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1. Salmonella Contamination In Vegetables Due To Irrigation With Wastewater In Lahore

by Muhammad Shahjahan Zafar (2009-VA-398) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Ms. Noor-ul-Hudda.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Salmonella has been one of the major food-borne pathogens for animals and humans for last many years. Many food borne outbreaks and other sporadic cases occur due to Salmonella in many countries. Foods of animal origin are considered major sources of Salmonella. However, Salmonella infections due to consumption of raw vegetables have occurred numerously in recent past. 30% of sewage water is directly used for irrigation purposes in Pakistan for various crops including vegetables. It may be the cause of Salmonella contamination. Apart from conventional microbiological techniques, nucleic acid amplification technologies have provided the opportunity for rapid detection of Salmonella from various sources, providing better sensitivity and superior specificity, thereby refining the administration of outbreaks by more rapid confirmation. Untreated wastewater is the major source of Salmonella contamination of vegetables. Vegetable sampling was done from field, wholesale and retail markets of Lahore city and wastewater sampling was done from River Ravi, Lahore Canal and other sources by using aseptic techniques and was transported at 4°C. Salmonella species was isolated by conventional methods and suspected colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests TSI and Urease Test. DNA was extracted through boiling and 10% chelex method. Molecular characterization of isolated strains was done through PCR. Antibiotic resistance of confirmed isolates were also checked. A total of 320 (Vegetable n=160, Wastewater n=160) samples were taken for present study for screening of salmonella microbial contamination in it. Different types of vegetables including Coriander (n=40), Mint (n=40), Carrot (n=40), Radish (n=40) were used for analysis. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 46 Wastewater samples were also collected from various sources like River Ravi (n=60), Lahore Branch Canal (n=60) and Kharak Nala (n=40). Salmonella was found in 4/40 (10%) samples of Coriander, 3/40 (7.5%) of Mint, 5/40 (12.5%) of Carrot, 3/40 (7.5%) of Radish and 33/160 (20.63%) of wastewater samples through PCR detection. Many of the isolates were found multi-drug resistant. This study revealed the presence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella species in vegetables and wastewater. All the vegetables studied were contaminated with Salmonella. This data was designed to find out the magnitude and real picture of the pathogen. It helped in drawing a relationship between Salmonella contamination of vegetables and irrigation of wastewater. As wastewater is the main reason for bacterial contamination of vegetables, measures should be adopted at governmental level for reduction of this contamination. Water disinfection practices and continuous water supply for irrigation can reduce the bacterial load. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2624-T] (1).

2. Risk Factors Of Severe Pneumonia Among Children; A Hospital Based Case Control Study In Lahore

by Chanda Jabeen (2015-VA-416) | Dr. Muhammad Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Ms. Noor-ul-Hudda.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Pneumonia is an infectious disease which causes inflammation of alveoli and airway structure of lungs. Pneumonia causes infant and children morbidity and mortality significantly.. It spreads through droplet infection. Epidemics of pneumonia occur in winter and spring. The sign and symptoms of the pneumonia are fever, cough, stridor, wheezing, tachypnea and respiratory distress. Pneumonia is transmitted through coughing and sneezing via air-borne droplets. Risk factors of pneumonia are less socio economic status, indoor crowding, indoor pollution, and contact with the persons having acute respiratory illness, poor access to health facilities and lower maternal education status. A case-control study for duration of 4 months (December 2016 to March 2017) was performed in tertiary care hospital Lahore. Target population was the children 2- 59 months of age admitted in Pediatrics and Accident and Emergency Department in tertiary care hospital Lahore. Children 2-59 months of age meeting the case definitions admitted in the Tertiary Care Hospital Lahore. Children meeting the control criteria were selected as control visiting the Tertiary Care Hospital Lahore and children’s guardians who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled. Sampling was done by using convenience sampling techniques and sample size was 162 cases and 162 controls. Data was obtained by face to face interview with child’s guardian. A detail questionnaire regarding various risk factors was filled after taking written consent from the child’s guardian. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence interval. Chi square test was used to compare the impact of various predictors on prevalence of pneumonia and odds ratios was calculated using logistic regression test at a significance level of 95%. Summary 76 Many risk factors were significantly associated with severe pneumonia among children 2-59 months of age like low socio economic conditions, low maternal and parental education, contact with the member having upper respiratory tract infection, having contact with member suffering from URTI, hospitalization due to diarrheal illness and being underweight were found strongly associated with severe pneumonia (having odds ratios more than 1) among children 2-59 months of ages in this study. Health education should be given to promote exclusive breast feeding. Awareness campaign should be started to give awareness on the importance of vaccination programmes. Government should provide more health care facilities. People should be encouraged to involve themselves in income generating activities in order to reduce the poverty levels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2904-T] (1).

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