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1. Detoxification Potential Of Yeast Sludhe Ahainst Ochratoxin In Broiler Chicks

by Huma Mujahid | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aftab | Miss Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Ochratoxin the fungal secondary metabolite is a potent natural contaminant of poultry feed. Mycotoxins present in poultry feeds from the raw material used in their production is the major cause of toxic feed. The intake of very low levels of Ochratoxin-A result in overt ochratoxicosis resulting in impairment of immune system and acquired resistance to infections causing health problems which lead to economic losses in the form of reduced productivity The research study was conducted to study the harmful effects of Ochratoxin on broiler chicks and the adsorptive potential of yeast sludge against Ochratoxin in broiler chicks . Aspergillus ochraceus was grown on Sabraud's Dextrose Agar and ochratoxin was produced on fermented wheat grains .One fifty day old Chicks of broiler breed were purchased from Big birds hatchery and were raised on commercial broiler diet till 7 days. Four diets A,B,C and D were formulated A diet serve as control, B diet contained OTA 500ppb, C diet contained OTA 500ppb and 1% Yeast sludge and D diet contained OTA 500ppb and 2% Yeast sludge. These four diets were assigned randomly to the chicks, such that there were three replicates on each ration and each replicate contained 10 chicks. Vaccination against N.D and IBD was performed according to the schedule. During feeding trial weight gain , feed consumed, FCR and mortality rate was determined. Group B (500ppb OTA) showed a decrease in weight gain and feed consumption as compared to group A (control diet) , C (1% yeast sludge and 500ppb OTA) and D (2% yeast sludge and 500ppb ochratoxin). Group D showed more improvement in weight gain, feed consumption and FCR as compared to group C. Blood serum and tissue samples were collected from the birds slaughtered at the end of experimental trial. Concentration of serum total protein, albumin and activity of alanine transaminase were determined. Blood Serum levels of total protein and albumin were lower in the group B (500ppb OTA) than group D having 2 % yeast sludge but the group C fed on 1% yeast sludge did not show much improvement in those parameters. Activity of ALT was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) in group C as compared to all other groups. Whereas blood serum ALT activity of the birds fed on ration B was significantly high (P< 0.05) as compared to blood serum ALT of group A The Level of Ochratoxin in Liver and Kidneys was also determined and it was found to be highest in Group B (500ppb OTA) and lowest in Group D (500ppb OTA + 2% yeast sludge). Based upon the observations obtained in this study it can be concluded that ochratoxin-A is a nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic agent. But supplementation of 2% yeast sludge in the broiler diet can effectively detoxify the effects of ochratoxin as compared to supplementation of 1% yeast sludge in the chicks diet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1313,T] (1).

2. Production Of Alginate By Azotobacter Vinelandll By Submerged Fermentation

by Muhammad Awais | Miss Shagufta Saeed | Miss Asma Waris | Miss Sehrish.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Alginate is a linear coploymer of 1, 4,-beta-D-mannuronic acid and alpha -L-guluronic acid. They are usually obtained from brown algae which contains of D-mannuronic and L-guluronic acids. Alginates are important polysaccharides with many application in the food, pharmaceutical, textiles and paper industry. Azotobacter vinelandii is a gram negative, aerobic and free-living soil microbe which play an important role in the nitrogen cycle in nature. A. vinelandii was grown on wheat bran for the production of alginate. The optimal condition like substrate:water ratio, pH, incubation period, ionic concentration (Calcium, magnesium, sodium and phosphate ions) and addition of corn steep liquor was carried out for the production of alginate by A. vinelandii through submerged fermentation. The cell biomass and alginate concentration was determined to estimate the concentration of alginate. The alginate thus produced was estimated by determining its concentration spectrophotometrically at 546 nm. The effect of pH, incubation period, ionic concentration and addition of nitrogen source like corn steep liquor was analysed by statistical linear regression method. Alginate is an important polymer with wide applications in pharmaceutical, food and textile industry. It has also medical application in encapsulating hormones. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1348,T] (1).

3. Association Study Of Polymorphism In Growth Hormone Gene With Milk And Growth Traits In Beetal (Caprahircus)

by Hira Waseem | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Miss Asma | Mohammad Asif.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1545,T] (1).

4. Mutational Analysis Of Parkin Gene And Its Association Eith Parkinson'S Disease

by Misbah Hussain | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Miss. Asma | Miss. Saeeda Kalsoom.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which dopamine neurons are lost in sabstantia nigra. It is second most prevalent disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD is also referred as movement disorder because its main characteristics are movement related like rigidity, slowness of movement and resting tremors which are caused by the loss of dopamine in putamen specially its caudal portion Lots of work has been done on PD but still actual mechanism of its progression is unknown. Scientists have declared genetic mutations, oxidative stress, pesticide exposure, high caloric food etc as causative agents for PD. There are 6 genes which are responsible for PD. Mutations in the parkin gene produce Early Onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) in 50-60% of patients. parkin gene encodes for Parkin protein which consist of 4 domains (UBL, RING1, IBR, RING2). UBL domain is involved in the interaction with substrates. While the other 3 domains helps in interaction with E2 Ubiquitin- conjugating enzyme. Most frequent mutations in this gene are the point mutations. 2nd exon of parkin gene is considered as one of the hotspot for mutations. First three exons code for Ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, which help in the attachment with substrates like Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasome. Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasome binds with Arginine at position 42 located in UBL domain of parkin. This 26S proteasome degrade the unfolded proteins into short peptides of 7-8 amino acids in length, which are then further degraded in shorter fragments which are then used in the formation of new proteins. In current study, I have done mutational analysis of parkin gene and found one very important noval point mutation which is a transition C'T mutation in UBL domain, which results in the amino acid substitution Arginine' Cysteine at position 42 (location where Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasome binds). Arginine and Cysteine are biochemically different in nature and in the classification based on R group they belongs to different groups. Arginine is a polar positive amino acid while Cysteine is polar uncharged and contain sulfur molecule. So, this amino acid change could result in the decreased or no attachment of 26S proteasome (catalyzes protein degradation) via its Rpn10 subunit which selectively binds with the poly-ubiquitin chain of damaged proteins. So, this decreased attachment inhibits the degradation of misfolded and defected protein in the cytosol. In result of this inhibition these defected proteins will start gathering and form aggregates within the cytosol of cell it will eventually decrease cell's function and cell will start dying. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1643,T] (1).

5. Biosafety Studies Of Transgenic Sugarcane Developed By Camb

by Rizwan Abid | Miss Asma Waris | Dr Abu saeed hashmi | Miss Maryam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: GM crops confer multiple number of benefits yet it is required to evaluate these crops from every aspect in terms of toxicity, allergenicity or if they cause any immune response. Through brisk improvement in biotech field, a number of transgenic crops have come into prominence and permitted by regulatory authorities for farming and commercialization globally. The potential risk assessment associated with transgenes effect on non-target organisms is of great concern. The present work was carried out to study the effect of Herbicidal resistant EPSPS protein on animals. For this purpose 40 rabbits were selected i.e., Albino red eye (Newzealand breed). Rabbits are mammals and herbivores and have 95% sequence homology and similar cellular and enzymatic functions like human. Several physical, molecular, histological and biochemical analysis had confirmed the safety of EPSPS protein on non target animals. The first goal was risk assessment of EPSPS (glyphosate tolerant gene) on rabbits. A total number of forty (40) rabbits of approximately 5-7 weeks old were selected at the start of experiment. These rabbits were placed in 4 groups with comparable body weights, i.e. A, B, C, and D respectively having 10 animals in each group. The 4 groups of animals consisted of purely control diet group (A), non transgenic diet group (B), the 33% transgenic sugarcane diet group (C) and the 40% transgenic sugarcane diet group (D). The groups were fed their particular diets for 90 days. Weight data of each group was recorded after intervals of seven days which showed no difference between these four groups. The weight and growth of all the rabbits increased with the passage of time. Molecular analyses i.e. SDS-PAGE and PCR was also confirmed the absence of EPSPS in blood and urine samples. Furthermore, histological studies gave no evident difference in cellular architecture of transgenic and non transgenic fed rabbits. Finally biochemical tests i.e., Blood urine nitrogen, Alanine transferase, Aspartate transferase, Creatinine, BUN and Cholesterol were observed. Physiological changes of organs were not confirmed in experimental groups when compared to control. Present studies will help in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified sugarcane in Pakistan. Data will also be helpful in evaluating more biosafety concerns about transgenic plants and their potential impact on animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1701,T] (1).

6. Assessment Of Mycotoxin (Aflatoxin & Ochratoxin) And Pesticides In Capsicum Frutescens

by Abdul Muqeet Khan | Miss Shagufta Saeed | Dr. Mateen | Miss. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: From global prospective of food safety and food security, mycotoxin contamination of foods has gained much attention as potential health hazards for humans and animals. Cereals and other crops are exposed to fungal attack in the field or during storage and this attack may result in mycotoxin contamination of the crop. Spices and herbs are important ingredients in almost every cuisine. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A are the most important for human health perspective and in developing countries such as Pakistan where climatic conditions favor the formation of these toxic metabolites. Governments and private organizations of international level have established maximum residue levels (MRLs), which usually guide to control the amount of pesticides in foods. Therefore, the current study was planned to determine occurrence of mycotoxin (Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin) in chillies and to determine incidence of pesticide residues in chilli available on the commercial market in Pakistan. The samples of whole chilies were collected from local markets of five cities of Punjab (Lahore, Faisalabad, Multan, Sargodha, and Rawalpindi) Pakistan. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used for the detection of aflatoxin in red chilli (whole) samples. TLC plates were checked under UV box and those samples which showed the positive results were quantitatively analyzed by Scanner Densitometer. The residual analysis of pesticides in chilies were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in Toxicology Laboratory, QOL, UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan. It observed that chilli samples of Multan city were highly contaminated by Aflatoxin B1 as compared to other cities. Maximun contamination of Aflatoxin B2 in red chilli was found in Rawalpindi city. Maximum numbers of samples (25) were detected by ochratoxin in Sargodha city and minimum number of samples detected in Lahore city. No sample was detected as positive in the samples of Rawalpindi city. Maximun numbers of samples (25) were detected by ochratoxin in Sargodha city and minimum numbers of samples were detected in Lahore city. Endosulfan and DDE were not detected in any samples of Lahore city. Aldrin was found positive in 55% samples and DDT was found positive in 15% samples of red chilli. Endosulfan was found samples and aldrin was found positive in 40% samples of red chilli. Contamination of Endosulfan and aldrin were higher as compared to DDT and DDE. Amount of Endosulfan and aldrin was found higher in both Sargodha and Rawalpindi cities, respectively. Endosulfan was detected in maximum number of samples as compared to other pesticides in Sargodha city whereas aldrin was found higher in Rawalpindi city. It has been observed that aflatoxin and Pesticide levels frequently exceed the limits in red pepper (>5 ?g/kg AFB1 and 10ppb AF total; > 2mg/kg Pesticides) and that risks exist for consumers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1740,T] (1).

7. Isolation ,Identification And Characterization Of Phytase Producing Bacteria

by Hafsa Raiaz | Dr Muhammad Tayyab | Miss Asma Waris | Miss Saeeda | IBBT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1865,T] (1).

8. Production Purification And Characterization Of Alkaline Proteasefrom Aspergillus Flavus Using Agricultural

by Naheed ishrat | Miss Asma waris | Dr Waseem | Dr. Muhammad tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1872,T] (1).

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