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1. Production, Purification And Concentration Of Rabbit Anti Goat I&G Antibodies

by Yasir Ashrif | Dr. Abdu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Ali Raza | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Antibodies are not only important in medical research but these are also important in treatment. In this study, the production, purification and concentration of polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against goat IgG immunoglobulins in rabbits was carried out. Partial purification of goat IgG obtained at 33 % ammonium sulphate saturation was 2.43 mg/mL. It was followed by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose ion exchange chromatography which gave purified fraction of IgG. Then it was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and now the IgG concentration was found 3.17 mg/mL. After purification, different doses of IgG in combination with adjuvant were injected into nine, 8 months old rabbits. After immunization of rabbits, the blood samples were collected and antigoat IgG was purified as described above, this rabbit antigoat IgG concentration after purification was found 3.26 mg/mL. Production of these anti-IgG antibodies were tested by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and radial immunoassay. The titer of AGPT with goat and rabbit serum was 256 and the titer with IgG was 32. The purity of IgG was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), by obtaining 50 KDa bands of IgG heavy chains and 25 KDa bands of light chains. However, this purified rabbit anti-goat IgG when conjugated with horse radish peroxidase can serve to diagnose various microbial infections of goat through ELISA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1197,T] (1).

2. Production Of Azotobacter Vinelandii Mutant To Enhance The Production Of Alginate Through Submerged

by Sobia Saeed | Ms. Shagufta Saeed | Mr. Muhammad | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1523,T] (1).

3. Bioconversion of Agriculture Waste to Lysine with UV Mutated Strain of Brevibacterium Flavum and ItsBiological Evaluation in Broiler Chicks.

by Alia Tabassum | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1530,T] (1).

4. Identification Of Polymorphism In Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Co-Activator Alpha And its Effect on Milk Yied in Sahiwal Cattle

by Farheen Iqbal | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Maryam Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Background: PPARGC1A is also known as PCG1A gene. PPARGC1A has a key function in activating a variety of nuclear hormone receptors and transcription factors regulating energy homeostasis. It is also involved in adaptive thermogenesis, oxidative metabolism, adipogenesis, and gluconeogenesis. The bovine peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-? co activator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A) gene is associated with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for milk fat yield. Hypothesis: It is hypothesized that PPARGC1A gene has genetic association with milk production traits and can be used as molecular marker. Parameters/ Methodology: 50 Blood samples of unrelated true representative were collected from two Government livestock farms. DNA will be extracted and amplification of the PPARGC1A exonic region was performed with specially designed primers. Sequencing of the PCR products was performed on ABI genetic analyzer. Statistical Design: Analysis of the sequences was done with the help of various bioinformatics software such as Chromas (2.1), Clustal W and MEGA (4.1) to identify the polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done by using SNPator software to find the relation of identified polymorphism with milk yield. Conclusion: This study helped in contributing the more milk yield in cattle breeds. Furthermore it will improve the understanding about polymorphism association with milk yield of the cattle. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1584,T] (1).

5. Diagnostic Value Of 4Bp- 5' Gtca Deletion In Duarte Galactosemia

by Sadia Zia | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1602,T] (1).

6. Designing The Small Interference Rna Against Expression Of Coat Protein (Cp) Gene Of Potato Virus X (Pvx)

by Shafique Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1605,T] (1).

7. Analysis Of Cuticle And Ovoid Bodies In Human Hair

by Aamna Khan | Ms. Maryam Javed | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1635,T] (1).

8. Development Of Latent Fingerprints On Diifferent Substrates Using Various Fruit And Vegetables Extracts

by Misbah Khan | Dr. Muhammd Yasir Zahoor | Mr. Akhtar Ai | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1667,T] (1).

9. Comparasion Of Differnt Presumptive Tests For Detection Of Bloodstain After Washing Fabric With Different

by Samreen Mushtaq | Ms. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1674,T] (1).

10. Molecular Identification Of Bacterial Infections In Human Spontaneous Abortions

by Zarish Noreen | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Mr. Akhar Ali | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A miscarriage medically known as spontaneous abortion is defined as a pregnancy that ends by itself spontaneously before the fetus has reached a viable gestational age of 20 to 24 weeks. Brucellosis, Q fever and Chlamydiosis are the zoonotic diseases that are widely distributed around the world and are caused by gram negative Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila pecorum and Chlamydophila abortus. The current study was carried out for the molecular detection of five zoonotic bacteria in spontaneous human abortion cases. The complete blood analysis is helpful for the early diagnosis of infections in pregnancy. In this study complete blood count (CBC) and liver function test (LFT) of all patients was carried out and it was found that hemoglobin, total leukocyte count (TLC), serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphate, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were found to be increased as compared to normal values which indicated the fact that these parameters may fluctuate in human abortion cases. Similarly in the present study DNA was isolated from blood samples by adopting the procedure of Genex kit. Five sets of primers were used as described earlier for identification of bacteria (Berri et al. 2009; Bally et al. 1992). In our local population of pregnant women the risk of different bacteria was evaluated and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) results were analyzed to determine the presence of different bacterial pathogens in all patients. The percentage prevalence of each bacterial pathogen was calculated. The prevalence of B. abortus was found to be maximum (11.6%) while B. melitensis was not detected in any patient. However, C. burnetii and C. pecorum was found to be 3.33% each and C. abortus was found to be 6.66% respectively. In healthy females no infection was observed. Quantitative data in this study was statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0). The m-PCR assay developed in current study provides a new tool for Brucellosis, Chlamydiosis and Q fever diagnosis. The application of this assay may be helpful to control animal and human infections. The study will result in the development of a diagnosis test that can be utilized for the identification of bacterial infections at early stage of pregnancy and will be helpful to reduce the number of abortions by treatment of specific bacterial infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1712,T] (1).

11. Nutritional Evaluation Of Jatropha Curcas Seed Meal Toxicity With Of Without Heat And Chemical Treatments

by Nadia Nawaz | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Materials and Methods: Defatted meal was mixed with Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and methanol. 2nd sample was mixed with Sodium hydroxide NaOH and heat 3rd defatted sample was mixed with NaHCO3 solution to form a paste cover with aluminum foil and place in autoclave at 121°C for 30 minutes .The autoclave sample was dried at 250°C for 5 hours in an oven and prepared for the determination of Antinutritional factors and tried to check the best detoxification procedure and nutritional quality of Jatropha curcas seed meal. After that prepare feed and take a trail on rats, done gross pathology and biochemical analysis of blood. Statistical analysis: Quantitative data obtained was analyzed using one way analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) under complete randomize design mean were compared using Duncan's new multiple range tests ( DMS) the statistical significance define as P ?0.05 (Nabil et al. 2011). Costat-2003, Co-Hort, version 6.303 software was used for analysis purpose. Output: Treatment with NaOH and heat to the Jatropha meal was the best achieve method for detoxification of that seed which enhance its nutritional value. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1715,T] (1).

12. Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid Extraction & Qantification From Human Saliva Deposited On Fruits With Human Bite

by Shahid Nazir | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1717,T] (1).

13. Extraction, Purificaton And Characterization Of Proteolytic Enzyme From Fig (Ficus Carica)/ Karachi

by Haseeb Akram Sindhu | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aftab | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Today, the enzymes are generally used in various industrial applications and require for more stable, highly active and specific enzymes are growing rapidly. Global market for industrial enzymes is reported to be €1 billion in 1995 (Godfrey and West, 1996) whereas, it was increased to $2.3 billion in 2007 and was expected to increase to over $2.7 billion by 2012. In this piece of research work, purification and characterization of papain (a proteolytic enzyme) from Kachri (Cucumis trigonus) and Ficus (Ficus carica) were carried out. Extraction of papain was done using 0.1M alkaline phosphate buffer of pH 8.00, 70% ethanol and dist.water. Purification of papain was carried out by Ammonium Sulphate precipitation and dialysis followed by Gel filtration by Sephadex G-50. Then characterization of papain such as protein estimation, determination of proteolytic activity (international Unit) of enzyme and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to determined molecular weight. Finally, the yield and proteolytic activity of papain was measured and compared with the commercial product available in the market. Crude preparation of enzyme has a wide specificity due to the presence of various proteinase and peptidase isozymes. The performance of the enzyme depends on the plant source, the climatic conditions for growth, and the methods used in its extraction and purification, for example, if the fruit is healthy, then enzyme found is more active. Papain is used in many industries such as breweries, pharmaceuticals, food, leather, cosmatics, detergents, meat and fish processing for a variety of processes. Therefore, the end use segments are many in signifying that papain has high export demand (Ezekiel and Florence, 2012). Outcomes In case, Kachri and Ficus contain high concentration of proteolytic enzyme. These enzymes being present in natural fruit were free from any toxic effect. Hence can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Statistical analysis Student's t-Test was used for comparing the means of two samples Kachri (Cucumis trigonus) and Ficus (Ficus carica). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1722,T] (1).

14. Trace Analysis Of Gun Shot Residue On Different Fabrics Using Locally Manufactured Ammunition In Pakistan

by Muneeba Butt | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1733,T] (1).

15. Development Of The Test For The Diagnosis Of Classical Galactosemia In General Papulation

by Mehmmona Iqbal | Dr Muhammad Imran | Ms Faiza | Ms Sehrish Firyal | IBBT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1856,T] (1).

16. Polymorphism Identification In Bovine Growth Hormone Gene And Association With Milk Production Trait

by Aasma Manzoor | Dr.Asif Nadeem | Ms. Faiza | Prof.Dr. Tahir yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1968,T] (1).

17. Comparative Study Of Dust Prints Preserved By Electrostatic Dust Print Lifter (Edpl) Tape Lifting And Digital

by Afreen laeeque | Ms.Maryam javed | DR. Asif nadeem | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1973,T] (1).

18. In- Silico Functional Prediction Of Prion Protein Polymorphisms In Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

by Sana jafar | DR. Nuhammad imran | Dr. Muhammad yasir zahoor | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2011,T] (1).

19. Analysis Of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor P16 Polymorphism In Canin Tumors

by Hafiz muhammad farooq yaqub | Dr. Muhammad wasim | Dr. muhammad imran | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2047,T] (1).

20. Biologigal Biochemical And Histopathological Responses Of Rats Fed With Detoxified Jatropha Curcas Seed Meal

by Sunnia Sharif | Ms. Faiza masood | Dr. Abu saeed hashmi | Dr. Asif nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2063,T] (1).

21. Development Of Lamp An Economical Molecular Diagnostic Tool For Avian Influenza H9N2 The Field

by Farhana Ehsan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr.M. Imran | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2124,T] (1).

22. Production Of Laccase By Immobilized White Rot Fungi And Its Application For The Decolorization Of Textile Effluent Dyes

by Iqra Ghulam Rasool (2012-VA-579) | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Textile wastewater effluent contains several types of dyes that are toxic, carcinogenic, and dangerous for environment (Nyanhongo et al. 2002). More than 10,000 different kinds of dyes and pigments are used in dyeing and textile industries. Approximately 8, 00, 000 tons colorant is produced annually and 10% of used dyes are enters the environment in the form of wastes. There are different types of textile dyes such as direct dyes, disperse dyes, reactive dyes, acid dyes, and basic dyes. Wastewater effluents discharge from textile industries contain more than 10-15% of these dyes (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Such wastewater effluents are being discharged into water stream without or after only partial treatments, causing water pollution and negatively affecting the aquatic life. The treatment of textile wastewater effluents are of major environment concerns (Nyanhongo et al. 2002). White rot fungi (WRF) is a wide class of fungi and it is mostly comprised of basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and lignin-decomposing fungi (Wesenberg et al. 2003). WRF are the most abundant wood degraders, and are so named because they leave a bleached appearance of the wood fibers following their attack. WRF has the ability to degrade contaminants by virtue of the nonspecific nature of its extracellular ligninolytic enzyme system (Nyanhongo et al. 2002) The white rot fungus is also known as lignin degraders because it degrades lignin effectively due to some enzymes present in it. The important enzymes involves in degradation of lignin are following: (i) lignin peroxidase: It oxidizes both phenolics and non pheolics compounds, (ii) manganese-dependent peroxidase, (iii) laccase: It oxidises phenolic compounds and produce phenoxy radicals and quinones; (iv) glucose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase used for H2O2 production, and (v) celloulobiose quinone oxidoreductase for quinone reduction (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Laccase (oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) belongs to polyphenol oxidases group of enzymes. Copper atoms are present in the catalytic center of enzyme so it is also known as multicopper oxidases (Baldrain et al. 2006). The molecular mass of laccase is 50–100 kDa (Couto and Toca 2006). According to the mechanism of laccase, it carries out the reduction of oxygen to water along with the oxidation of its substrate. Laccases oxidize wide range of compounds such as polyphenols, methoxy substituted phenols, aromatic diamines, and other compounds (Baldrain et al. 2006). The substrate specificity of laccase is very wide and broad. In ortho and para substituted mono and polyphenolics substrate, it carries out reduction by removing hydrogen atom from hydroxyl group. In aromatic amines, it removes one electron and produces free radicals. These radical are able of many other reactions such as depolymerization, repolymerization, demethylation, or quinone formation. During lignin degradation, oxidation of methoxyhydroquinones followed by auto-oxidation of the methoxysemiquinones. Furthermore, formation of superoxide anion radicals undergoes more chemical reactions. The activity of laccase may be increased by using different kind of activators, such as ABTS (2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- sulfonic acid), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, or compounds secreted by fungi (Abadulla et al. 2000). In the presence of ABTS, the decolorization efficiency increases up to 45% (Tong et al. 2007). Laccases have been produced from different kind of sources such as some species of fungus like white rot fungi, different kinds of bacteria, and some insects (Heinzkill et al. 1998; Diamantidis et al. 2000; Dittmer and Kanost 2010). This enzyme is widely distributed in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Basidiomycetes, WRF is the major source for the production of laccase enzyme because this fungi is involved in metabolism of lignin (Bourbonnais et al. 1995). There are many applications of fugal laccases such as effluent decolorization discharged from industries, degradation of pulp released from paper and pulp industries, removal of phenolics compounds from alcohols, synthesis of organic compounds, biosensors, pharmaceutical sector (Yaver et al. 2001). This enzyme can also improve animal performance, increase nutrient digestibility when added to animal feed (Sharma et al. 2013). Fungal laccases have higher redox potential of +800mV as compared to plants or bacterial laccases that’s why there are several applications of laccase in biotechnology field especially in the decolorization of dyes. Enzymes can be produce in larger amount so that laccase based decolorization techniques are advantageous to bioremediation technologies (Devi et al. 2012). Pleurotus is a species of WRF and few laccases have been isolated, purified and cloned from Pleurotus species. However, the physiological significance of laccase produced by the white rot fungi is not known. Literature reports that mycelia culture of Pleurotus florida produces at least two laccases (L1 and L2), one of which appears to be linked with the mycelia growth of the fungus (Das et al. 1997). The L1 isoenzyme is dominantly involved in the dye decolorization process. Submerged fermentation (SmF) is a type of fermentation in which microorganism is grow in liquid broth and enzymes and other compounds are released in the broth. This technique used free liquid substrates such as nutrients etc. The substrates are utilized quite rapidly and constantly supplemented with nutrients. In fermentation broth, microorganisms are provided with appropriate nutrients and conditions such as high oxygen concentration for the production of microorganism in order to get desired products. In this technique, mycelium formation is takes place. Mycelium formation can lead to pellet formation which hinders the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients in the medium. In recent times, wide variety of secondary metabolites has been produced commercially by fungal fermentation. Fungi are complex microorganism that is different morphologically and structurally at different phases of their life cycles form others. It is also differ in form between surface and submerged growth in fermentation media. Nature of liquid media also effect on the growth of fungi. Different culture conditions such as temperature, pH and mechanical forces are important for fungi growth but these parameters are different for different fungi (Kossen et al. 2000). Enzymes act like catalyst and they speed up any chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction. The uses of enzymes are advantageous due to its several characteristics and features as compared to conventional chemical catalyst. However, there are some problems that can reduce the operational life time of any enzymes. These problems includes; non-reusability of enzyme, the instability of their structure, high cost of isolation, purification and characterization and their sensitivity to harsh condition of reaction. These objectionable limitations of enzymes may be reduced by the use of immobilized enzymes. There are mainly four procedures present for immobilization of any cell (Kunamneni et al. 2007). These procedures are following: adsorption, gels entrapment or polymer entrapment, covalent coupling, and cross-linking to insoluble matrices (Brouers et al. 1989). For immobilization different kinds of matrices, such as agar, calcium alginate beads, polyacrylamide gel, etc have been used. In order to select suitable matrix and immobilization procedure, type of the cell, type of the substrate, medium conditions and products are major factors (Prasad et al. 2005). During immobilization, enzyme is fixed to or within solid matrix in order to get heterogeneous immobilized enzyme system. Naturally enzymes are bounded to cellular membrane in living cells for most cases so in order to get the natural form of enzyme, immobilization of the cell is done. This immobilized system stabilized the structure and activity of the enzyme for longer period of time. When enzymes are immobilized, they are stronger and more challenging to harsh environment changes. Immobilization also allows easy recovery of enzyme and also it’s multiple re-use in processes. The Michaelis constant of immobilized enzymes increased and their activity usually lowered when compared to free enzyme. When immobilization procedure applied, different structural changes introduced to an enzyme which leads to these alterations. Immobilization helps to maintain the structure, stability and activity of enzyme for longer time without being de-activated (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Immobilization represents an attractive option to obtain enzymatic catalyst for dyes treatment. This technique provides different advantages: (i) it prevents enzyme leakage even under harsh conditions; (ii) it facilitates enzyme use in different types of reactors like packed bed, stirred tank and continuous bed; (iii) it causes stabilization of the enzyme tertiary structure, usually as a consequence of multipoint attachment of the enzyme to the support, providing enzyme rigidity. The stabilization provided by covalent bonding is usually counter balanced by partial enzyme deactivation. This negative effect can be mitigated by carefully optimizing the immobilization conditions in order to maximize the ratio between immobilized enzyme activity and activity of the primary enzyme solution (Pezzella et al. 2014). Immobilization of laccase was extensively investigated with broad range of different techniques and substrates. Inactivation of enzyme occurs when oxidized products are absorbed on the surface of the immobilization matrix support (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Textile industries discharged wastewater effluents comprised of toxic dyes are dangerous for aquatic life and have harmful impacts on the environment. There are different methods including physical and chemical methods which are use previously to decolorized dyes. These physical and chemical methods are quite costly, prolonged, ineffective and insecure (Shang and Chi 1996; Mechichi et al. 2006). In comparison to these methods, biological processes are quite suitable and helpful. Biological processes are less expensive, safe and take less time and effective. Biological processes used microorganisms to decolorize dyes. Laccase as an extracellular oxidative enzyme produced by white rot fungi are eco-friendly and cheap. In order to decolorize dye, three day old fermentation media is used and dyes is added in the broth. To get 70-75% decolorization in fungal culture, more than 48 hours are required. Pleurotus Species produced laccase efficiently and this laccase could decolorize malachite green dye upto 70% within 24 hours (Yan et al. 2009). Laccases can degrade several dye structures such as phenol, polyphenols and diamines (Abadulla. et al. 2000) to degrade harmful compounds into less toxic compounds and may be helpful to reduce environmental pollution (Gianfreda et al. 1999). The specific features and mechanism of laccase helps to make it a versatile biocatalyst. Due to its versatility, it is suitable for several applications such as biopulping, biobleaching, and industrial wastewater treatment. Due to the severe environment legislation, the textile industry is trying to introduce new innovative technologies for the treatment of wastewater effluents discharged from textile industries. Laccase has potential to degrade dyes of various chemical structures so that development of techniques based on laccase seems an attractive and suitable solution in decolorizing dyes (Madhavi and Lele 2009). The decolorization and detoxification of the wastewater effluent would help to use it again and again in dying process in textile wet processing. The major purpose of this research is to decolorize the textile effluents dyes discharged by industries after partial treatment and cause water pollution and have negative effect on aquatic life and ecosystem. It is necessary to established most effective and efficient method to produce sufficient amount of laccase enzyme through immobilized white rot fungus and then utilized it in the process of bioremediation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2208,T] (1).

23. Comparative Evaluation Of Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect Of Herbal Medicinal Plants Extracts On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

by Sonia Aziz (2011-VA-03) | Ms. Asma Waris | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Maryam Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome described as inappropriate hyperglycemia triggered by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin or by a resistance to the action of insulin at the cellular level. It is the most shared endocrine disorder, upsetting 16 million individuals in the United States and as many as 200 million worldwide (Debra, 1991). The word diabetes was devised by the Greek physician Aeretaeus in the first century A.D. In the 17th century, Willis detected that the urine of diabetics as ideally sweet as if infused with honey or sugar. The existence of sugar in the urine of diabetics was established by Dobson in 1755 (Straton et al. 2000). Diabetes mellitus is a global health crisis, which has been obstinately disturbing the humanity, regardless of the socioeconomic profile and geographic location of the population. According to an estimate, one person is identified with diabetes every 5s somewhere in the world, while someone dies of it every 10s. Diabetes mellitus has achieved a pandemic form. Hence, it is very vital to control diabetes and its difficulties to lessen the human suffering (Wild et al. 2004). Alloxan a glucose equivalent and is toxic by selectively abolishing insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (that is beta cells) of many animal species. This produces an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (called "Alloxan Diabetes") in these animals, with features similar to type 1 diabetes in humans. Alloxan is selectively toxic to insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells because it preferentially amasses in beta cells through uptake via the GLUT2 glucose transporter. Alloxan, in the presence of intracellular thiols, produces reactive oxygen species which start toxicity by its redox reaction (Lenzen et al. 1998). There are diverse methods to the management of diabetes, like insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes: Sulphonylureas, which discharge insulin from pancreas by blocking the ATP-sensitive potassium channels; Biguanides, which reduce the insulin resistance; Thizaolidinediones, which upsurge the insulin sensitivity; alpha-glucodase inhibitors like acarbose, which lessen glucose absorption from intestine, thus reducing postprandial hyperglycemia; metiglinides like repaglimide and nateglamide, which are insulin secretogogues (Aslam, 1988). In spite of the statistic that synthetic drugs such as insulin, investigators have been building efforts to find insulin-like substances from plant sources for the treatment of diabetes. More than 1200 plant species have been suggested for the managementof diabetes (Radha et al. 2011) Natural resources such for example plants are cherished source of bioactive compounds. A large number of drugs have been recognized in medicinal practice from natural products (Philipeon et al. 2010). Recent scientific research and clinical studies have established the usefulness of some medicinal plants and herbal preparations in the development of standard glucose homeostasis. Herbal treatment have been used in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and other penalties of this metabolic disease (Ahmed et al. 2006). The herbal drugs are recommended extensively because of their effectiveness, less side effects and comparatively low cost (Lezney et al. 2004). Ethno pharmacological reviews show that more than 1200 plants are used in customary medical systems for their suspected hypoglycemic activity (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995, Dey et al. 2002, Grover et al. 2002). The hypoglycemic activity of a huge number of these plants/plant products has been appraised and inveterated in animal models (Gupta et al. 2005, Kesari et al. 2006) as well as in human beings (Herrera et al. 2004, Jayawardena et al. 2005). In some circumstances the bioactive principles have also been secluded and identified. However, the mechanism of action whereby most of these plants and yields lesser the blood glucose level rests hypothetical. This study reveals the comparative effect of different herbal plants effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Six different herbal plants have been used in this study to investigate the hypoglycemic activity. These plants areAllium sativum (Garlic), Aloe vera(Kanwargandal), Gymnemasylvestre (Gurmar), Momordicacharantia (karela), Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Methidana), and Syzigiumcumini(Jamun). Table 1: Plants used in present study Plant and family Plant part used Active ingredient Mechanism of action Reference Allium sativum, Alliaceae Garlic gloves S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide-precursor of allicin and garlic oil Arouse in vitro insulin discharge,Hinder glucose making by the liver Sheela et al. 1992, Augusti and Shella 1996. Aloe vera, Aspholedeceae Leaf pulp Phytosterols Excite production or discharge of insulin Modify action of carbohydrate processing enzymes Rajasekaran et al. 2004, Tanaka et al. 2006. GymnemaSylvestre, Asclepiadaceae Leaves Gymnemosides and gymnemic acid (from the saponin fraction) Triterpene glycosides Kindle exudation of insulin from rat islets. Declines the activity of gluconeogenicenzymes,Induce beta cell regeneration. Shanmugasundaram, 1990, Chattopadhyay, 1999. Mormordicacharrantia, Cucurbitaceae Fruit pulp Charantin (a peptide),Insulin like polypeptide P ("vegetable insulin") Encourage insulin secretion, Quash the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes Rises the quantity of beta cells in diabetic rats Rao et al. 1981, Day et al. 1992, Sarkar et al. 1996. Trigonellafoenumgraecum, Fabaceae Seeds  Alkaloid-trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and coumarin  4hydroxyisoleucine Galactomannan depress digestion and absorption of carbohydrates Upsurge glucose induced insulin release Khosla et al. 1995, Hannan et al. 2007. Syzigiumcumini Seeds  Mycaminose Kindle kinases intricate in peripheral utilization of glucose  Achrekar et al. 1992.  Kumar et al. 2008 1.1: Allium sativum(Garlic) is a common zesty flavoring agent used since prehistoric times. Garlic has been cultured in all over world for its distinctive flavor, foodstuff, and medicinal properties. It has mostly been ascribed to its hypoglycemic, anticoagulant, antibiotic, hypo-cholesterolaemic, antihepatotoxic, anticancer, immune system modulatory and antioxidant possessions (Bakri and Douglas, 2005). Figure 1: structure of allicin 1.2: Aloe vera(Kanwargandal)is one of the therapeutic plants which are conventionally well accredited plant in the controlling of diabetes. It fits to family Liliaceae (sub-family of the Asphodelaceae). Many studies titles that the high innards of phenolic compounds, glycosides (aloins), 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone derivatives,β -1,4 acetylated mannan, mannose-phosphate and alprogenglucoprotein in the A. vera is vital for its biotic action. Through past two years, Aloe vera used as helpful beneficial agent which defensively act as a free radical scavenging and other antioxidant characteristics on diabetic patients, by monitoring raised anions in an alloxan or STZ-induced diabetic animal models (Nakamura, et al. 2011). Figure 2: structure of phytosterole 1.3: Gymnemasylvestre (Gurmar) is a plant used in Asia as a usual cure for diabetes or “sweet urine.” The hypoglycemic action of Gymnema leaves was first recognized in the late 1920s. Gymnema is testified to upsurge glucose uptake and utilization. It also mends the utility of pancreatic β-cells and may also decline glucose captivation in the gastrointestinal tract. Phytochemically the plant has been described to comprehend gymnemagenin- the sapogenin. Gymnemic acid was sequestered in pure states from the hot water extract of leaves of G. sylvestre (Puratchimani and Jha, 2004). Figure 1: structure of gymnemic acid 1.4: Momordicacharantia (Bitter Melon) also known as karela, is one of the plants normally used for its glucose-lowering properties (Ahmed et al., 1998). The slices of the plant usually used contain the entire plant, its fruit or seeds, all of which are bitter due to the manifestation of the chemical momordicin. The anti-diabetic constituents in bitter melon comprise charantin, vicine, polypeptide-p, alkaloids and other non-specific bioactive components such as anti-oxidants (Beloin, et al. 2005). Figure 4: structure of momordicin 1.5: Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Fenugreek L. Leguminosae) is one of the ancient therapeutic plants, originating in India and Northern Africa.The leaves and seeds, which ripe in long pods, are used to formulate extracts or powders for medicinal use.The hypoglycemic properties of fenugreek have been recognized to numerous mechanisms.The amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleucine in fenugreek seeds amplified glucose-induced insulin release in human and rat pancreatic islet cells. Fenugreek seeds apply hypoglycemic effects by exciting glucose-dependent insulin discharge from pancreatic beta cells, as well as by impeding the actions of alpha-amylase and sucrase, two duodenal enzymes involved in carbohydrate breakdown (Gupta, et al. 2001). Figure 5: structure of 4-hydroxyisolucine 1.6: Syzigiumcumini(Jamun) tree belongs to the Myrtaceae family. This is also called as Jamun, Jambul and Jambol in Pakistan, India and Malaya. The barks, leaves and seeds extracts of SC have been testified to have anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-diarraheal effects. A complex mycaminose is extracted from its seeds which display anti-diabetic characteristic (WL Li, et al. 2004). Figure 6: structure of mycaminose There are numerous potential mechanisms through which these herbs can perform to regulate the blood glucose level (Tanira, 1994). The mechanisms of action can be associated, commonly to the capability of the plant in question (or its active principle) to lesser plasma glucose level by meddling with one or more of the procedures involved in glucose homeostasis. The described mechanisms whereby herbal antidiabetic remedies decrease blood glucose levels are more or less alike to those of the artificial oral hypoglycemic drugs and are abridged as follows (Acharya et al. 2008, Bastaki, 2005, Bnouham et al. 2006). i) Stimulation of insulin production and/or discharging from pancreatic beta-cells ii) Revival of impaired pancreatic beta cells iii) Development of insulin sensitivity iv) Imitating the action of insulin v) Modification of the action of some enzymes that are tangled in glucose metabolism reducing the absorption of carbohydrates from the gut. The effectiveness of herbal drugs is substantial and they have insignificant side effects than the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. There is growing demand by patients to use the natural products with antidiabetic activity. In recent times there has been improved concern in the plant remedies. Plants grasp certain potentials in the organization of Diabetes mellitus. Isolation and documentation of active ingredients from these plants, preparation of unvarying dose and dosage schedule can play a noteworthy role in improving the hypoglycemic action (Jung et al. 2006). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2209,T] (1).

24. Production, Purification And Characterization Of Laccase From White Rot Fungus

by Afrah Shafique (2012-VA-577) | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Tanveer Hussain.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Laccase (oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) are blue copper dependent oxidases and the mainligninolytic enzyme produced by white rot fungus. Laccase catalyze the oxidation of large snumbers of phenolic compounds (Kunamneni et al. 2007; Poonkuzhali et al. 2011). These enzymes have a molecular weight 60-90 kDa and consist of 15–30% carbohydrate. Laccases are the earliest and maximum investigated enzymatic systems. Laccase was initially found by Yoshilda in 1883 in the sap of Japanese laquer tree named as Rhusvernicifera. After a while in 1896, Bertrand and Laborde determined that laccase is a fungal enzyme.(Shraddha et al. 2007; Giardina et al. 2010). Laccases are present extensively in nature, originating from plants, bacteria and fungi (Poonkuzhali and Palvannan 2011). In fungi, laccases are widely distributed in ascomycetes, deuteromycetes and basidiomycetes. The laccase producing fungus include Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus, Trametespubescens, Cerrenaunicolour,PhanerochaetechrysosporiumandFunaliatrogiietc (Dwivediet al. 2011). Laccases occur morein fungi, than in the higher plants. Laccases are also present in few bacteria such as S.lavendulae, S.cyaneus, and M.mediterranea(Viswanath et al. 2008; Arias et al. 2003). In vegetables laccases have been recognized in turnips, apples, pears, cabbages, potatoes, beets, asparagus and various other vegetables (Jhadav et al. 2007). Enzymes are produced by every living organism, however enzyme produced by microbes have various benefits over the enzyme originated from plants and animal origins.Laccases by nature are important because of its huge diversity of catalytic activities, economical in production and comparatively more stable than other enzymes.The field of biotechnology proposes expanding possibilities for the production of several enzymes from microorganisms. New methods and techniques have been advanced by using enzyme as biocatalysts to produce big added value products like growing food requirements,good quality chemicals and medicines. Moreover enzymes are also utilized for environmental actions and for diagnostic and analytical motives. (Buchholz et al. 2005). Microbial enzymes are used as cost effective and environmentally sensitive substitutes for chemical processing in several industries and bioremediation. Therefore the commercial demand for microbial enzymes is increasing (Radhika et al. 2013). Fungal laccases have boundless biotechnological functions across the globe like the decolouration and detoxification of industrial effluent, bleaching of pulp, phenolicselimination from wines, in preparation of biosensors in detergents blockindye transfer- functions (Yaver et al. 2001).It is also used in the formation of anticancer drugs, and included in few cosmetics to lessen their toxicity (Couto and Herrera 2006).In recent years, laccase have been skillfully practiced to the field of nanobiotechnology due to its capacity to mobilize electron transfer reactions without further addition of cofactor(Shraddha et al. 2007). Laccase is ample in several white- rot fungi that are involved in lignin metabolism (Bourbonnais et al. 1997, Leontievskyet al. 1997). Fungal laccases have immense redox potential (up to +800 mV) than bacteria or plant laccases. The action of these laccases seems to be appropriate in nature and also has significant applications in the field biotechnology. These laccases are associated with the deterioration of lignin and also in the elimination of conceivably lethal phenols appear during the breakdown of lignin (Thurston et al. 1994). The white rot fungus is corporeal in preference to morphological and composes of those fungi that are adequate of degrading lignin, which is a heterogenous polyphenolic compound in huge amount within the lignocellulose wastes(Eaton and Hale. 1993).Theircapability to deteriorate cellulose, hemicellulose, these are the polysaccharides forming the essential part of lingo cellulose is the basic metabolic processbetween the fungi and happen under the span of environmental conditions.The degeneration of lignindoesn’tprovide net energy so it is degraded during the secondary metabolism in order to gain polysaccharides present in lignin and carbohydrate complexes, supplying energy to which the organisms don’t have access(Jeffrics. 1990).The white rot fungi varyingly secrete one or more three extracellular enzyme namely manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase and laccase that are fundamental for degradation of lignin, ant they are generally mentioned as lignin modifying enzymes LMEs (Pickard et al. 1999). Laccase is the subjects of demanding research in the recent years, because of their several properties like extensive substrate relevance, doesn’t required the inclusion of cofactors because they use oxygen as cofactor which is frequently present in the environment (Eugenio et al. 2009). Maximum number of laccases produced by various organisms is excreted as extracellular enzymes and this makes the purification process quite accessible. Laccase commonly display appreciable extent of stability. Due to these properties laccases are ideally applicable in diverse biological processes such as the treatment of industrial effluent, biopulping and biobleaching (Eggert et al. 2006). The huge potential of laccase requires advancement in its production and, with huge activities and low cost (Herrera et al. 2007). The use of lignocellulosic agricultural waste as substrates is a tradition for the production of enzyme like laccase because it is ligninolytic in nature (Niladeviet al.2011). It is highly crucial to optimize the fermentation parameters for the adequate production of laccase (Revankaret al. 2007). . The advantages of agro-industrial leftovers for cultivation media is of immense concern as agriculture waste cut down the expenditure of enzyme production and enhance the understanding on energy protection and recycling (Mansuret al. 2003).These agriculture wastes are comparatively economical and also contain ample nutrients such as lignin, cellulose andhemicellulose. These nutrients serve as inducer to energize the production of enzyme (Vassil et al. 2000).Due to these properties these agricultural waste can be used as substrate for the production of ligninolytic enzymes during the process of fermentation. Laccase can be produced at varying rates by using a wide range of organisms grown on different substrates and by using several methods of fermentation, such as solid state, semisolid state, and submerged (Rodriguez et al. 1999; Boran et al. 2011). However, for effective laccase production, it is very important to use efficient laccase-producing organisms, suitable fermentation methods, and cheap and widespread sources. Accordingly, one of the most suitable approaches for the production of this enzyme is to use the most efficient agricultural wastes for increasing the production of the ligninolytic enzymes (Elisashviliet al. 2008). Pakistan is an agricultural country and each year manufactures tons of agricultural by products. These agricultural wastes are accessible in markets at a very reasonable price and can be utilized as substrates in fermentation technique (Minussi et al. 2007). Agricultural waste products like rice husk, wheat bran, corn cob, millet husk and cereal huskhave been utilized by various scientists for laccase production (Osma et al. 2011; jhadav et al. 2009).The chemical properties of these agricultural wastes make them important and economical fermentation medium for biotechnological purposes(Giardina et al. 2010).The cellulose and hemicellulose constituents of lignocellulose wastes are widely used by several organisms but lignin, which is the maximum contrary material to microbial degradation, is transformed conveniently by only few organism of thw white rot fungus (Dwivedi et al. 2011).Lignin serves as a barrier that protects cellulose and hemicellulose from enzymatic attack, however, white rot fungi can attack this barrier in order to obtain energy from cellulose. These fungi produce different extracellular ligninolytic enzymes such as laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase (Couto et al. 2006). Fermentation is a biological approach that is used for the transformation of complicated substrates into basic composites by different microorganisms like bacteria and fungi. In the procedure of this metabolic breakdown the microorganisms also release various added compounds like carbon dioxide and alcohol asidefrom the conventional products of fermentation. These added compounds are known as secondary metabolites (Pandey et al. 1999). These Secondary metabolites span from enzymes, antibiotics, peptides and growth factors (Balakrishnan and Pandey. 1996; Machado et al. 2004; Robinson et al. 2001). They are also known as bioactive compounds becausethey carry biological activity(Demain et al. 1999). Submerged fermentation is a type of fermentation in which components are present in a liquid media like broths and syrup. The co-active composites are poured into the fermentation broth. In this media the substrates are employed quiet immediately, due to this reason the nutrients in the media are either fortified or regained continuously. This type of fermentation approach is optimum for microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi because they depend upon on immense moisture content. The increased benefit of this approach is that the purification of the desired products or enzymes is quiet effortless. Submerged fermentation is especially used in the abstraction of secondary metabolites that are utilized in liquid form (Subramaniyam et al. 2012). Furthermore 75% of the commercial enzymes are made by using submerged fermentation, it also supports the usage of genetically modified organisms to a large expanse then solid state fermentation. Submerged fermentation is also used on large extent because it doesn’t require equipment concerning solid state. On the contrary solid state fermentation is a mechanism operated in absence of free flowing water by utilizing solid support in form of natural substance ( Poonkuzhali et al . 2011). . The major purpose of conducting this research is to design optimized fermentation process which produces effective amount of enzyme by using agricultural wastes. The use of agricultural wastes as substrates is economical and increase awareness on energy conservation .The enzyme can be used further for bioremediation because it not substrate specific and can act on broad range of substrates. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2213,T] (1).

25. Production, Purification And Characterization Of Exoglucanase By Arachniotus Rubber

by Saira Bano (2012-VA-602) | Ms. Shagufta Saeed | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Tahir Yaqoob.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cellulose is well thought-out as the major renewable biological resource which is constantly replenished by the photosynthesis (Ragauskas et al. 2006). It is the most plentiful carbohydrate and is considered world’s abundant organic substrate. Cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose are the main components in plant cell walls with cellulose being the mainly abundant part (Saleem et al. 2008). Enzymatic conversion of cellulose is inexpensive. The cellulose hydrolysis is brought about by mixture of β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and exoglucanase. The entire hydrolysis of cellulose is carried out by these enzymes (Mathew et al. 2008). Biosynthesis of cellulose via land plants as well as marine algae occurs at a rate of 0.85×1011 tons per year (Niranjane et al. 2007). By using it in proper way this vast quantity of cellulose can be used for different purposes with some enzymatic conversions. Cellulose can be transformed into simple sugars that can be used for the production of ethanol or other energy products and for the food purposes. Lignocelluloses are agro-industrial wastes worldwide. These can be used for the production of different important products that may include renewable sources to accomplish the energy demand by making biofuels and to cover up the high food demand of present century. Cycling and recycling of these materials may also decrease pollutants in the environment (Doran et al. 1984). Cellulases which are resistant to proteases are preferably used in detergent and soap industries and are also used in detergents for depilling, care agents of colour, washing of stone, biopolishing and smoothing of surface in cotton fabric (Godfrey and West 1996). Cellulase is being used in improving digestibility of animal feed (Lewis et al. 1996). When cellulases are added in detergents it brightens the color of cotton textiles and smoothens the fabric (Niehaus et al. 1999). Several applications of cellulases include development of the nutritional rate of cellulosic materials and forage crops, improvement of pulp class, and enhanced digestibility of organic matter via elevated fiber content (Garcia et al. 2002). Cellulases are also used in paper, lumber and textile industries, in making of food and feed supplements for cattle and poultry feed stocks, preparations of baking, brewing, pharmaceuticals, malting, removal of fruit juices, dealing out of vegetables and processing of starch (Petre et al. 1999). The main significant application is in the production of single cell protein, alcohol, beer, biofuels, chemical feedstock, ethanol, and high fructose syrup (Solomon et al. 1999). Development of an inexpensive method for food production through enzymatic hydrolysis is slowed down by sky-craping rate of cellulase making, low enzymatic behavior and low conc. of sugar syrup obtained on hydrolysis of such materials. However research have been conducted on pure cellulose and cost of isolation of cellulose from lignocellulosic is added up in the overall production cost (Chahal et al. 1985) Production of Cellulase can be improved by studying media composition and optimizing fermentation parameters, microbial strain and some other factors that control production and growth (Han and Chen 2010). Different lignocellulosic materials are used for economic enzymes production like, corn cobs, bagasse, wheat straw, rice straw, and wheat bran (Hussain et al. 1999). The hydrolysis catalyzed by cellulases has found like a practicable method to make reducing sugar or glucose from cellulose for making biofuels and some other value added goods by means of microbial fermentation (Zhang et al. 2006) Two important classes of enzymes, Cellulases and hemicellulases are produced by filamentous fungi and secreted into the cultivation medium (Sadia et al. 2008). Cellulose can be degraded by numerous microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and plant cell wall fibers. Degradation of cellulosic biomass is carried out by cellulases in nature. Production of industrial enzymes has been carried out by filamentous fungi for more than 50 years (Saleem et al. 2008). A range of microorganisms have the ability to secrete cellulases including fungi and bacteria (Jiang et al. 2011). Various fungal strains secrete large quantity of cellulases as compared to bacterial ones. Due to high production rates microorganisms are compatible for the production of cellulases through fermentation of cheap and non conventional sources like cellulosic agro industrial wastes and byproducts (Ghosh et al. 1984). Most of the cellulases exploited for industrial applications are from soft rot and white rot fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Phanerochaete (Dashtban et al. 2009). There are different microorganisms which can produce cellulose effectively belonging to genus Cellulomonas, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Bacillus, Bacteriodes, Microbispora, Streptomyces and Arachniotus (Saratale et al. 2008). Arachinotus sp. is a white rot fungus and had used for economic consumption of many waste products. It act as antagonist to other microbes and prevents contamination (Alexopoulos and Mims 1985). The earlier period have shown significant progress in separation of microorganisms that produce cellulases, civilizing the yield of cellulases via mutation, purifying also characterizing the cellulase components (Wood TM and McCrae SL. 1977). Viable production of cellulases had tried by means of solid or submerged culture with batch, fed batch and continous run processes. Production of cellulase on profitable scale is increased via growing the fungus on top of solid cellulose (Persson 1991 et al). Production of these enzymes by culturing Aracniotus sp. on a fibrous substrate like wheat bran would not only reduce the pollutants but will also serve as potential source of energy. The hydrolysis of cellulose is brought about by mixture of endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β- glucosidase. These enzymes act synergistically to accomplish the entire hydrolysis of cellulose. Endoglucanase works internally on cellulose chain by cleaving 1,4-β associated bonds. The exoglucanase acts processively starting from reducing and non-reducing ends eliminating cellobiose in an order (Mathew GM et al. 2008). β-glucosidase completes the hydrolysis by means of changing cellobiose and also small oligosaccharides in the glucose units (Kumar R et al. 2008). Use of industrial wastes for making cellulases increases the financial effectiveness of the chief production method. A lot of cellulosic residues including corn stover, corn stalks, bagasse, rice straw, wheat straw, cotton stalks etc. accumulated up to 50 million tones only in Pakistan (Azad 1986) are not wasted properly, it could provide as an cost-effective resource of Cellulase. The incorporation of inexpensive sources, such as sugar cane bagasse and wheat bran in the media for the manufacturing of lignocellulose enzymes can help in decreasing the production costs of enzyme complexes which can hydrolyse lignocellulosic residues that can be used for the formation of fermented syrups therefore contributing to the cost-effective production of bioethanol. (Camassola and AJP Dillon 2007). Fungal biomass can also be formed by Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SMF). Along with a variety of groups of microorganisms used in SSF, the filamentous fungi are mainly exploited as they have ability to grow up on absolute solid substrate. Submerged fermentation is the development of microorganisms in fluid nutrient broth. Industrial enzymes can also be formed with this process. In this type of fermentation the substrate is solublized or suspended as excellent particles in a huge volume of water. In submerged fermentation, substrate concentration from 0.5 to 6% are used which depends upon the concentration of the substrate (Chahal et al. 1982). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2257-T] (1).

26. The Variability Analysis of The Gene Encoding HCV Non-Structural Protein NS2

by Abdul Rehman (2009-VA-546) | Dr. M. Imran | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2337-T] (1).

27. Bio-Conversion of Molasses to Phytase Through Solid State Fermentation With Aspergillus Niger

by Faseeha Nasim (2012-VA-633) | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Ms. Faiza Masood | Prof. Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD Corrupt. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2484-T] (1).



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