Relative Biological Availability Of Feed Grade Dicalcium Phosphate & Monocalcium Phosphate And Their Effects on Productive Performance of Broilers
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: The live weights of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) gave non significant (p<O.05) results but numerically group D and E gave higher values, like wise, dressed weight were higher in group D and E. The dressing % of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) were also non significant (P>O.05). The liver weights of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) at 35 days of age were non significant (P<O.05). However within these groups, birds fed on control diet & DCP imported (group A & D) showed higher liver weights. Similarly there was n0 significant difference (p>O.05) in the heart and gizzard weights of different experimental groups. The result obtained in the course of this study highlighted an invaluable lesson. Regardless of the potential availability of the phosphorus in a feed phosphate, dietary factors and bird condition may result in a dramatically lower effective utilization of the phosphorus. It became evident that the availability of phosphorus was not an inherent property, characteristic of the material being assayed alone, but an experimentally determined value which reflects the absorption and utilization of the phosphorus ingested under the condition of the test. (Steven George Payne, 2005).
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Assessment Of Loode Milk Supply Chain In Lahore Throogh Milk quality Analysis And Structured interview Form Milkman And Milk Shops
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Pakistan is currently producing 52.63 billion liters of milk and holds 4th position among world top milk producing countries. Out of the total milkproduced, 97% is in the informal sector (i.e.loose milk sold through “Gawallas” in the villages and in cities which is of poor quality because of the unhygienic conditions and lack of standards). A total of 66.22% of milk is collected by milkmen from farmers and dairy farms in peri-urban areas. Milk collected by milkmen is distributed either directly to the end consumer or it reaches the end consumer through different intermediate channels. The civic population of Lahore city are mostly tend to consume milk from milkmen which is why a total of 41.78% of milk from milkmen is delivered directly to end consumer’s home. Whole sale milk shops and milk sale points are the main source of milk after milkmen as the remaining 58.22% of the milk from milkmen is distributed through these channels in urban areas of Lahore. Some of the milk is also distributed through hotels/restaurants, tea stalls/canteens and halwai which is also a big part of milk supply chain in peri-urban areas of Lahore. This milk is either directly consumed by the end consumer or it is used to make different by-products. The proposed study was expected to assess the current scenario of loose milk supply chain in different regions of Lahore with special reference to food safety knowledge, attitude, practices adopted for handling and gaps among replacing loose milk supply with pasteurized milk by engaging the currently involved people (Gawalas) with this distribution chain.
The results of the physicochemical organization and milk debasement plainly demonstrated that the milk sold at these spots was widely put to the acts of neglect, for example, skimming and defilement of milk with water, urea, formalin, hydrogen peroxide and cane sugarwhich was done amid the treatment of milk beginning from milking till the getting by end buyer. In this way the milk advertised at these spots couldn't be considered as "Milk" in its genuine sense as it was just white milky watery liquid rather than wholesome milk. Most likely everybody required in the milk showcasing affix dilution of milk to some degree specifically or in a roundabout way however deliberately.
Milk samples from Milkmen and Milk shops in all regions showed10.46% and 5.56% less protein; 16.4% and 17.4% less fat; 31.56% and 29.67% less SNF and 33.69% and 32.83% less lactosethan that of standard milk composition described in APPENDIX II (12.1.1 & 12.1.8) of The Punjab Pure Food Rules, 2011.Keeping in view the current milk analysis situation it is hard to believe the universally accepted statement that "milk is a perfect food". This statement is not applicable to the milk obtained from various regions of Lahore city. It is very unfortunate that the consumers are enforced to consume that milky colored fluid. That milk has loosened its wholesomeness, color, taste and nutritive value due to deceivable skimming and fraudulent adulteration when ultimately it reaches to the consumer.Milk samples were analyzed to detect adulterants from milk samples. According to the results some of the adulterants have been detected in these milk samples which are formalin, detergent, cane sugar, sorbitol, quaternary ammonium compound while the others such as urea, starch, salt, hydrogen peroxide, glucose, hypochlorite, boric acid, and carbonate were not detected in 180 milk samples that were collected from all nine towns of Lahore city.
The highest proportion of milk which was sold was as mixed, followed by buffalo and cow milk. The data shows that 3.11% of milkmen use bicycle, 65.78% use motor bike, 4% use animal carts, 7.11% use rickshaw, 8.89% use van and 11.11% use other means of transportation. The largest portion of milk is supplied to households by the milkmen which are 41.78% and a significantly less portion of milk from milkmen is supplied to hotel/restaurants. According to the data 10.67% sensory evaluation, 4.44% chemical testing and 13.78% other testing procedures are adopted by milkmen while the other 71.11% do not perform any quality testing in Lahore city. The data showed that 60.89% of the leftover milk is used for the production of dahi, 19.56% is used for khoya production, 5.78% for both and 13.78% is used for domestic purposes. The total average price of loose milk sold is 75.7 Rs. by milkmen and 70.1 Rs. by milk shops in Lahore city. It took an average of 2.09 hours to supply milk by milkmen and 11.96 hours to complete sale of milk by milk shops in Lahore city. The total average of consumers that buy milk from milkmen is 16.03 and that of milk shops is 142.49 in Lahore city.
Poor literacy rate, lake of professional trainings, inefficient enforcement of food safety policies by the government, absence of organized setups to control unhygienic malicious practices, negligence of end consumer regarding milk handling concerns etc. are the main causes for such malpractices and poor condition of milk supply chain.Milkman and milk shopkeepers are so involved in these malpractices that they take it as their right and will not stop doing that until enforced by legal framework. The incorporation of pasteurization facilities in the loose milk supply chain is not feasible until and unless the competent authority take necessary actions to bring all stockholders on board and spread awareness about the comparative benefits of pasteurized milk as compare to loose milk.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2768-T] (1).