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1. Bioconversion Of Agriculture Waste To Lysine With Brevibacterium Flavum (Wild) And Its Biological Evaluation In Broiler Chicks

by Amber Nawab | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Masroor | Ms. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1511,T] (1).

2. Suitability Of In-House Developed Pt-Pcr Fro The Detection And Serotyping Of Dengue Virus In Pakistan

by Kashif Iqbal Sahibzada | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aftab | Ms. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Dengue Virus (DENV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of family Flaviviridae having four serological different serotypes such as DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4 (Bai et al., 2008) Being a Flaviviridae member, the dengue virus is transmitted to human by genus Aedes, mainly Aedes agypti. Over the years dengue fever has become a significant infectious disease in different parts of the world that leads and increases the growth of mosquitoes. It has become epidemic in more than 100 countries on the globe with more than 2.5 billion people at the risk of infection. Pakistan has witnessed some severe outbreaks of dengue viral infection which results to major morbidity and mortality since mid of 90s. There is a need to overcome this infectious and in many cases fatal disease. Imprecise fatality morbidity and statistics underrate the magnitude of dengue as a regional health problem. Medical and public health services have been incapable to diminish this infection since there is no current vaccine available to prevent infectious disease, no effective medical treatments that avert the development of severe symptoms and no sustainable control measures against the vector that guarantee protection of affected communities. Management of dengue patients and principally dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) cases are the alarming challenges now a day and in the upcoming episodes in this country. To deal with this challenge a sensitive and specific technique is required for its early diagnosis along with the knowledge of dengue serotype to increase the specificity of diagnosis and treatment. This study was designed to check the usefulness of nucleic acid based molecular determination of dengue virus along with nucleic acid sequencing/ analysis of different Dengue serotypes through phylogenetic studies. Total 50 Blood samples were collected from the dengue suspected patients in 2011 outbreak of dengue. Samples were analyzed by PCR based detection and were compared with IgG, IgM detections to check the usefulness of PCR based nucleic acid detection. In second phase of study nucleic acid sequencing was done The study has recommended PCR as a suitable and sensitive method for the rapid detection of dengue virus as it was found more sensitive than other utilized techniques including antibodies detection however it was not found useful to differentiate between primary and secondary infection for which a combination of IgG, IgM is more helpful choice. Nucleic acid analysis helped to define the common serotypes/genotypes of dengue virus circulating in Pakistan. In addition the present study has correlated our studied serotypes to other serotypes circulating in the globe which showed 98% homology with Srilankan strain and find out sequence similarities of our serotypes to the other serotypes distributed worldwide through phylogenetic analysis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1551,T] (1).

3. Decolorization And Degradation Of Azo Dyes In Textile Effluent By Candida Tropicalis

by Urooj Chaudhry | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Ms. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Azo dyes are synthetic organic compounds widely used in the textile, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industries. It consist of one or more azo bonds (-N=N-) associated with one or more aromatic systems. Studies indicate that these dyes are toxic, harmful to the environment and form carcinogenic and/or mutagenic aromatic amines. These are not readily biodegradable in textile effluent treatment. To decolorize and degrade the textile industry dye effluents by treatment with microorganism Candida tropicalis (yeast) to an extent to make it least harmful to the water habitat and also to make fit for irrigation purposes. The influencing parameters that affect the percentage of decolorization rates are optimized in still culture fermentation. Spectrophotometric analysis method was used to estimate decolorization of textile effluent at its?max 390 nm. The optimal values of parameters such as effluent to water ratio, fermentation time and pH and carbon to nitrogen ratio are found to be 1:5, 72 hours, 6.0and 1:1.72 respectively. The concentration of ionic saltof CaCl2 was also optimized for maximum decolorizationand optimized concentration was 0.15% for Candida tropicalisrespectively. The decolorization of effluent was carried out on large scale in a flask of 2.5 L by applying the predetermined optimum levels. In this case the maximum percent of decolorization of the effluent was found to 80.34% with Candida tropicalis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1629,T] (1).

4. Isolation, Purification And Characterization Of Xylanase From Aspergillus Flavus (Wild Stin) Using Agriculture Waste as Substrate

by Hadia Rehman | Ms. Asma Waris | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1634,T] (1).

5. Production Of Polyhydroxybutyrate From Azotobacter Vinelandii Using Molasses And Whey As Substrates

by Samia Saeed | Ms. Asma Waris | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Ms. Sehrish.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is biodegradable polyester produced in nature by microbial fermentation and it is used as thermoplastic. Azotobacter vinelandii is a bacterium that accumulates PHB as intracellular granules in response to physiological stress such as excess of carbohydrate sources and limitation of nutrients e.g. nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus etc. PHB produced in this work have great potential be used in various industries like pharmaceutics and food industry for packaging purposes and medical field. Recent research work was conducted to produce PHB form cheap agro industrial wastes like Molasses and Whey by fermentation. Different parameters such as substrate water ratio, incubation period, volume of inoculums and pH were optimized for maximum yield of PHB. In this study fermentation media containing whey and molasses as substrates was used to check the production of PHB from the Azotobacter vinelandii. 0.5ml of inoculum media was taken in fermentation media and then kept for incubation for 24-72 hours. After incubation, culture media was centrifuged and then sediment was used for extraction, determination and identification of PHB. It was found that Azotobacter vinelandii in molasses contained medium gives maximum yield of PHB (mg/100mL) at 4% substrate water ratio after 48 hours of incubation period (140 mg/100mL), at 2.5 mL of volume of inoculum (204 mg/100mL), at pH 8.0 (220 mg/100mL), at 0.2% of peptone (252 mg/100mL) and 0.25% (234 mg/100mL) of yeast extract. While 4% of substrate water ratio after 60 hours of incubation (128 mg/100mL), 2.0 mL of volume of inoculum (176 mg/100mL), pH 7.0 (192 mg/100mL), 0.25% of peptone (248 mg/100mL) and 0.25% of yeast extract (240 mg/100mL) were observed to be optimum parameters for maximum production of PHB from Azotobacter vinelandii in whey based medium. Data was analyzed by means of linear regression analysis to determine R (regression coefficient), which was used to find significant differences (P?0.05) in each experiment. Conclusion: The results of present study show that molasses and whey are economically good substrates for production of polyhydroxybutyrate (biodegradable polymer) from Azotobacter vinelandii. The results also suggest that Azotobacter vinelandii is a good potential strain for production of PHB under optimized conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1810,T] (1).

6. Molecular Chracterization Of Pakistani Gaucher Disease Type 2 Patients From Lahore

by Maliha Afreen | Dr Muhammad Imran | Ms Asma Waris | Ms Sayeda Kalsoom | IBBT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1857,T] (1).

7. Optimization For The Production Of Amylase By Geobacillus Sbs-4S

by Nasreen abdul jabbar | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Ali Raza awan | Ms. Asma waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1905,T] (1).

8. Mutation Of Aspergillus Niger And It,S Application In Bioconversion Of Whey To Beta-Galactosidase

by Zulfiqar ali khaki | Ms.Huma mujahid | Dr. Aftab ahmed anjum | Ms. Asma waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2064,T] (1).

9. Dna Typing Of Saliva Stains Recovered From Date Pits

by Madiha kiran | Dr. M. Yasir zahoor | Dr. M. Imran | Ms. Asma waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2076,T] (1).

10. Biochemical Evaluation Of Armoracia Rusticana And Raphanus Sativus On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

by Nadia Rana (2012-VA-540) | Ms. Asma Waris | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia in which the body does not produce or properly utilize insulin. It the reason of interruption in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and caused the complications such as nephropathy, microangiopathy and retinopathy. It is the most widespread endocrine disorder, affects more than 176 million people worldwide (WHO 2004). Diabetes mellitus is generally classified into three types; type I, type II diabetics and gestational diabetes (Velho and Foguel, 2002). Type I diabetes mellitus is commonly occur among young people, it is also known as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Type I is the result of absolute deficiency of insulin that is commonly caused by the chronic autoimmune disease that results from complex interaction of both genetic and environmental factors (Pietropolo 2001). Type II diabetes mellitus is mostly occur in adults aged 40 years or above, it is commonly known as non-insulin diabetes mellitus characterized by too much hepatic glucose production, reduced insulin secretion from beta cells of pancreas, and peripheral tissues such as muscle adipose and liver become resistant to insulin (Ahmad 2006). Association of hyperglycemia with long term damage, dysfunction as well as ultimate organs failure, mainly the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidney and nerves has previously been recognized (Hung et al. 2005). Dyslipidemia is another main reason of mortality and morbidity that results in development of cardiovascular complications (Reasner 2008). It is a main risk factor of diabetes and mostly result from prolonged hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in both (type I and type II) diabetic patients is called ‘diabetic dyslipidemia’ (Mooradian 2009). Hyperlipidemia and an increase in blood cholesterol and triglyceride are results from decrease in lipolysis which is caused by deficiency of insulin, eventually increases the risk of heart attack and atherosclerosis (Avramoglu et al. 2006). The risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, ulceration and gangrene of extremities is increased with association of diabetes mellitus (Rotshteyn and Zito, 2004). According to current statistics, diabetes mellitus is worse or greater in developing countries than the developed countries worldwide (Oputa 2002). So there is a great need to discover, design and test new drugs having dual therapeutic properties to control and cure both closely related critical diseases, diabetes and dyslipidemia and their mutually linked chronic complications (Bhandari et al. 2002). In order to design and develop the drugs for the treatment, one of the best strategies is experimental animal models to understand pathophysiology of any disease (Rees and Alcolado, 2008; Chatzigeorgiou et al. 2009). For studying and testing anti-hyperglycemic agent, several animal models have been developed for the past few decades (Srinivasan and Ramarao, 2007). Chemical induction of experimental diabetes by alloxan is one of the most effective methods (Etuk 2010). Alloxan is a widely used diabetogenic agent that induced the type I diabetes in animals but it also represent the end stage type II diabetes milletus: as there is severe deficiency of insulin in plasma, the end stage type II diabetes mellitus also adopts the characteristics of T1DM (Viana et al. 2004). Alloxan exerts its action by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with cytosolic calcium raised in islet B of pancreas, when administered parenterally (Szkudelski 2001). Diabetic dyslipidemia is also acquired by the untreated alloxan induced diabetic animals (Alnoory et al. 2013). Currently herbal remedies are in great demand due to side effects associated with therapeutic synthetic drugs (Mahmood et al. 2011). There are large numbers of plants that have shown effective hypoglycemic activity after laboratory testing, more than 1200 plants species are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus worldwide (Eddouks et al. 2005). It is believed that antioxidants present in the diet help to reduce certain diseases, vegetables are rich in these compounds (Astley 2003; Bazzano et al. 2002). There are large number of herbs, spices and other plant materials that have shown hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, and are less harmful than synthetic drugs (Eidi et al. 2006). For the development of new pharmaceutical lead along with dietary supplement to already existing therapies, medicinal plants provide a valuable source of oral hypoglycemic compounds (Bailey and Day, 1989). Raphanus sativus (radish) belong to the family Brassicaceae and it is an edible root vegetable (Lewis-Jones et al. 1982). Radishes contain high quantity of calcium, magnesium potassium, copper, ascorbic acid, folic acid, vitamin B6, and riboflavin and low amount of saturated fat and are very low Cholesterol (Nunes et al. 2011). Roots, seeds and leaves are the different parts of radishes (Raphanus sativus) that are used for medicinal purposes (Nadkarni et al. 1976). Radish roots are beneficial to protect the cell membranes against lipid peroxidation and also inhibit the changes in membrane caused by fat rich diet (Sipos et al. 2002). Radishes (Raphanus sativus) have good hypoglycemic potential coupled with antidiabetic efficiency (Shukla et al. 2011). Due to hyperlipidemia the probabilities of cardiovascular disease increases in diabetic patient. Raphanus sativus (radish) is a traditional plant which is used to lower plasma lipid. It has the capability to lower the plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipids in normal rats (Taniguchi et al. 2006). Radishes are recommended as an alternative treatment for various diseases including hyperlipidemia, coronary heart diseases and cancer due to its high medicinal and nutritional value (Cetin et al. 2010). Phosphatase, catalase, sucrase, amylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvic carboxylase are the main enzymes that found in the radish roots (Singh et al. 2013). It is beneficially used in curing poor digestion and liver dysfunction (Lugasi et al. 2005), antioxidant activities (Wang et al. 2010), anti tumorigenic (Kim et al. 2011), anti-diabetic (Shukla et al. 2010). The leaves of radish are good source of protein (Singh and Singh, 2013). Armoracia rusticana (Horseradish) belongs to the Brassicaceae family; it is a hardy perennial plant, mustard and cabbage are also including in this family. The roots of horseradish are rich in vitamin C and B1, iron, potassium, calcium and magnesium, phytoncide and essential oils; Allyl isothiocyanate a (volatile aglycone) which is released by a glycoside is identical with the essence of mustard plant (Istudor 1998). Root of horseradish smells pungent due to the allyl sulfide, a substance present in garlic and onion. Armoracia rusticana is a source of many compounds that have been broadly studied for various health benefits (Lin et al. 2000). It contains several substances that have beneficial effects on peripheral blood flow. Its utilization normalizes the blood pressure and prevents the risk of thrombosis and sulfurous substances also improve the elasticity of cerebral and coronary blood vessels (Cirimbei et al. 2013). It has antibacterial properties due to allyl isothiocyanate present in volatile oils, especially mustard oil (Rosemary 1976). The main component of the horseradish and the other vegetables from Brasicaceae family is sinigrin, degraded by the myrosinase enzyme complex to the allyl isothiocyanate (Wang et al. 2010). The enzyme horseradish peroxidase, is a heme-containing enzyme found in the plant that utilizes hydrogen peroxide to oxidise a extensive variety of organic and inorganic compounds, widely used in molecular biology and biochemistry (Bladha and Olssonb, 2011). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2206,T] (1).

11. Comparative Evaluation Of Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect Of Herbal Medicinal Plants Extracts On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

by Sonia Aziz (2011-VA-03) | Ms. Asma Waris | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Maryam Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome described as inappropriate hyperglycemia triggered by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin or by a resistance to the action of insulin at the cellular level. It is the most shared endocrine disorder, upsetting 16 million individuals in the United States and as many as 200 million worldwide (Debra, 1991). The word diabetes was devised by the Greek physician Aeretaeus in the first century A.D. In the 17th century, Willis detected that the urine of diabetics as ideally sweet as if infused with honey or sugar. The existence of sugar in the urine of diabetics was established by Dobson in 1755 (Straton et al. 2000). Diabetes mellitus is a global health crisis, which has been obstinately disturbing the humanity, regardless of the socioeconomic profile and geographic location of the population. According to an estimate, one person is identified with diabetes every 5s somewhere in the world, while someone dies of it every 10s. Diabetes mellitus has achieved a pandemic form. Hence, it is very vital to control diabetes and its difficulties to lessen the human suffering (Wild et al. 2004). Alloxan a glucose equivalent and is toxic by selectively abolishing insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (that is beta cells) of many animal species. This produces an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (called "Alloxan Diabetes") in these animals, with features similar to type 1 diabetes in humans. Alloxan is selectively toxic to insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells because it preferentially amasses in beta cells through uptake via the GLUT2 glucose transporter. Alloxan, in the presence of intracellular thiols, produces reactive oxygen species which start toxicity by its redox reaction (Lenzen et al. 1998). There are diverse methods to the management of diabetes, like insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes: Sulphonylureas, which discharge insulin from pancreas by blocking the ATP-sensitive potassium channels; Biguanides, which reduce the insulin resistance; Thizaolidinediones, which upsurge the insulin sensitivity; alpha-glucodase inhibitors like acarbose, which lessen glucose absorption from intestine, thus reducing postprandial hyperglycemia; metiglinides like repaglimide and nateglamide, which are insulin secretogogues (Aslam, 1988). In spite of the statistic that synthetic drugs such as insulin, investigators have been building efforts to find insulin-like substances from plant sources for the treatment of diabetes. More than 1200 plant species have been suggested for the managementof diabetes (Radha et al. 2011) Natural resources such for example plants are cherished source of bioactive compounds. A large number of drugs have been recognized in medicinal practice from natural products (Philipeon et al. 2010). Recent scientific research and clinical studies have established the usefulness of some medicinal plants and herbal preparations in the development of standard glucose homeostasis. Herbal treatment have been used in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and other penalties of this metabolic disease (Ahmed et al. 2006). The herbal drugs are recommended extensively because of their effectiveness, less side effects and comparatively low cost (Lezney et al. 2004). Ethno pharmacological reviews show that more than 1200 plants are used in customary medical systems for their suspected hypoglycemic activity (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995, Dey et al. 2002, Grover et al. 2002). The hypoglycemic activity of a huge number of these plants/plant products has been appraised and inveterated in animal models (Gupta et al. 2005, Kesari et al. 2006) as well as in human beings (Herrera et al. 2004, Jayawardena et al. 2005). In some circumstances the bioactive principles have also been secluded and identified. However, the mechanism of action whereby most of these plants and yields lesser the blood glucose level rests hypothetical. This study reveals the comparative effect of different herbal plants effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Six different herbal plants have been used in this study to investigate the hypoglycemic activity. These plants areAllium sativum (Garlic), Aloe vera(Kanwargandal), Gymnemasylvestre (Gurmar), Momordicacharantia (karela), Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Methidana), and Syzigiumcumini(Jamun). Table 1: Plants used in present study Plant and family Plant part used Active ingredient Mechanism of action Reference Allium sativum, Alliaceae Garlic gloves S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide-precursor of allicin and garlic oil Arouse in vitro insulin discharge,Hinder glucose making by the liver Sheela et al. 1992, Augusti and Shella 1996. Aloe vera, Aspholedeceae Leaf pulp Phytosterols Excite production or discharge of insulin Modify action of carbohydrate processing enzymes Rajasekaran et al. 2004, Tanaka et al. 2006. GymnemaSylvestre, Asclepiadaceae Leaves Gymnemosides and gymnemic acid (from the saponin fraction) Triterpene glycosides Kindle exudation of insulin from rat islets. Declines the activity of gluconeogenicenzymes,Induce beta cell regeneration. Shanmugasundaram, 1990, Chattopadhyay, 1999. Mormordicacharrantia, Cucurbitaceae Fruit pulp Charantin (a peptide),Insulin like polypeptide P ("vegetable insulin") Encourage insulin secretion, Quash the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes Rises the quantity of beta cells in diabetic rats Rao et al. 1981, Day et al. 1992, Sarkar et al. 1996. Trigonellafoenumgraecum, Fabaceae Seeds  Alkaloid-trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and coumarin  4hydroxyisoleucine Galactomannan depress digestion and absorption of carbohydrates Upsurge glucose induced insulin release Khosla et al. 1995, Hannan et al. 2007. Syzigiumcumini Seeds  Mycaminose Kindle kinases intricate in peripheral utilization of glucose  Achrekar et al. 1992.  Kumar et al. 2008 1.1: Allium sativum(Garlic) is a common zesty flavoring agent used since prehistoric times. Garlic has been cultured in all over world for its distinctive flavor, foodstuff, and medicinal properties. It has mostly been ascribed to its hypoglycemic, anticoagulant, antibiotic, hypo-cholesterolaemic, antihepatotoxic, anticancer, immune system modulatory and antioxidant possessions (Bakri and Douglas, 2005). Figure 1: structure of allicin 1.2: Aloe vera(Kanwargandal)is one of the therapeutic plants which are conventionally well accredited plant in the controlling of diabetes. It fits to family Liliaceae (sub-family of the Asphodelaceae). Many studies titles that the high innards of phenolic compounds, glycosides (aloins), 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone derivatives,β -1,4 acetylated mannan, mannose-phosphate and alprogenglucoprotein in the A. vera is vital for its biotic action. Through past two years, Aloe vera used as helpful beneficial agent which defensively act as a free radical scavenging and other antioxidant characteristics on diabetic patients, by monitoring raised anions in an alloxan or STZ-induced diabetic animal models (Nakamura, et al. 2011). Figure 2: structure of phytosterole 1.3: Gymnemasylvestre (Gurmar) is a plant used in Asia as a usual cure for diabetes or “sweet urine.” The hypoglycemic action of Gymnema leaves was first recognized in the late 1920s. Gymnema is testified to upsurge glucose uptake and utilization. It also mends the utility of pancreatic β-cells and may also decline glucose captivation in the gastrointestinal tract. Phytochemically the plant has been described to comprehend gymnemagenin- the sapogenin. Gymnemic acid was sequestered in pure states from the hot water extract of leaves of G. sylvestre (Puratchimani and Jha, 2004). Figure 1: structure of gymnemic acid 1.4: Momordicacharantia (Bitter Melon) also known as karela, is one of the plants normally used for its glucose-lowering properties (Ahmed et al., 1998). The slices of the plant usually used contain the entire plant, its fruit or seeds, all of which are bitter due to the manifestation of the chemical momordicin. The anti-diabetic constituents in bitter melon comprise charantin, vicine, polypeptide-p, alkaloids and other non-specific bioactive components such as anti-oxidants (Beloin, et al. 2005). Figure 4: structure of momordicin 1.5: Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Fenugreek L. Leguminosae) is one of the ancient therapeutic plants, originating in India and Northern Africa.The leaves and seeds, which ripe in long pods, are used to formulate extracts or powders for medicinal use.The hypoglycemic properties of fenugreek have been recognized to numerous mechanisms.The amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleucine in fenugreek seeds amplified glucose-induced insulin release in human and rat pancreatic islet cells. Fenugreek seeds apply hypoglycemic effects by exciting glucose-dependent insulin discharge from pancreatic beta cells, as well as by impeding the actions of alpha-amylase and sucrase, two duodenal enzymes involved in carbohydrate breakdown (Gupta, et al. 2001). Figure 5: structure of 4-hydroxyisolucine 1.6: Syzigiumcumini(Jamun) tree belongs to the Myrtaceae family. This is also called as Jamun, Jambul and Jambol in Pakistan, India and Malaya. The barks, leaves and seeds extracts of SC have been testified to have anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-diarraheal effects. A complex mycaminose is extracted from its seeds which display anti-diabetic characteristic (WL Li, et al. 2004). Figure 6: structure of mycaminose There are numerous potential mechanisms through which these herbs can perform to regulate the blood glucose level (Tanira, 1994). The mechanisms of action can be associated, commonly to the capability of the plant in question (or its active principle) to lesser plasma glucose level by meddling with one or more of the procedures involved in glucose homeostasis. The described mechanisms whereby herbal antidiabetic remedies decrease blood glucose levels are more or less alike to those of the artificial oral hypoglycemic drugs and are abridged as follows (Acharya et al. 2008, Bastaki, 2005, Bnouham et al. 2006). i) Stimulation of insulin production and/or discharging from pancreatic beta-cells ii) Revival of impaired pancreatic beta cells iii) Development of insulin sensitivity iv) Imitating the action of insulin v) Modification of the action of some enzymes that are tangled in glucose metabolism reducing the absorption of carbohydrates from the gut. The effectiveness of herbal drugs is substantial and they have insignificant side effects than the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. There is growing demand by patients to use the natural products with antidiabetic activity. In recent times there has been improved concern in the plant remedies. Plants grasp certain potentials in the organization of Diabetes mellitus. Isolation and documentation of active ingredients from these plants, preparation of unvarying dose and dosage schedule can play a noteworthy role in improving the hypoglycemic action (Jung et al. 2006). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2209,T] (1).

12. Dna Based Characterization Of Triacyl Glycerol Lipase Gene From Geobacillus Sp. Sbs-4s

by Maheen Aslam (2012-VA-803) | Dr. Muhammed Tayyab | Ms. Asma Waris | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Lipases are hydrolases responsible for the liberation of fatty acids from triglycerides (Akoh et al. 2004). With the exception of hydrolysis, lipolytic enzymes can also catalyze transesterification, esterification and interesterification in low aqueous conditions (Goldberg et al. 2005). Under micro-aqueous conditions, lipases have exceptional ability to catalyze the reverse reactions that leads to acidolysis, alcoholysis and esterification (Jaegar and Reetz 1998). Previously production of lipases has been reported from various sources like microorganisms, animals and plants (Lee et al. 2006). Lipases extracted from different sources have broad spectrum properties depending on their sources regarding pH optima, positional specificity, thermostability, fatty acid specificity, etc (Gupta et al. 2004). Thermostable lipases are important for many industries due to their distinct feature (Demirjian et al. 2001). Psychrophilic lipases have high activity at low optimum temperature so they are fascinated for the production of relatively frail compounds and their use has been increased in the organic synthesis of chiral intermediates (Joseph et al. 2008). Alkali stable lipases have ability to work optimally at alkaline pH and are highly suitable to be used in detergents (Sarethy et al. 2011). Lipases are the component of additives in biotransformations, environmental bioremediations, molecular biology applications, food and detergent industry and heterologous gene expression in psychrophilic hosts to prevent formation of inclusion bodies (Houde et al. 2004). Lipases occur in almost all organisms from bacteria to complex organisms. In complex eukaryotes, pig and human pancreas are the main source for lipase production. In eukaryotes, lipases carry out lipoproteins metabolism, fat digestion, reconstitution and adsorption. Lipases have also been extracted from plants. They are found in higher plants and energy reserve tissues. (Treichel et al. 2010). However, microorganisms are preferred for the production of enzymes over plants and animals because of their shortest generation time, the high yields, great flexibility in environmental conditions, ease of cultivation conditions, variety in catalytic activities, regular supply due to absence of seasonal fluctuations, simplicity in genetic manipulation and quick growth of microorganisms on economical media (Gurung et al. 2013). The production of microbial enzymes is safer and more expedient and they have more stability than their corresponding animal and plant enzymes (Messaoudi et al. 2010). Lipases share a common architecture of α/β-hydrolase fold and a highly conserved pentapeptide catalytic triad G-X1-S-X2-G, where G for glycine, S for serine, X1 for histidine and X2 for glutamic or aspartic acid (Widmann et al. 2010). In the highly conserved catalytic triad there is a nucleophilic residue comprising serine and a catalytic residue containing aspartic or glutamic acid and histidine (Anobom et al. 2014). Lipases have alkyl groups on the surface of their structure due to which they are strongly hydrophobic. Broad substrate specificity is another remarkable characteristic of lipases. Also they catalyze the hydrolysis of alcohols with various chain lengths and esters of fatty acids. The long chain fatty acids of varying chain lengths hydrolysis form triglycerides correspondingly (Patil et al. 2011). Lipases are biotechnologically important enzymes and they have vast applications in leather, food, textile, pharmaceutical, detergent, paper, cosmetic industries and in biodiesel formation (Gupta et al. 2004). Lipases are used in processing of food by the esterification and transesterication of oils and fats. These enzymes are involved in the enhancement of flavor, prolong shelf life and improves aroma of bakery goods, beverages, dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In food Introduction 3 industry egg yolk is treated with phospholipase to hydrolyze egg lecithin and isolecithin which improves its heating stability and emulsification capacity. This treated egg yolk is then used for the processing of mayonnaise, baby foods, custards, salad or food dressings and sauces. Lipases are also used to remove fats from meat and fish (Aravindan et al. 2006). In textile industry lipases are used in processing of fabrics, thus improving its quality and absorbing ability by removing size lubricants. Polyethylene terephthalate is an important synthetic fiber in the textile industry (Araujo et al. 2008). Lipases action on that fiber improves its hydrophilicity and anti-static ability (Contesini et al. 2010). Lipases in therapeutics are involved in the synthesis of macrolide products. Macrolide products have potential antitumor activity against a broad spectrum of human tumor lines including multidrug resistant cell lines. In pharmaceutical industries, lipases are used for esterification, transesterication and asymmetric hydrolysis of racemic alcohols and carboxylic acids to produce their enantiomeric forms. Many β-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-asthamic drugs are pharmacologically active in their one enantiomeric form while toxic in other form like “profens and ibuprofen” are pharmacologically active in their (S)-enantiomeric form whereas (S)-thalidomide has severe side-effects (Jegannathan and Nielsen 2014). Leather manufacturing industries use lipases for degreasing which is the process of removing fats and grease from skins and hides of cattle. Organic solvents and surfactants are also used to process leather but these methods are not eco-friendly and results in the emission of volatile organic compounds. Besides fat dispersion lipases also improve the quality of leather by making it water proof and low fogging (Horchani et al. 2012). Lipase is used as a catalyst in the tranesterification of vegetable oil or alcohols to form emollient esters like myristyl myristate. Emollient esters due to their moisturizing properties are Introduction 4 used in beauty creams. Lipases have also been used in anti-obese creams and they are added as texturing agents to improve the consistency of creams and lotions (Sharma and kanwar 2014). Laundry detergents have surfactants as their primary constituent which remove stains. But they require a considerable amount of energy and also they are toxic to our environment, released in water even they are harmful to aquatic life. The detergent industries are developing trends to use such agents that are eco-friendly and require less energy. Nowadays enzymes are being used in the detergents to remove tough stains and give softness, resiliency to fabrics, antistaticness, dispersible in water and mild to eyes and skin. Lipases are used specially to remove oil and grease stains (Ghuncheva and Zhiryacova 2011). The demand of industries for lipases has grown in the past decade for their environment friendly nature, biodegradability, high specificity and high catalytic efficiency. The commercial applications of lipases are a billion-dollar business that comprises their use in a broad spectrum of industries. Many techniques are being used nowadays to improve the features of lipases e.g., stability, activity, specificity and selectivity, reduction of inhibition (Rebeiro et al. 2011). The main advantage of using immobilized lipases is that it is possible to reuse them, since they can be easily recovered, thus making the process economically feasible, not interacting chemically with the polymer, thus avoiding its denaturation in detergent industry and ester formation (Sharma and Kanwar 2014). Genetic engineering has been used to modify the industrial enzymes to enhance its properties (Adrio and Demain 2014). For lipases as potential candidates of detergent industry, these have to be thermostable, alkali stable, stable against proteolysis, action of oxidative compounds and other chemicals used in detergents. In food and pharmaceutical industry usage Introduction 5 lipases should be more stable in organic solvents and they must show high stereospecificity (Verma et al. 2012). Geobacillus sp. SBS-4S is a thermophillic microorganism that was isolated from Gilgit bultistan, Northern areas of Pakistan. It was found to be gram positive, rod shaped aerobic endospore-forming bacterium. It grows optimally on pH 7 and temperature 55 °C. It produces several industrially important extracellular enzymes including amylases, proteases and lipases (Tayyab et al. 2011). The present study deals with the characterization of triacylglycerol lipase gene responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2234-T] (1).

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