermox showed 100 % efficacy against intestinal nematodes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1569,T] (1).

31. Vectorial Role Of Anopheles Subpictus By Using Poymerase Chain Reaction

by Shumaila Kausar | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Haroon Akber.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Vector-borne diseases are among the major causes of illness, death and economic losses particularly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mosquitoes are most important single group of insects, transmitting wide range of human diseases like malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis and several other infectious diseases. Malaria is a major global public health problem. Several Anopheline species are prevalent in Pakistan among which Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies are confirmed vector of Plasmodium. An. subpictus is a confirmed secondary vector of malaria in many countries. A wide range of this species is also distributed in Pakistan. The aim of the present study was to determine the vectorial role of An. subpictus in the transmission of malaria in Pakistan through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After species identification, the mosquitoes were examined microscopically and were found negative for the presence of human Plasmodium sporozoites. The DNA extracted from An. subpictus was subjected to PCR but no Plasmodium specific amplification was observed. Keeping in view the sample size, it was concluded that further study is required with even large sample size before declaring that An. subpictus is not a vector of Plasmodium in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1811,T] (1).

32. Evaluation Of Insecticide Resistance And Biochemical Mechanisms In Anopheles Subpictus In District Kasur, Pakistan

by Huma Naeem | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Imran Rashid | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Mosquito are major vectors, considering the havoc they play by transmitting many diseases which have greatly affected human beings worldwide. The ecological, socioeconomic conditions of different regions and the emergence of insecticide resistance in main vectors are strongly responsible for determining the geographical distributions and incidence of vector-borne diseases. Among mosquitoes, Anopheles species are responsible for transmission of filariasis, Japanese encephalitis virus and malaria in subtropical region. An. subpictus is a confirmed vector in many countries of South and Southeast Asia. The present study was designed due to limited earlier records regarding insecticide susceptibility status of An. subpictus from district Kasur, Punjab. During the first half of the study, three insecticides i.e. DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% and permethrin 0.75% were testing by using WHO susceptibility bioassay. A total approximately (n=1000) different types of mosquitoes were caught from district Kasur. Mosquitoes belonging to three genra Anopheles, Culex and Aedes were found in our collection. After species identification, An. subpictus was separated for further processing. It was highly abundant species among Anophelines species captured. Field collected adult blood fed females of An. subpictus was reared in the insectary for F1 generation. Two to three days old non engorged adults of An. subpictus were evaluated by using WHO susceptibility bioassays. Both male and female mosquitoes have shown resistance against all three insecticides tested. Probit analysis was used to check the time-response values. Percentage mortalities were recorded against DDT, deltamethrin and permethrin (mortality range 29.47 %-76.28 %.) with higher KT50 and KT95 values.Second half of the study was undertaken to quantify detoxifying enzymes in An. subpictus following WHO biochmical assays. Biochemical analysis of detoxifying enzymes in An. subpictus has revealed that there is significant alteration/elevation of metabolic enzymes when compared with the lab strain might be a contributing factor in conferring insecticides resistance. Elevated levels of GST (0.469 ± 0.115), MFOs (11.665 ± 4.165), ? esterases (1.5808 ± 0.7657) and ? esterase (3.9682 ± 2.311) were detected in An. subpictus. There was a significant high alteration of AChE enzyme activity detected in this species with 57.52% (± 9.234) mean percentage propoxur inhibition. These enzymes are implicated in the metabolism of DDT, pyrethroids and carbamate insecticides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1823,T] (1).

33. Benzimedazole Resistnace Against Haemonchus Contortus Through Evaluating B Tubulin Gene By Using Molecular Technique

by Abdullah Saghir Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Kamran ashraf | Dr.Jawaria ali | Dr.Muhammad imran rashid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1890,T] (1).

34. Identification Of Local Strain Of Toxoplasma Gondii Through Genotyping

by Saher Islam | Dr. Wasim shehzad | Mr..Akhtar ali | Prof. Dr Kamran ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1915,T] (1).

35. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Trichostrongyloids In Camels In Charsada

by Muhammad Qasim | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2131,T] (1).

36. Dna- Based Methodology For The Identification Of Git Haemonchus Placci From Cattle Hosts

by Qasim Ali | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Imran Rashid | Dr. Nauman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2154,T] (1).

37. Epidemiology Zoonotic Potential Haematology Amd Chemotherapy Of Sarcoptic Mange In Camel In Punjab

by Muhammad Irfan Zahid (2011-VA-800 | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr.Shazia Anjum | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: A camel is a very hardy ruminant animal, which can survive under harsh climatic conditions very effectively by utilizing the marginal areas with excellent capabilities and produce under such conditions (Hjort and Hussein, 1986; Abbas and Tilley, 1990). Camel is an important animal as it is well adopted in unique manners in the hot, arid and semi-arid environments (Schwartz, 1992). It can survive without water and food for many days and this unique ability of camel makes it an ideal for such harsh conditions for which it is also commonly known as “The Desert Ship”. In spite of the fact that camel is an important member of a group of animals which produces food for human consumption in the shape of milk and meat, yet it is the most neglected one in the field of scientific research. It may be due to the fact that camel belongs to such areas of the world which are arid, semi-arid or rain fed in nature, having harsh climatic conditions, where poor nutrition and poor management are the major issues (Sohail, 1983). It is an established fact that diseases originating from parasites lead to the main health hazard issues in animals. These parasites survive at the expense of the host animals causing lot of health problems, like skin irritation, anemia leading to weakness and debility. Some of the parasites have zoonotic importance and may become a source for the transfer of many contagious diseases like scabies to the human beings (Dominguez et al. 1978). McClain et al. 2009, observed the scabies as a major health problem globally both for humans and animal population. Sarcoptes scabiei is an ectoparasite which is a cause of scabies, a skin problem in the human beings worldwide and the similar species of mites do also produce a similar type of disease in a large variety of wild and domesticated mammals (Pence and Ueckermann, 2002; Fitzgerald et al. 2004). Fain, 1978, reported that more than fifteen (15) different species of Sarcoptes scabiei morphologically and genetically distinct from each other have been identified in different hosts. Introduction 2 Sarcoptic mange is the second important problematic disease of camel after Trypanosomiasis (Nayel and Abu-Samra, 1986). Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is a serious & highly contagious skin problem and also economically important disease of the camels (Pegram and Higgins, 1992). Camels, which are reared with deficient nutrition, poor management and under unhygienic conditions are mostly affected by this disease (Kumar et al. 1992). A large group of people and communities living in arid diverse ecozones in the entire world, particularly in harsh climates earns their livelihoods by depending on camels. This dependence may spread to the utilization of camel milk, meat, wool and leather besides its use in transportation, riding and sports (Wilson, 1984; Snow et al. 1992). In Pakistan camels are also raised by the people for meat, milk, riding, transportation and sports purposes in the deserts, semi desert & rain-fed / warm areas of the entire country being a hardy animal as it can tolerate easily the rugged climate as well as extremes of temperatures of such areas. The natural harsh and adverse climatic conditions, particularly during long dry seasons lead to a paucity of feeding regimes resultantly the camels raised in such areas are subjected to stress conditions which lower their resistance and make them easily vulnerable to diseases (Abbas et al. 1993; Agab, 1993). Abbas & Tilley, 1990; Saint-Martin et al. 1992; Abbas and Agab, 2002; Pathak and Chhabra, 2010; while reviewing the parasites & parasitic diseases of camel population in India were of the opinion that Sarcoptic mange is a serious, debilitating, dreaded and widely prevalent disease of camels in India. Besides other infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin, camels are exposed to a wide range of internal & external parasitic infestations. Amongst other so many external parasites to which camels are exposed, the Sarcoptic mange is recognized to be one of the most Introduction 3 serious and damaging disease. This disease is caused by a mite known as Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli which belongs to genus Camelus of SARCOPTIDAE family in Veterinary Entomology. It is an extremely pruritic, contagious and debilitating skin disease which is very frequently and sudden in onset. It is also ranked as one of the most serious and important disease of the camels. Sarcoptic mange infestation is very common in the areas of thin skin, the head, neck, flanks, medial aspect of thighs or inguinal region, mammary glands and prepuce. The head is usually affected very rapidly as the animal uses its teeth for scratching the affected areas. Besides linking the occurrence of the disease with poor camel management, malnutrition and contact with infected objects, the stray & infected camels also often become a focus of infecting the healthy animals when mingling with them particularly at watering places for drinking purpose (Richard, 1987; Abdel-Rehman et al. 2001). Sarcoptes is a burrowing mite as it penetrates deeply through the skin surface of the infected camel. This burrowing of mites in the skin helps these parasites lead to intense pruritus and exudative dermatitis. In pruritus, mites penetrate deep into muscular areas, damaging the flesh and lowering the quality of meat. The early inflammatory reaction of the host body towards the mites becomes evident in the shape of small popular elevations, invasion and injuries leading to formation of hairless areas, scaly crust formation or scabs on the affected parts and the skin become dark and thickened. Skin of mangy camel show hemorrhages, and subcutaneous odema after the development of fissures in the underlying epidermis (Kumar et al. 1992; Amer et al. 2006). The fertilized female mites create winding burrows or tunnels in the upper layers of the epidermis of the skin of the host animal and feeding on the serous exudate, a liquid oozing from the damaged tissues. The female mites lay about 40-50 fertilized eggs in these tunnels which Introduction 4 hatch in 3-5 days into a six legged larvae. These larvae immediately crawl to the surface and burrow themselves in the superficial layers of the skin and create small molting pockets. In these molting pockets, the larvae molt to next stages of nymph and adult. The adult male then emerges and seeks a female either in the molting pocket or on the surface of skin. After fertilization the female produces new tunnels, either de novo or, by extension, of the molting pockets, lays eggs in these tunnels and a new life cycle starts. The entire life cycle of Sarcoptic mange is completed in 17-21 days. New hosts can be infected through direct transmission by contact between the animals, presumably from larvae, nymph or adult mites, which are commonly present on the skin surface of the infected animal. Indirect transmission of infestation can also take place through the objects or fomites having mange infection, which come into contact with the affected camel, such as harnesses, blankets, baggage tack, tents and tree trunks (Richards, 1987). The pruritus increases as the mites penetrate deeper in the skin (Al-Rawashdeh et al. 2000, Driot et al. 2011, Bekele et al. 2012). Based on the rate of infection camels can be seriously disturbed by the Sarcoptic infestation as they may stop grazing which can lead to a rapid fall in milk production, and deterioration of health condition. With the increase in the irritation due to scabies, the camel rubs, bites and scratches the affected areas in an attempt to reduce the itchiness. Due to rubbing, biting or scratching, the mites move to the periphery affecting the healthy tissues and resultantly affected area spreads. As the disease prolongs, the skin becomes excoriated, leading to hair loss and the development of scabs. These scabs in turn may be rubbed away and a red surface developed. The animal becomes restless due to severe Sarcoptic mange infestation and involvement of most of the body surface. If the diseased animal is not treated in time, the animal loses its health condition, become emaciated and within two, three weeks the acute stage of Introduction 5 disease may give way to more chronic state (Gorakh et al. 2000, Abubakar et al. 2002, Driot et al. 2011). Sarcoptic mites rarely survive long off the host under natural conditions. A continuous direct contact of animal keepers with their camels can also lead to transmission of diseased condition in human beings which is termed as pseudo scabies. Transmission of infection from camel to man usually takes place during milking, handling or riding. The main symptoms of pseudo scabies can therefore be seen in the inter digital spaces of the hands, on the wrists, forearms, the elbows, the axillary folds and inner side of the thighs. Once a herd is infected with Sarcoptic mange, continuous reinfection of the disease occurs (Schillinger 1987, Singh & Veer 2005, Premalatha et al. 2010). Sarcoptic mange is usually considered to be a seasonal disease and is often reported severe during the winter months as in cold weather the disease had an acute course. However, there is some evidence that in some countries hot weather predisposes to acute outbreaks of camel mange and in the cooler, winter season the rate of mange infestations are at the lowest. In the summer the activity of the mite seems to decline or disease becomes chronic. Dietary intake is an important factor in mange infestation. Nomadic camels on a low nutrition plan, probably carrying heavy worm burdens in hot desert conditions are likely, therefore, to be highly prone to Sarcoptes at this time (Dinka et al, 2010). During such periods of great activity, the mites are readily transmissible from one animal to other animals (Richards, 1987, Banaja & Ghandour, 1994, Tefera & Gebreah, 2001). Mange can easily be diagnosed clinically from the occurrence of pruritus, depilation, alopecia, thickened skin, folds around the joints and encrusted plaques being the main characteristics of this parasitosis. In order to control this zoonotic disease, it is essential to treat Introduction 6 both camel and man along with effective checks over other predisposing factors of the disease such as hygiene and nutritional requirements of the animals. The skin diseases like the scabies both in human beings and animals are being treated with a variety of allopathic drugs now a day, but the role of herbal plants in use since centuries in different shapes cannot be ignored at all, especially in the rural lifestyle. Further with the continuous use of different acaricidal drugs, the issue of resistance development has come across as a challenge for the researchers to find some alternatives for the purpose. Accordingly the research work on the use of traditional herbal medicines is gaining attention day by day. Although there are many reports and studies regarding the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange in camel from different parts of the world, only few preliminary reports are available for Pakistan and none of them provide detailed epidemiology of Sarcoptic mange and its effect on host health. Therefore, keeping in view the importance of the mange problem in camel population of the country, the present project was designed to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange infestation, factors in its occurrence its zoonotic importance, effect on blood physiology and different treatment options in the camel population of Punjab, province in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2190,T] (1).

38. Incidence And Hematological Study Of Trichomoniasis In Domestic And Wild Pigeons In And Around Lahore

by Akhtar Abbas (2008-VA-91) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein. Because of increasing future demands, poultry industry is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap. Poultry producers are looking forward for using the alternate source of chicken meat, which in the future will come from pigeon and quail meat. It will be very help full for increasing gross domestic production (GDP) through livestock sector (Basit et al. 2006). Pigeons have been domesticated to live close with human beings. Pigeons originate from the rock dove in Europe, have been partially domesticated and carried to all parts of the world. Pigeons have been divided into three groups. 1) Poultry pigeons 2) Carrier and racing pigeons 3) Fancy and feral pigeon Pigeons are easily bred to produce a variety of plumage or to provide squabs for the table (Basit et al. 2006). It is very well known that internal parasites cause great loss to the host, by different ways. These parasites live at the expense of host depriving them from the nutrients essential for their growth. Moreover they cause mechanical harm by producing inflammation and tissue damaged. Protozoa inhabiting the digestive tract of birds are responsible for considerable economic losses. Heavy infestation of the parasites affect the health of birds with loss in the body weight, retarded growth, unthriftiness, damage to the gut epithelium, fertility disturbances, emaciation and death especially in young birds (Urquhart, 1996). Introduction 2 Common name of Trichomonas gallinae is canker, frounce and roup. Predilection site of this parasite is esophagus, crop and proventiculus. It belongs to the family Trichomondidae and class Zoomastigophorasida (Taylor et al. 2007). Body of T. gallinae is elongated, ellipsoidal os pyriform. Its size is 5-19 × 2-9 μm. It has four anterior flagella that arise from blephroplast, having undulating membrane that does not reach the posterior end of body and free posterior flagellum is absent. Its axostyle is narrow and protrudes 2-8 μm from the body and its anterior portion is flattened into a spatulate captulum. Its parabasal body is hook shaped and parabasal filament is present (Taylor et al. 2007). The host of T. gallinae is pigeon, turkey, chicken and raptors (hawks, falcons and eagle). As the method of reproduction is concerned it reproduced by longitudinal binary fission. There is no sexual stages and cyst are present in its life cycle. Lesion present in the turkey and chicken are most commonly in the area of crop, oesophagus, pharynx and no lesion are found in mouth (Taylor et al. 2007). Size of trophozoites of T. gallinae is about 7-11 μm. Its shape is varied from oval to pyriform. It has four flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. Size of nucleus is about 2.5–3 μm, oval in shape and situated closely below the basal bodies of the flagella. Its axostyle consisted of a row of microtubules that is running from the region of the apical basal bodies to the posterior end of the cell (Mehlhorn et al. 2009). Infected pigeons show wild signs of depression, lose weight, stand huddled with ruffled feathers and may fall over when forced to move. There is an accumulation of greenish fluid present in the mouth and crop containing large number of trichomonads in it. Yellow, necrotic lesions are present in the esophagus and crop (Taylor et al. 2007). Introduction 3 Trichomonas gallinae is a causative agent of trichomoniais in birds. It affects mostly to the young birds and causes death in them, especially in pigeons within 10 days. This Protozoa is present in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and causes greater financial losses. Clinical sign of diseased birds are dull, depress and having yellow color diarrhea. Morbidity rate of this disease is high in birds. If infected birds are not treated, it causes high mortality in diseased birds, due to this reason this problem become very important. Trichomonas gallinae presents in upper digestive system and respiratory system. So it affects both digestive system and respiratory system. It is mainly found in pigeons, but turkey, chicken, hawks, mourning doves, golden eagles, falcons and bustards may also be infested with this protozoa (Saleem et al. 2008). Small, whitish to yellowish caseous nodules are found in the esophagus, pharynx and crop. Their size increased and may remain circumscribed and separate, or may become thick, caseous, necrotic mass present in lumen. The circumscribed disk shape lesion are known as yellow buttons. Size of nodule is 1 cm or more and found in liver, lungs and other organs (Taylor et al. 2007). Infection spread to turkey and chicken by drinking contaminated water. The pigeon and other wild birds are also source of infection, which also use the water source. T. gallinae enters in the water through mouth and not from feces of the wild birds. Source of infection is direct contamination because this organism is very sensitive to drying and no cyst are found (Taylor et al. 2007). There are more chances of trichomoniasis in young one than in adult pigeons. During feeding carrier pigeons transmit this disease to their young ones. The pathological lesions associated with trichomoniasis is inflammation, ulceration, and necrosis in nature. These lesion are more predominant in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop and proventiculus (Kennedy et al. 2001). Introduction 4 This disease is present worldwide. A clonal strain of previously described organism has been recently developed as the cause of widespread disease of birds in Europe and causes a grate economic losses (Ganas et al. 2014). In Britain, this infectious disease was first described in 2005. This disease causes significant mortality in birds which results in decreased population of green finches and passenines (Robinson et al. 2010). T. gallinae affects upper digestive system of birds and results in pathological changes in structure of different parts of digestive system. It causes slight inflammation of mucosa to large caseous lesions of esophages. These lesion sometime block the lumen of esophagus. Due to this secondary infection of parasites, bacteria and virus takes place in diseased birds. Different strains of parasites move toward other organs such as liver, air sacs, lung, and brain. They causes necrosis of these organ, which leads to the death of birds (De Carli et al. 2002). Prevalence of T. gallinae infection is different in different age of birds. Prevalence increased with the age of nestling (Krone et al. 2005). A higher prevalence of Trichomoniasis has been recorded in pigeons in Pakistan season wise prevalence has been recorded to be 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56%) than in March (30%). Trichomoniasis positive cases show a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, number of monocyte, packed cell volume, body weight than healthy birds (Saleem et al. 2008). T.gallinae is a parasite of different species of birds ranging columbiformes, diurnal raptors and captive gallinaceous birds. It causes stomatitis, esophagitis and ingluvitis (Bunbury et al. 2007). This disease is recently emerged in British passerines. This parasite has caused high mortality in finch and their population is decreased and this disease is also spread to continental Europe (Chi JF 2013). Introduction 5 The sequence of T.gallinarum is different from Tetratrichomonas gallinarum that is another trichomonad of birds, but it is genetically similar to Trichomonas Caninistomae that affect dog and cat and causes oral infection. Pigeons are prey of dog, so there is possibility that T. gallinae may have infected (carnivorous) mammals in the past (Gasper et al. 2007). This disease causes large economic loss of avain livestock and also cause problems for wild species of birds. In UK T. gallinae has caused the death of greenfinches (Lawson et al.2006). Trichomoniasis was first reported in 2005 in Britain. It was discovered in finches. It caused large scale mortality in finches with population decline (Robinson et al. 2010; Lawson et al. 2011). In 2007 this disease is reported in finches in the Canadian Maritime provinces, southern Fennoscandia and northern Germany (Lawson et al. 2011). This disease caused high morbidity and mortality in finch population in Britian. It is estimated that about 1.5 million greenfinches which represent the 35% of national population have been died with this disease (Lawson et al. 2011). In this disease multiple foci of caseous necrosis is seen in oral, esophagus and crop mucosae. There is heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophill in these areas. There is multiple foci of necrotic inflammation is seen on liver. Due to excessive infiltration of heterophils in there is thickening of mucosa of easophagus. Necrotic material is also seen in mucosa and submucosa of easophagus. There is necrosis on the tip of villi of intestine and necrotic materials is seen in the mucosa of intestine (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Trichomoniasis occurred more frequently in young than adult pigeons. High prevelance of trichomoniasis have seen in male than female pigeons (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Nestling birds are more susceptible to this disease than other birds. In Tucson, Arizon study was conduct and this study show that T. gallinae was present in oral cavity of 85% nestling coopers hawks compared to Introduction 6 only 1% of breeding age hawks. This disease is more prevalent in young pigeons. T. gallinae is sensitive to environmental pH. Trichomonas gallinae develop well when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but cannot survive in more acidic pH. In fledgling and breeding Coopers Hawks pH of their oral cavity is acidic, so they are less susceptible to trichomoniasis and this is very important in differential prevelance among age group of birds (Urban et al. 2014). Trichomonas gallinae changes the blood picture of infected birds. It causes decreased values of Hb, PCV and monocytes in infected pigeons than the healthy pigeons, while TLC, heterophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils are increased in disease pigeons than the healthy pigeons (Seddiek et al. 2014). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2241-T] (1).

39. Isolation Of Surface Antigen 1 Gene Of Toxoplasma Gondii And Its Cloning In The Expression Plasmid

by Farooq Riaz (2008-VA-231) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which comes under the classification of phylum Apicomplexa, subclass Coccidiasina (Cornelissen et al. 1984). Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide caused by Toxoplasma gondii which is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species (Tenter et al. 2000). It is the most important source of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals, with cat as definite host and warm-blooded animals as intermediate host (Frenkel et al. 1970). It was first described by Nicolle, Manceaux and Splendore in 1908 from rodents Ctenodactylus gondii (Black and Boothroyd 2000). Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic disease and it is estimated that about one-third total population of the world is seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii (Tenter et al. 2000). Prevalence of infection varies between countries, geographical areas and ethnic groups living within a specific region. In Humans, infection rates range from 50% to 83% in Brazil (Tenter et al. 2000; Dubey et al. 2012). Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in China is about 8% with continuously increase while in USA its 10-15%, 50-70% in France and 20% in UK (Dubey and Jones 2008; Zhou et al. 2008; Jones et al. 2009). Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in males (79%) as compared to females (63.4%) and the age dependent sero-prevalence reaches >92% in age group of 40 to 50 (Coêlho et al. 2003). Transmission occurs through the ingestion of contaminated vegetable /water with oocysts, as well as the ingestion of contaminated raw/undercooked meat with tissue cysts (Gajadhar et al. 2006). Transmission may also occurs by ingestion of sporulated oocysts, or bradyzoites within cysts present in the tissues of numerous food animals (Esteban-Redondo et al. 1999). In humans, transmission of Toxoplasma gondii happens mainly by eating raw or undercooked contaminated meat, raw cow’s milk and birds eggs, swallowing oocysts dis-charged in feces of infected cats, inoculation of trophozoites through the skin, or by inhalation (Wallace 1971; Wallace 1973; Bannister 1982). In humans, mostly infections (congenitally or post-natally acquired) are asymptomatic. Congenital infection occurs only when a woman becomes infected during pregnancy. Congenital infections acquired during the first trimester are more severe than those acquired in the second and third trimester (Desmonts and Couvreur 1974). The main clinical signs associated with toxoplasmosis are anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, dyspnea, ocular signs, pyrexia, vomiting and diarrhea, jaundice, myositis, encephalitis and abortion. Humans become infected when they ingest the toxoplasma at infective stages (oocysts and tissue cysts) found in some cat feces and in raw meats. In addition to being hazardous to livestock animals, the T. gondii infection is also important due to its zoonotic implications (Jittapalapong et al. 2005). Congenital abnormalities in humans, such as microcephaly, hydrocephaly, chorioretinitis, convulsion, cerebral calcification, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and mental retardation may occur if the mother acquires infection during pregnancy (Jones et al. 2003). In addition to congenital anomalies, T. gondii also causes severe neuropathologic infections in immuno-compromised hosts, such as AIDS and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (Del Valle and Piña-Oviedo 2005). Seroprevalence studies of T. gondii among domestic animals in South-Western Pakistan has indicated considerable prevalence (25% in cattle, 2.5% sheep) (Zaki 1995) and suggesting potential transmission to the human community. Small scale study in urban area of Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), Pakistan has revealed that the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in food animals is 19% (Ramzan et al. 2009). Another study has already been published that untreated patients with leprosy in Pakistan have shown significant seroprevalence (29.6%) of antibodies against T. gondii (Hussain et al. 1992). Vaccine against toxoplasmosis is not available yet with one exception (“Toxovax” for sheep). Vaccine against T. gondii in animals used for human consumption may block the possible transmission to humans (Bhopale 2003). SAG1, among one of the major antigenic components of Toxoplasma gondii is a major surface antigen identified on the surface membrane of this parasite using a monoclonal antibody (Handman et al. 1980). SAG1 is an important surface antigen, expressed by tachyzoite form of T. gondii and is a putative candidate for vaccine and diagnostic against toxoplasmosis (Sharma et al. 1983; Godard et al. 1990). Immunization with SAG1 adjuvanted with saponin Quil A or incorporated in lysosomes provided total protection after challenge (Bülow and Boothroyd 1991; Khan et al. 1991). SAG1 is single copy gene with no introns (Burg et al. 1988), regulates both humoral as well as cellular Th1 immune responses (Liu et al. 2008) and is powerful candidate for vaccine against toxoplasmosis. SAG1 is a potent candidate of diagnostics for detection of serum antibodies against toxoplasmosis in Man and animals (Abu-Zeid 2002). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2258-T] (1).

40. Molecular Diagnosis Of Trypanosomiasis In Pet Dogs Of Lahore

by Muhammad Asif (2007-VA-460) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Trypanosomaevansiis a protozoa that causes surrain a wide variety of mammals. It is widely reported in adult dogs (Rashid et al. 2008; Defontis et al. 2012). Trypanosoma evansiis utmostcommonlyexisting trypanosome in animals. It is a salivarian pathogen (Hoare. 1972). Stomoxyand Tabanidssppare menifested as mainvectors universally. Oral spreadis also reported in both wild and domestic animals (Adams and Lionnet. 1983). Since 2008, surra became obligatory not only in horses, because it has been considered as a multi-species disease by the OIE (OIE. 2008; Salim et al. 2011). Surra usually follows an acute course of infection in dogs, though it is sporadically prevalent (Ravindran et al. 2008). Outbreaks of canine trypanosomiasis have been reported in India, Iran,Brazil, and South America (Herrera et al. 2004; Morteza et al. 2007; Umezawa et al. 2009). Trypanosomaevansionly has been reported from subcontinent (Ravindran et al. 2008). Causative agent for American trypanosomiasis is Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and African trypanosomiasis (surra or sleeping sickness) whose causative agent isTrypanosomaevansi(T.evansi).These are two forms of canine trypanosomiasis.It was originally an enzootic disease mingling in mammals and birds, which served as areservoir. The disease became zoonotic due to interaction between rural populations and natural foci, which are the results of biologicalinequity (Johns et al. 2000). Peracute to acute infections due to trypanosome result in high temperature, hemorrhages in the mucosal and serosal sides. Anemic condition of the patient is produced due to loss of RBCsfrom circulationby the mononuclear phagocytic system which is the cardinal feature of trypanosome infection.In chronic infections, anemia may be resolved due to little parasitic load in blood at capricious degrees. (Urquhart et al. 2002). Some note able signs may compriseedema of throat and head, Blindness due corneal opacity, Temperature and anorexia. Larynx may alter the voice of the dog due edema, which can complicate with rabies. Infected dogs are considered as a risk factor in household spread of the Chagas disease in humans (Cohen and Gurtler.2001). In native animals, dogs have the flankingassociation with humans; they may assumedconsiderable epidemiological importance in the perspective of public health and zoonosis. In humans,T.evansiproduce chronic pathological changes, which includes congestive cardiac insufficiency, finding of which isproblematic and can be unexploited due to multisystemic nature of the infection; it increases the need for epidemiological and experimental support. Moreover, causative agent of trypanosomiasis must beconfirmed by laboratory analysis, which can make availablesignificantprovisionwhen using suitable techniques, suitable reagents, and subsequent good laboratory practices (Eloy & Lucheis. 2009). There has been development of several compounds with value against canine trypanosomiasis, however none of these products have been produced in a large commercial scale or even accessible in the market. The apparent inaccessibility of new trypanocides in the market have continued a great challenge to the treatment of the infection. Diminazine aceturate dose of 3.5 mg/kg in T.congolense infection; 7 mg/kg inT. brucei andT. evansi(Aquinos. 2007) has shown efficacy when used to treat canine trypanosomiasis.However, treatment does not provide satisfactoryresults but only sustained the life of the dog for some reasonable period (Amora. 2004). Dogs were vaccinated with a fixed T.rangeli against canine trypanosomiasis recently (Basso et al. 2007). Experimental infections of the vaccinated dog produced disease of low parasitaemia apparently from vaccine induced immunity. Furthermore, feeding of the vaccinated dogs with the nymph stage of triatomine reduced the rate of infection in the bugs. Since dogs are the reservoir of Chagas disease in man, advances in this area could reduce the rate of infection of kissing bug which will in turn aid in the control of the disease in man (Basso et al. 2007) are necessary to establish the diagnosis.Sensitivity of direct parasitological examination is directly related to parasitic burden, biological material. The diagnosis oftrypanosomiasis is based on combination of comprehensive clinical inspection, appropriate sample collection, sample size, suitable diagnostic tests and suitable conduction of tests and logical interpretation of results. In canine trypanosomiasis where disease prevalence is great, some tests of low diagnostic sensitivity may suffice (OIE. 2008). Parasitological diagnosis could be made by microscopic inspection either of blood, lymph node or CSF of infected dogs (François et al. 2005). Pet dogs have been the companion of human being since ages, and shares the environment and belongings. Trypanosoma is found in dogs causing health problems effecting their routine activities. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of the infection is must to do for better therapeutic approach and early recovery of the animal. PCR is gold standard test for the molecular diagnosis of disease leading to quick diagnosis, early recovery and cost saving. So, regarding to disease importance and dogs domestications which is increasing day by day in and around Lahore area, we have focused this species to determine the Trypanosoma evansistatus in dogs in this area. This whole study is based on two diagnostic techniques i.e. screening through microscopic examination and confirmation of these samples via PCR with details regarding age, sex and breed association with the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2259-T] (1).

41. Response Of Dietary Supplementation Of Β-Galacto-Oligosaccharides And Benzoic Acid On Growth Performance And Gastrointestinal Physiology In Broiler Chickens

by Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf (2007-VA-538) | Prof. Dr. Habib ur Rehman | Prof. Dr. Juergen Zentek | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Efficient poultry production depends upon a number of crucial factors that include optimum nutrient digestibility, bioavailability and maximum conversion into end products like meat and egg as well as low morbidity and mortality in the flock. In the past, antibiotics were used successfully as growth promoters in poultry and animal feed to improve production performance. However, it has become increasingly apparent that many problems are associated with the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs); most importantly, the emergence of increasing numbers of microbes resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, AGPs were banned in the poultry as well as in the livestock industries of many countries. Due to withdrawal of AGPs, the poultry industry faced outbreak of diseases, high mortality, compromised growth performance and thus low profitability. Researchers and producers must, therefore, seek an alternate for AGPs that provide safety both for poultry and consumer health. Many potential candidates have subsequently been put forth and evaluated to replace AGPs that include prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics and organic acids. These AGPs replacers showed variable degree of success depending upon nutritional, managemental and hygienic conditions. Keeping in view the importance of AGP replacers, it was the purpose of this study to the growth promoting potential of β-galacto-oligosaccharides (β-GOS), a prebiotic, and benzoic acid (BA), an organic acid, in growing broilers. In experiment-1, 200 day old Hubbard broiler chicks, were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 50) with five replicates (n = 10) in each group. Birds in different treatment groups were allotted four different types of diets. Birds in the control group (β-GOS-0) were given ad-libitum corn based basal diet, free of antimicrobials and coccidiostats, whereas birds in three other experimental groups were given the same basal diets supplemented with different concentrations of β-GOS i.e., 0.1% (β-GOS-1), 0.2% (β-GOS-2) and 0.5% (β-GOS-5) for a period of 35 days. Birds in all the experimental groups were vaccinated against the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease virus by giving primary and booster doses according to the schedule. Moreover, birds were also sensitized against 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene for determination of cell mediated immunity (CMI). Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were determined on a weekly basis. At the end of experiment, ten birds from each group were slaughtered to collect blood, organs and caecal digesta for determination of serum biochemical metabolites and humoral immunity, organ characteristics and selected caecal digesta bacteria, respectively. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and incase of significant F-value (P < 0.05), data were subjected to Tukey's-HSD post hoc test. Results demonstrated that growth performance and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of β-GOS supplemented birds were improved (P < 0.05) in a dose dependent manner, with the highest body weights (P < 0.05) and improved FCE (P < 0.05) observed in the β-GOS-5 group. Relative weights of liver and pancreas were higher (P < 0.05) in the β-GOS-1 group. Likewise, CMI was also higher (P < 0.05) in the β-GOS-1 group. Concentrations of caecal Lactobacilli spp. were higher in the β-GOS-2 and β-GOS-5 groups. The serum biochemical metabolites, humoral immunity in terms of antibodies titres against NDV and Clostridia spp. and coliforms were not affected by dietary supplementation of β-GOS. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.5% β-GOS conferred a better response in terms of growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and caecal Lactobacilli spp. in broilers. In experiment-2, 120 day old male Cobb broiler chicks were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n = 40) with eight replicates (n = 5) in each group. Birds in different treatment groups were allotted three different types of diets. Birds in the control group (CON) were given ad-libitum maize based basal diets, free of antimicrobials and coccidiostats, whereas birds in two other experimental groups were given the same basal diets supplemented with two different types of BA i.e., 0.096% free BA (FBA) and 0.2% slow releasing BA (SBA) for a period of 35 days. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental period, birds from each group were slaughtered to collect digesta from the crop, proventriculus, gizzard, proximal small intestine, ileum and caecum for determination of benzoic acid, microbial metabolites, microbial populations and molecular microbial ecology. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and incase of significant F-value (P < 0.05), data were subjected to Tukey's-HSD post hoc test. Results revealed that overall growth performance, feed intake and FCE remained unchanged among all the treatment groups. Total short chain fatty acids were only increased (P < 0.05) in the gizzard by both types of BA supplementation. Likewise, D-lactate concentration was increased (P < 0.05) by both types of BA in crop digesta, whereas, L-lactate was only increased (P < 0.05) by SBA in crop digesta. Both types of BA increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of L-lactate, D-lactate and acetic acid in gizzard, and D-lactate in proximal small intestine. Concentrations of i-butyric acid and i-valeric acid were decreased (P < 0.05) in caecal digesta by both types of BA, whereas, n-valeric acid was only decreased (P < 0.05) by SBA supplementation in caecal digesta. Concentrations of both types of BA in different segments of gastrointestinal tract were comparable. Concentrations of gizzard Lactobacilli spp. were higher in both the BA supplemented groups, whereas, L. johnsoni and L. reuteri concentrations were higher in the SBA group compared with the control group. Similarly, in the proximal small intestine both types of BA increased the population of Lactobacilli spp., L. reuteri, L. amylovorus and Enterococci spp. Ileal concentrations of Lactobacilli spp., L. johnsoni, L. amylovorus and S. alactolyticus were higher (P < 0.05) in SBA group, whereas, L. reuteri was increased (P < 0.05) both by the FBA and SBA supplementations. Microbial populations of crop and caecum remained unchanged among all the treatment groups. Results of ileal molecular microbial ecology analysis revealed that evenness was higher (P < 0.05) in both the BA supplemented groups, whereas, the Sorensen index (P < 0.05) and the Renkonen index (< 0.5) were different only in the SBA group. However, caecal microbial ecology analysis revealed no changes among all the treatment groups. In conclusion, FBA and SBA supplementations produced similar responses in terms of microbial metabolites production with no effect on overall growth performance and feed conversion efficiency. However, SBA conferred some advantages over FBA in terms of increased bacterial concentrations, especially some species of the Lactobacilli as well as S. alactolyticus, and improved ileal molecular microbial ecology. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2310-T] (1).

42. Antiviral Effect Of Human Saliva Against Avian Influenza Virus Strain H9n2

by Maryam Riaz (2008-VA-340) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Saliva is an important body fluid that contains a complex array of proteins, peptides and various substances that help in maintaining the health of the oral cavity. Saliva exhibits a broad-spectrum of antiviral activity against enveloped viruses as it disrupts the viral membrane. Influenza is a common virus that has been diagnosed in humans and avian species due to AIV. This study has demonstrated the naturally occurring antiviral activity of human saliva against the H9N2 influenza virus that serves as a serious threat to poultry and has been shown to possess high zoonotic potential which can cause a new pandemic. In this study saliva samples from healthy individuals were taken and the natural antiviral ability of saliva was observed against AIV (Pk-UDL/01/08 H9N2) of calculated EID50 106.66. Inoculum prepared from saliva and H9N2 virus was injected in 9 days old embryonated eggs using CAS route and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. A negative control (only saliva) and positive control (only virus inoculum) was also determined in the current study. The antiviral activity of saliva was observed through haemagglutination test. The HA test of harvested fluid showed that human saliva indeed possesses antiviral activity against H9N2 virus and can be used as a natural antiviral agent in medicine. Furthermore, the genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. HTN3 gene responsible for histatin production, was amplified using gene specific oligonucleotides. The obtained HTN3 gene sequences were analyzed using Chromas software. The sequence alignment showed 99% similarity to the available sequences in NCBI database and 100% similarity to each individual sample. To conclude, this study has demonstrated that human saliva possesses antiviral activity against H9N2 virus. The nucleotide sequence analysis from each sample CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 47 showed no particular change which shows that antiviral activity of glycoproteins present in saliva does not vary at a genetic level. This innate antiviral activity can open a new frontier when it comes to combating viral infections that have grown resistant to conventional drugs in both human and animal subjects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2336-T] (1).

43. Effects Of Omega 3 And Vitamin E Against Experimentally Infected Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H9n2 In Broiler Chickens

by Muhammad Sulman Ali Taseer (2008-VA-089) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Avian influenza is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild birds. It is one of the most devastating viral disease of poultry industry. It was first identified in Italy in early 1900,s and is now known to exist worldwide. Total of 125 day old chickens were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, E) with 25 chickens in each group. Group A was negative control group. In groups B, C, D and E low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) virus infection was introduced at day 28 of age. Group B was given with Omega 3. In group C chickens were given Vitamin. E. In group D chickens were fed both Omega 3 and Vitamin E. Group E was positive control group without any additional supplementation. At days 27, 30, 35, 42, blood was collected aseptically from wing vein, from three birds in each group to check H/L ratio and to perform HI test to check antibody titer for H9. After collection of blood five birds from each group were slaughtered to observe postmortem signs and for the histopathology of lungs and trachea. Heterophill to lymphocyte ratio was significantly high in groups D (Omega 3 and Vit.E) and group E (Positive Control). Among the various treatment groups of broilers the significantly highest HI antibody titer was recorded in group E which was positive control group. In treatment groups C (Vitamin E supplement) and D (Omega 3 and Vit.E) HI antibody titer was near to protective titer against H9. Major histopathological lesions involved deciliation of trachea and sloughing of epithelium of trachea. There was infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils as well as vascular congestion in the form of hemorrhagic areas in lungs. There was increase in congestion in the lungs of the chicks in group E (Positive Control). 37 FCR was evaluated on weekly basis. A comparatively better feed conversion ratio was recorded in group D (Omega 3 and Vit.E). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio of the other treatment groups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2355-T] (1).

44. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Chickens Raised Under Different Poultry Production System In Muzaffar Garh Area

by Muhammad Jamil Manzoor Daha (2012-VA-823) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein in shortest possible time, but still it is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap because of increasing future demands. Roundworms can cause a reduction in growth rate and damage to the intestinal mucosa, leading to blood loss and secondary infection. Heavily infected chickens may show symptoms of weight loss, droopiness, and diarrhea. Economic losses are usually associated with ascarid, Heterakis, and Capillaria, infections because of treatment cost, as well as the reduction in feed efficiency and weight gain as well as drop in egg production. Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds in different production systems , in and around district Muzaffar Garh and samples were examined by using the direct smear method, flotation technique and simple sedimentation technique. Adult worms load were examined by necropsy of dead birds fortnightly. Post mortem of dead birds during study was examined for presence of nematodes in gastro intestinal tract fortnightly from each enrolled shed in the study. The samples of adult worm found were collected for identification. During the present study four species of nematodes were identified. Ascardia galli was recovered from the small intestine, Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti from the caecae . The most common gastrointestinal nematode was Ascaridia galli followed by Subulura brumpti and Heterakis gallinae. The present study has indicated that good husbandry techniques and regular deworming practices reflect markedly on the incidence and worm – burden of infected chickens Availability: No items available

45. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Chickens Raised Under Different Poultry Production System In Muzaffar Garh Area

by Muhammad Jamil Manzoor Daha (2012-VA-823) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein in shortest possible time, but still it is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap because of increasing future demands. Roundworms can cause a reduction in growth rate and damage to the intestinal mucosa, leading to blood loss and secondary infection. Heavily infected chickens may show symptoms of weight loss, droopiness, and diarrhea. Economic losses are usually associated with ascarid, Heterakis, and Capillaria, infections because of treatment cost, as well as the reduction in feed efficiency and weight gain as well as drop in egg production. Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds in different production systems , in and around district Muzaffar Garh and samples were examined by using the direct smear method, flotation technique and simple sedimentation technique. Adult worms load were examined by necropsy of dead birds fortnightly. Post mortem of dead birds during study was examined for presence of nematodes in gastro intestinal tract fortnightly from each enrolled shed in the study. The samples of adult worm found were collected for identification. During the present study four species of nematodes were identified. Ascardia galli was recovered from the small intestine, Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti from the caecae . The most common gastrointestinal nematode was Ascaridia galli followed by Subulura brumpti and Heterakis gallinae. The present study has indicated that good husbandry techniques and regular deworming practices reflect markedly on the incidence and worm – burden of infected chickens Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2346-T] (1).

46. A Study On The Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Trace Elements Along With Associated Risk Factors In Diarrheic Foals

by Rahmatullah (2008-VA-85) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Foal diarrhea is one of the major threats to equine industry that causes high morbidity and mortality. Electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Li etc) and water losses reduced dietary intake and probable translocation between intracellular and extra cellular compartments. Electrolytes are essential for controlling membrane potential, muscle contraction, nerve condition, and enzyme reactions, and they play a central role in the physiological processes. Serum electrolytes and trace elements deficits are the major causes of fluid and acid-base imbalance in diarrheic foals. Keeping in view the importance of foal diarrhea and its impact on the equine industry the current study was designed to determine serum concentration of electrolytes (Ca, K, Na) and trace elements (Li, Cu, Fe) along with the associated risk factors in diarrheic foals. The present study was designed to examine diarrhea in foals at various equine stud farms, private and public veterinary hospitals. For this purpose a total of (n=100 foals) suffering from clinical diarrhea irrespective of the cause of diarrhea selected randomly after clinical examination and (n=10 foals) negative for diarrhea as control were included. Data of each diarrheic foal was collected separately in a data capture form. Blood and serum sample were collected for hematological and serum biochemical studies, respectively. Concentrations of serum electrolytes (Ca, Na, and K) were analyzed by Flame Photometry and trace elements (Cu, Li, and Fe) were estimated through Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. PCV was determined by micro hematocrit method. Risk factors including species and age were analyzed for association. Foals which were suffered from diarrhea showed increase in Pack cell volume. Serum concentration of Sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, copper and lithium were measured in diarrheic foals by atomic absorption and flame photometer method and were compared with healthy group of foals.Foals having diarrhea showed an acid baseimbalance as a result decrease in serum electrolytes and trace elements. The blood acid-base balance is precisely controlled because even a minor deviation from the normal range can severely affect many organs. The body uses different mechanisms to control the blood's acid-base balance.Sodium and potassium and calcium are important electrolytes imbalance in diarrhea. Potassium level was increased in foals having diarrhea. Calcium concentration in ppm significantly decreased from its normal value. In some diarrheic foals increased in level of calcium was also observed because these foals have blood in their feces that result in the calcium to come in blood as a clotting factor. Trace elements such as Cu, Fe and Li are needed in a very little concentration for many physiological functions. The serum iron was measured in foals having diarrhea.The iron concentration was less than normal value.The deficiency of iron lead to anemia. Clinical signs of anemia because of irondeficiency are rarely seen in foals. Therefore, mineral imbalances influence iron metabolism and may cause iron deficiency in foals. The serum copper concentration was significantly decreased in the diarrheic foals. Copper concentration is also related to the packed cell volume as in anemia copper deficiency is a significant feature. Copper is important element and its deficiency lead to decrease in serum concentration of iron. This decreased level might be because most of the circulating copper in plasma is attached to the serum glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin. Ceruloplasmin has ferroxidase activity and may be required to deliver iron into the circulation Therefore it was observed that low iron concentrations might have resulted from copper deficiency.The concentration of Lithium was also decreased in diarrheic foals when compared to healthy foals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2349-T] (1).

47. Studies On The Effect Of Garvit-Pro® (A Commercial Product) On Broiler Chickens Vaccinated Against Infectious Bursal Disease

by Jawad Ahmad (2008-VA-109) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) has become very notorious poultry disease in Pakistan. The disease affects the primary lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius) of the poultry and cause mild to severe immune suppression in affected birds. In accordance of the mentioned fact, present experimental project was designed to evaluate the effects of immune boosters after IBD vaccination and compare the effects of GarVit-Pro with only vaccinated birds. Humoral immune response against IBD virus was measure through Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). There were total 90 bird, divided into 3 groups with 30 birds in each group. The blood sample were collected from different experimental groups of broiler chickens on 07, 14, 21, 28 & 35 days of age. Among the various experimental groups of broiler chickens the significantly highest antibody titer was recorded in group B fed with GarVit-Pro (Garlic Supplement) as compared to the other vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. The histopathological scoring of Bursa of Fabricius and thymus in different experimental groups was observed at day 07, 14, 21, 28 and 35. The bursal lesion scores of Group B (GarVit-Pro Treated) was lower than the other two groups. The GarVit-Pro helped to enhance the antibody titer against IBD virus after vaccination. These findings suggest and advocates that GarVit-Pro (garlic supplement) can effectively stimulate and enhance the immunity in broiler chickens. GarVit-Pro can be potential ameliorator against different vaccines and their unwanted/suppressive effects in broiler chicks. It was proved that GarVit-Pro is able to implement immune response and have a patent immunomodulatory effect in chickens Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2363-T] (1).

48. Hematological And Histopathological Study Of Paramphistomum Cervi In Large Ruminants

by Abdul Majeed Saim (2012-va-814) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Mr. M. Saeed Imran | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Paramphistomes are the parasites in the rumen, reticulum, duodenum and liver of goats, sheep, cattle and buffaloes. Their premature stages are in duodenum and then traveled towards the rumen. The damage caused by this illness in bovine affects production. These parasites aggravate a loss of weight, a lower nutritious conversion and a reduce in milk production. Lahore is one of the larger district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The present study was conducted in order to implement efforts and regulation to eradicate the spread of disease in this area. From this study it was evaluated the changes in hematological parameters values of Large Ruminants and evaluated the Histopathological changes in rumen, reticulum, duodenum and liver. Samples of blood and tissues were collected at slaughter house from cattle and buffaloes after slaughtering. These were divided into three groups i.e group-A (Infected Buffaloes=50), group-B (Infected Cattle=50) and group-C (Buffaloes, Cattle=20) serve as control. The blood samples and tissue samples of rumen, reticulum, duodenum and liver were taken from infected cattle and buffalo tested positive by fecal examination through direct smear technique and was processed for hematological and histopathological examination. The infected cattle and buffaloes in this study described a highly significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean red blood cells, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the neutrophils number and eosinophil number of disease buffaloes and cows as compared to the non-infected buffaloes and cows. The infection of paramphistomum cervi is characterized by severe anemia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia. Anemia can be responsible for mortality in cattle and buffaloes especially young ones. Pathological changes were observed grossly and confirmed histopathologically in the rumen, reticulum, duodenum and liver. Pathological changes were mostly limited to small intestine, especially duodenum. The disease caused by the parasite in the rumen was increased cornification of the stratum corneum, atrophy, severe infiltration and thickening of mucosa occurs in the rumen papillae, but no ulceration was found. Changes varied from a localized enteritis and villous atrophy in the duodenum in light disease to severe destructions of the mucosa extending into most of the jejunum in heavy infections. Mucosa at places was found congested with petechial haemorrhages. The histopathological analysis of the diseased liver of buffalos and cows has described that severe harm has occurred in this infection. In most of the sections, the normal structure of liver tissue, arrangement of hepatocyte cords, veins and portal tube areas were undergone clear with full bile ducts indicating bile duct hyperplasia, necrosis of liver tissue and cause necrosis. The immature forms of Paramphistomium cervi caused more severe damage in the duodenal tissue, where as adult forms inflicted mild tissue damage in the rumen. The present study was conducted in order to implement efforts and regulation to eradicate the spread of disease in this area. From this study it was evaluated the changes in hematological parameters values of Large Ruminants and evaluated the Histopathological changes in rumen, reticulum, duodenum and liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2368-T] (1).

49. Detection Of Salmonella And Total Plate Count In Abattoir Meat And Premises

by Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety is scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This include a number of routines that be followed to avoid potentially serve health hazards. The track within this line of thought are safety between industry and market and then between the market and consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety consideration include the origin of food include the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification system for food. In considering market to consumer practices the usual thought is that food brought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are standard for food preparation, where as in lesser developed the main issue is simply the unavailability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. Foodborne illness is any problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, virus or parasite that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxin. Beef and Mutton meat is an ideal food for all groups of ages, due to its high meat yield, low shrinkage, easy cooking and serving. In my study all sampling was done from Lahore Meat Processing complex which is the most modern abattoir in Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of meat in human diet the total plate count and salmonella detection in abattoir meat was done. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2365-T] (1).

50. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan

by Muhammad Essa Kakar (2005-va-229) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The Summary 177 results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2367-T] (1).



Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Email:rehana.kousar@uvas.edu.pk Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.