Comparative Efficacy Of Various Anthelmintics Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Sheep In Thesil Okara
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Publisher: 2002 Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to check the anthelmintic efficacy of three drugs. For this purpose eighty sheep of local breed, positive for gastro-intestinal nematodes were selected from the area of Tehsil Okara (Purijab) and were divided randomly into 4 groups (20 animals in each group). Group A, B and C were medicated with Oxfendazole (4.5mg/kg body weight orally), Albendazole (5mg/kg body weight orally) and Ivermectin (.2mg/kg body weight s/c) respectively and group D remained as untreated control group.
Egg per gram (EPG) of the faeces were noted on "0" day before medication and on 7th, 14th and 21st days after medication. The efficacy of these drugs were calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after treatment. These drugs showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts.
Efficacy of Oxfendazole (Oxavet) was 98:35%, 99.48% and 99.82% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Albendazole Albazole) was 95.30%, 97.21% and 97.77% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively Efficacy of Ivermectin (Ivojec) was 90.10%, 100% and 100% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively.
It was observed from the study that Ivermectin (Ivojec) was more effective than Oxfendazole (Oxavet) or Albendazole (Albazole). However, Oxfendazole showed beiter efficacy thail that of Albendazole.
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Identification And Effect Of Gigantocotyle Expalnatum On The Haematology And The Liver Enzymes Of Buffaloes
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Publisher: 2003 Dissertation note: Amphistomosis is a wide spread disease of buffaloes,cattle,sheep and goats.acute disease has been reported in young animals while older animals arecapable of withstanding massive infection.Heavy infection of amphistomes both in rumen and liver are mostly insidious and generally do not cause serious damage t the host. In the redent study, ist has bveen concluded that due to its mild subl\clinical nature, deworming for the control of biliary amphistomes is n\done very rarely and large animals, once infected carry this trematode throughout rest of thi\eir life. The prevalence of the Gigntocotyle explanatutum detercted in Lahore district was 42.1%. Statistically ono-signifcant difference in prevalence was observed during different months of study which may be attributed to the lack of dewormingfor the control of biliary amphistomosisis done very rarely and large animals, once infected carrys this infection throughout there lives. The prevalence of the Gigantocotyle explanatum detected in Lahore Ditrict was 42.1%.Statistically non significant differences in prevalence was observed during different months of study which may be attributed to the lack of deworming practices in animals.High prevalence in buffaloes might be due to wallowing habit and grazing grasses and weeds.The infected buffaloes had significant decrease in Hb concentration (30.43%) ,and PCV (29.2%).However,there was no significant increase in TLC (1.93%).No significant decrease in neutrophils(3.71%),monocytes(13.41%),lymphocytes(1.50%)and basophils(13.33%) counts was observed. There was significant increase in eophilic counts(52.74%).The ALT and AST were also estimated in infected andhealthy buffaloes.The statistical analysis showed significant increase in AST (28.5%) and non significant increase in ALT (13.0%).
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A Study Of The Theileriosis Sheep At Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadurnagar District Okara
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Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: In the present course of research 400 sheep from Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar Okara had been examined for the evidence of theileriosis by using Giemsa stain blood smear, lymph node smear methods and by clinical signs. Out of 400 animals 66 were found positive for theileriosis by observing blood smears with giemsa stain. The over all infection rate was 16.5%, while 43 sheep were exhibiting the clinical signs of malignant ovine theileriosis which was 65.15% Of total infected sheep. All the animals which were clinically positive were also lymph node smear positive. Distribution of infection among different age groups was observed as 17.3% in lambs and 16.20% in adults while distribution among sexes was as 15.8% in males and 16.6% in females.
The clinical trials were conducted on positive sheep by treating them with oxytetracycline and buparvaquone. In this part of experiment 30 positive and 10 negative sheep were placed in four groups with 10 animals in each group. Ten positive sheep were kept in group A and were treated with Rimoxyn and 10 other positive animal were placed in group B in which Butalex was used against ovine theileriosis. Group C also comprises of 10 positive sheep and serve as positive control while 10 sheep of group D which were found negative against theileriosis served as negative control. The drug used in group A i.e., Rimoxyn show 30% efficacy, 3 animals recover on up to 7th day and no more found recovered on day 10. In group B Butalex was used which showed 90% efficacy in the whole study, 7 out of 10 recovered up to day 7 and 2 more positive sheep recovered at 0 day.
Blood parameters (Hemoglobin estimation, Total Leukocytic count TLC Differential leukocytic count DLC) were studied to observe the effect of protozoa and use of different drugs on various blood parameters. Variable results were observed in different blood parameters. In groups A and B significant difference (P<0.0001) between hemoglobin level of day 0, 7 and 10 was observed, while there was insignificant difference in the values of Total Leukocytic count (TLC) at day 0, 7 and 10. In DLC, insignificant difference observed in the percentage values of neutrophils, monocytes and basophiles while significant differences were in percentage values of lymphocytes and eosinophils both in group A and B. The animals of group C were kept as infected/positive control. Statistical analysis showed that there was insignificant difference between hemoglobin level of day 0, 7 and 10, results of Total Leukocytic count TLC were also found insignificant. In Differential leukocytic count DLC, insignificant difference was observed in the percentage values of all five types of leukocytes i.e., neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophiles. The hematological values of group D were also found insignificant, animals of this group were kept as healthy control.
With the results of present study, it has been concluded that buparaquone (Butalex) was the drug of choice for the treatment of ovine theileriosis in Lohi sheep when given at the dose rate of 2.5mg/kg body weight by intramuscular route. It has been further observed that there is a need of further research in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant ovine theileriosis.
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Bioavailability Of Macro Minerals In Animal Origin Feed Ingredients Used In Broilers Ration
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Minerals are required for growth, bone development, feathering, enzyme structure and function. The present study has been designed to ascertain mineral profile of the poultry feedstuffs (fish meal.z, meat meal, bone meal and poultry by product meal) locally available to the industry. Evaluation of the minerals (Ca, Na, K, P) bioavailability of these ingredients and commercial broiler starter feed in broiler were also determined. For this purpose poultry feed ingredients and commercial broiler starter feed was procured from a commercial feed mill. For bioavailability of minerals a total of 240 day old Hubbard broiler chicks were used and allocated to six (6) dietary treatments(A, B, G, D, E and F) in such a way that each treatment was replicated 4 times with 10 chicks in each replicate. Diet A was of commercial feed mill B was from a corn soybean meal based and diet. Diet C, D, E and F contained meat meal, fish meal, bone meal and poultry byproduct meal respectively. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance Technique. The difference among the treatment means were tested through Duncans's Multiple Range (DMR) Test.
The maximum Ca bioavailability was observed in group B (61.5665±5.513%) which was control feed, followed by group E (5 8.54±8.694) containing meat meal, D (57.29±2.70) containing bone meal, C (49.94±10.43) containing fish meal, A(37.60± 5.034) which was commercial diet and F (24.23±3.16) containing PBM. Ca bioavailability was found in group F (24.23± 3.16%) which was fed with poultry by product meal, respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference in bioavailability of potassium in group A among the group C, B and F, respectively, while group F was also (94.17±0.859%) and the minimum K bioavailability was found in group B (91.45± 2.4 13%) bioavailability was observed in group A which was fed commercial feed and group F which was fed with meat meal , respectively However, bioavailability of sodium group F was significantly (P<0.05) different across the group (A, B, C, D and F). The maximum Na bioavailability was observed in group B (77.50±5.86%) and the minimum Na bioavailability was found in group E (24.69± 23 .95%) bioavailability was observed in group B which was control feed and group F which was fed with meat meal, respectively. The bioavailability of phosphorus in group E differ (P<0.05) significantly to the other groups (A, B, C, D and F) whereas group A also differ (P<0.05) from Group B, D and E significantly. However significance (P<0.05) difference was found in group B with group A and E as well. The maximum P bioavailability was observed in group C (53.40±4.453%) and the minimum P bioavailability was found in group E (41.15± 6.19%) bioavailability was observed in group C which was fed with fish meal feed and group £ which was fed with meat meal respectively. The maximum P bioavailability was observed in group A (58.48± 3.59 ) which was commercial feed, followed by group C ( 53.40±4.453 ) containing fish meal, F ( 52.81±2.18 %) which was fed with poultry by product meal D (4 8.92±6.64 ) containing bone meal B ( 49.06±5.81 ) which was control diet B (41.15±6.19 ) containing meat meal. The maximum FCR was observed in group C (1.40±0.022) and the minimum body weight was found in group A (1.281± 0.028) Body weight was observed in group C which was fed with fish meal feed and group A which was fed commercial diet respectively
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Effect Of Replacing Milk Fat With Chemically Interesterified And Enzymatically Transesterified Palm Olein on Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Ice Cream
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Ice cream is the most popular dairy product and equally liked by people of all ages. Milk fat is important to ice cream because it increases the richness of flavor, produces a smooth characteristic texture, gives body to the ice cream and contributes good melting properties. Intake of milk fat has been associated with coronary heart disease. Vegetable fats are used extensively as fat sources in ice cream. Functional properties of vegetable oils are modified by the process of hydrogenation. Palm olein is a fraction of palm oil having low melting point and high iodine value which is also used in ice cream manufacturing as source of vegetable fat. Physico-chemical characteristics of vegetable oils and fats can also be modified by interesterification. It is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule and may either be random or selective. Interesterification can be carried out chemically and enzymatically. Sodium Methylate is used in chemical interesterification. In enzymatic interesterification microbial lipases is used as the catalyst. In this research of ice cream manufacturing, milk fat was replaced with interesterified palm olein in to find out the optimum level at which milk fat could be replaced with interesterified palm olein and to develop a more health friendly ice cream which has lower level of saturated fatty acids and no trans fatty acids.
The experiment was involved in making ten types of ice cream and thirty batches of ice cream was prepared. Mix was heated to 80 °C, homogenized in a clean and sanitized double stage homogenizer. Pasteurized and homogenized mix was cooled immediately to 4 °C and will be aged at this temperature for 24 hours. The mix was then frozen. Analysis of skim milk powder for moisture, fat, acidity, protein, lactose and ash, analysis of milk fat for fat, free fatty acids and acidity, analysis of palm olein before and after interesterification for free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, melting point, color and moisture, analysis of ice cream for chemical tests including pH, acidity, fat, protein, ash, total solids and physical tests including color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability, physical parameters of ice cream for whippingability, hardness, overrun measurement, melting test, viscosity and storage study was determined. The data obtained was statistically analyzed to find out the effect of treatment and effect of storage on treatment.
Compositional attributes like fat, protein, ash and total solid contents were not influenced by the addition of chemically interesterified and enzymatically transesterified palm olein at all levels i.e from 25% to 100% replacement. Compositional attributes were not influenced by storage period of 60 days.Addition of either chemically interesterified palm olein or enzymatically transesterified palm olein did not have significant effect of pH and acidity of different treatments. During storage of 60 days pH slightly decreased while acidity increased non significantly.
The addition of vegetable oil in different treatments of ice cream tended to decrease the whippingability with increase levels of chemically interesterified and enzymatically transesteified palm olein. Statistical data represented that highest level of whippingability was T2 (1.185) and minimum level in T9 (0.913). Whippingability decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. Decrease in whippingability may be due to increase level of unmodified palm olein in ice cream. Overrun varied between different treatments of ice cream and maximum level of overrun in T2 (83.482) and minimum level in T9 (65.635). Decrease in overrun may be due increase level of chemically interesterified and enzymatically transesteified palm olein in mix of ice cream. Effect of storage on treatments was significant. The interaction between treatments and storage was also significant. Melting resistance varied between different treatments of ice cream and maximum level of melting resistance in T2 (39.660) and minimum level in T9 (21.667). Increase in melting resistance may be due increase level of chemically interesterified and enzymatically transesteified palm olein in mix of ice cream.
Flavor of different treatments of ice cream varied significantly among each other and the maximum score for flavor was in T2 (7.95) and minimum in T9 (6.56). Flavor slightly decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments.Statistical data for color of different treatments of ice cream indicated that all treatments varied significantly among each other and the maximum score for flavor was in T2 (8.07) and minimum in T9 (5.65). Color slightly decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. The mean scores for taste of modified vegetable fat in different treatments of ice cream showed that maximum level of score of taste was in T2 (8.04) and minimum in T9 (4.65). Decline in flavor score may be due to increase in modified vegetable oil in ice cream.
Overall acceptability scores were affected significantly with different treatments of ice cream with modified vegetable fat addition and storage interval and also significant. Judges placed T2 (7.95) at the top which differed significantly with different treatments of ice cream while the lowest mean overall acceptability scores were assigned to T9 (5.56). Storage also had significant effect on overall acceptability scores. The main objective of this research work was to replace milk fat with chemically interesterified and enzymatically transesterfied palm olein in the production of ice cream. Replacement of milk fat at T2 level i.e (50% milk fat and 50 % chemically interesterified palm olein) and T7 (25% milk fat and 75% enzymatically transesterified palm olein) did not have adverse effect on fat, protein,ash, total solids, pH and acidity of ice cream. As evident from the sensory scores T2 and T7 (50% milk fat and 50 % chemically interesterified palm olein) and T7 (25% milk fat and 75% enzymatically transesterified palm olein) obtained maximum score for color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability and did not influence significantly from control. It is concluded that satisfactory quality ice cream can be manufactured by replacing 50% milk fat with 50% chemically interesterified palm olein and 25% milk fat with 75% enzymatically transesterified palm olein.
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Dysmorphogeneis And Ocular Anomalies Associated With Toxic Exposure To Cigarette Somoke Condensate Total Particulate Matter and Auto-Rickshaw Smoke Solutions
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Cigarette smoke and auto-rickshaw smoke constitute perilous threats to the public health in urban regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Cigarette smoke and auto-rickshaw smoke solution on morphometric and ocular development of embryo using chicken embryo assay. Fertile White Leghorn chicken eggs at day 6 of incubation were aseptically windowed using a sterile 26-guage needle. Different cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) were prepared, using four different commercial filtered cigarettes and later on these CSCs were applied to the main "Y" branch of chorio-allontoic membranes (CAMs). Moreover, cigarette total particulate matter (TPM) from the Cambridge filters was extracted in 10 ml dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 200µl of this solution was applied to embryos. A double barrel plastic bottle attached with a polythene bag containing 100 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was used to collect exhaust samples from two stroke and four stroke auto-rickshaws. Subsequently, 200?l of each solution was applied to the embryos. On day 7 of incubation, the embryos were examined for morphological defects. Eyeballs were carefully removed, fixed in Formalin and processed for histological examination. Histological sections were digitized with a spot camera for precise interpretation of any subtle changes in ocular development. The data was presented as mean ± SD. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to evaluate different parameters between control and treated samples.
Embryonic exposure to TPM resulted in vascular and morphogenetic abnormalities in terms of ectopia cordis, bi-trunked and mammoth headed appearance. Impact of TPM on ocular development was manifested as irregular growth of ganglion cell layer showing marked asymmetry and undifferentiated retinal layers with erratic distribution of plexiform matter.
CSC exposure was associated with stunted embryonic growth. Ocular toxicity profile triggered by CSC exposure comprised of degenerative changes in forebrain and retinal ganglion cell layer in conjunction with influx of inflammatory cells, delayed differentiation of photoreceptor layer, outer limiting membrane and plexiform layers.
Application of FSARSS gave rise to four different types of ectopia cordis among all treated embryos, i.e. incomplete ectopia cordis, complete ectopia cordis, cervico-thoracic ectopia cordis and thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis. Ocular development was adversely affected leading to varied corneal abnormalities, asymmetrical growth of cuboidal epithelial lens cells and influx of inflammatory cells into the retinal layers.
TSARSS-treated embryos revealed widespread hemorrhages. Deterioration in the normal architecture of lens fiber, loss of retinal integrity and delayed differentiation of retinal layers were common findings among all TSARSS-treated embyoes.
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Study On Sero Prevalance Of Hepatitis C For Predisposition Of Diabetes In Pregnant Women From Low Economic Status Famlies
Material type: Book Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: This cross sectional study is design to rule out the effect of seroprevalence of HCV infection in causing diabetes in pregnant women and also in aim of identifying potential risk factors associated with HCV infection cause in pregnant women. A total of 550 pregnant women were participated in this study.We made two groups of pregnant women to rule out the association between seroprevalence of HCV and diabetes. One group consisted of 275 women who were anti- HCV negative and second group consisted of 275 women who were anti-HCV positive.
A blood sample was drawnin a gel vial for testing of anti HCV and a fluoride oxalate vial was used to draw blood for random plasma glucose levels testing among pregnant women.
ELISA was performed to confirm the seroprevalence of HCV infection and diabetes status was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels in pregnant women by hexokinase method. Data was gathered and analyzed on SPSS version 20.0 software. A Chi square test was used to know the relationship between diabetes and anti HCV. This test was also used to find outlink between anti HCV and other variables collected.
Most of the women in both groups did not know about their diabetic status. HCV positive group was presented with strong family history of diabetes. From the data it was suggested that possible risk factors for causing HCV infection among pregnant women were surgical procedure, blood transfusion and history of syringe use. Ear/nose piercing, history of dental, dilatation and curettage procedure and accidents were statistically not significantly associated in causing HCV infection. It was also found that number of abortions were high in HCV infected group (p-value=0.046).
No association was found between seroprevalence of HCV infection and diabetes among pregnant women (p value= 0.96). Therefore our hypothesis is rejected on the basis of this study results.
The most frequent age group was 18-27years of women found for pregnancy. Therefore in this age group our study results found that HCV infection prevalence was high. This group was found to be very prone in catching viral infection. S/CO ratios were also found to be too high in this age group due to the fact thatin this age groupHCV infection prevalence was high.
Also there is a strong association of blood pressure and HCV infection. Blood pressure found to be varying in HCV infected group.
Recommendations for further Research
According to several studies there was a strong true association between hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes. But our study results were not correlated. It may be due to the lack of confirmatory tests for both diseases which we did not perform.Following recommendations are offered for related research.
1. ELISA is commonly used as initial screening method for HCV antibody in serum. This method does not differentiate between acute, active or resolved infection. In this study we usedELISA for presence of antibody in serum but presence of antibody in serum is not a confirmation of active viremia in patient. The active viremia further can only be confirmed by PCR. It also tells us the true presence of virus in infected patient.So PCR is the confirmatory test of hepatitis C virus infection and it should be used for diagnosis and true presence of virus in body.
2. Random plasma glucose is a screening method for predicting gestational diabetes. Further confirmatory tests are required for diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Confirmatory test for diagnosis of gestational diabetes is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
3. Age and body mass index are confounders in relating the association of diabetes and hepatitis C infection. High BMI and older age are risk factor in causing diabetes.
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