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1. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Staphlococcus Aureus And Its Resistance Modulation Using Medicinal Plant Extracts

by Iqra Asif (2010-VA-279) | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Ms. Tehreem Hussain.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Chloroform and ethanol extracts of Calotropis procera (C .procera) and Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus) against Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus isolated from human origin. This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of C. procera and E. globulus alone and in combination with antibiotics to check synergism between medicinal plants and resistant antibiotics. S.aureus is a major pathogen which causes various infections. Infectious diseases affect millions of people around the world and in the history these diseases are major cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. In past few decades rate of mortalities are continuously increasing because of acquired resistance of S. aureus against multiple drugs, thus it is utter need of time to discover some alternatives to antibiotics so that we can resolve this dilemma of antibiotic resistance. Plant extracts are hope for this purpose as they have many compounds which have potential to lower down the number of micro-organisms. Plants have benefits over other as they are non toxic, non-reactive and have least side effects. Total 20 samples of human origins were procured from Department of Microbiology, UVAS Lahore and were subjected to check their antibiotic resistance profile against Erythromycin, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay. Out of 20, nine resistant isolates were separated. Among them three were resistant to Erythromycin, three to Amoxicillin and three to Ciprofloxacin. Summary 72 Leaves of C. procera and E. globulus were processed in Chloroform and ethanol Solvents. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar gel well diffusion assay in which zone of inhibitions were measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts was evaluated by micro broth dilution method. Best antimicrobial activity was observed by ethanolic extract of E. globulus. Then combine effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs) of plant extracts and minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics were determined by Well Diffusion assay. Four different sub inhibitory concentrations of plant extracts i.e.10μg/ml, 20μg/ml, 40μg/ml and 80μg/ml were used in combination with fixed concentration of antibiotics i.e.100μg/ml to check combinational effect of both. At selected sub-inhibitory concentration plant extract alone did not show any antibacterial activity. Two of the isolates had shown modulation when amoxicillin and plant extracts combination was used against them. The isolate labeled as S.aureus 4 showed modulation with the use of Ethanolic extract of Calotropis procera and S.aureus 5 had shown modulation with the use of chloroform extract of Calotropis procera. For further confirmation two more concentrations of 160μg/ml and 320μg/ml were used along with100μg/ml Amoxicillin against same isolates S.aureus 4 and 5. Zone of inhibition was observed with increased diameter indicating modulation of two isolates. While erythromycin and ciprofloxacin resistant isolates didn’t show any modulation. Data of antibiotic resistance and resistance modulation using plant extracts was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range(DMR) posthoc test using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 17.0 Statistical software at α < 0.05. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2501-T] (1).

2. Linking Childhood Obesity With Excessive Use Of Digital Media

by Hafiza Nida Rehmat (2014-VA-534) | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Ms. Tehreem Hussain | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Obesity is one of the most prevalent problems all over the world particularly in children and adolescence that could lead to sedentary behavior and influence the dietary habits of children. The television food commercials have bad impact on children and increased brand advertisements may lead to unhealthy consumption patterns. The hypothesis of the study was excessive use of digital media can lead to weight gain in children. The sample of 400 children of class 4-6 was taken from private schools, Daar-e-Arqam school, Himayat-e-Islam higher secondary school and Al-Huda Educational Institute, Lahore.. Children of age 9-11 years was included from middle class group (monthly income 30,000-70,000/-). The demographic measurements were obtained by each student while having a personal interview with them. The anthropometric measurements (heights, weights, BMI, TSF, MUAC and MAMC) were taken by using specific measuring tools. The height were measured by stadiometers, weights by weighing machine and other anthropometric measurements by abs plastic medical body fat skinfold caliper meter. Growth charts were used to assess the degree of malnutrition (over nutrition or under nutrition). The questionnaire was filled by asking questions to the children in order to assess the relationship of body weight and digital media. Descriptive statistics and chi square, Pearson’s correlation (SPSS version 20) was applied on the data to assess either digital media has positive or negative relationship with children’s body weight. The age, gender and class are significantly associated with nutritional status of the students. The students of Lahore Pakistan like to use mobile and laptop and the duration of using mobile or laptop is positively associated with health status of the individual. Student has very busy life and they do not have spare time to watch television so it is not significantly 49 associated with health status of the individual. In such case, students have low physical activity and increase sedentary behavior. Parents do not allow their children to go out for games or activities because of security concerns or restrictions on girls especially. The physical activity is negatively associated with health status of the individual. The dietary habits of the individuals are badly affected due to the trends of junk and fast food consumption but it is not associated with food marketing campaigns in this study. The food marketing campaigns target young children for selling their products by advertising them in prime time of children programs but due to busy schedule of the individuals , they do not have time to be effected by them. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2579-T] (1).

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