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1. Molecular Diagnosis Of Bovine Tuberculosis In Humans

by Muhammad Bilal | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Mnsur-uddin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. In humans it is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and occasionally by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium africanum. Bovine tuberculosis caused by M bovis is the main cause of enteric TB in humans. it is transmitted through milk, meat and dairy products. It is also recorded that it can also cause pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. A study was conducted to detect the M bovis in human pulmonary sputum samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate M bovis from M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Sputum of 400 patients was randomly analyzed with PCR assay. Two (0.5%) out of 400 sputum samples were positive for M bovis while remaining were positive for M tuberculosis. Over all 0.5% cases were positive for M bovis causing pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. The two positive cases were analyzed in the background of their history. History revealed that both of them belong to different families and areas were in close contact with animals for a long time. It suggested that they caught infection from animals. It was an evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis of M bovis in humans. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0865,T] (1).

2. Clincal Cytogenetic Investications In Cattle & Buffalo Population Of Punjab For Chromosomal Abnormalities

by Muhammad Bilal Bin Majeed | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Ahmad Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1439,T] (1).

3. Levels Of Maternal Antibodies Against Pasteurella Multocida In New Born Buffalo Calves

by Muhammad Bilal | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Buffalo is called black gold. The buffalo is raised for meat and milk purpose in Pakistan.The buffalo calves are at risk of many infectious diseases. One of the most important diseases is Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS). Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by Pasturellamultocida important strains in Asia are B:2 and B:2.5. Buffalo calves are more suspected to the Hemorrhagic septicemia than adults one. In Pakistan the high prevalence of 49% is in the rainy season (Farooqet al. 2007) Clinically the signs of Hemorrhagic septicemia includes profuse salivation,pyrexia, respiratory distress, swelling in throat, discharge through nostrils, protrusion of tongue, edema in the brisket area as well as in forelegs. Hemorrhagic septicemia can be diagnosed on the bases of clinical signs and laboratory conformation by Gram staining and. Serum agglutination test, Counter immune-electrophoresis and ELISA techniques are also used.Enrofloxacine was found to be effective treatment in case Hemorrhagic septicemia. Best protection measure vaccination by alum precipitated vaccine (Boudewijn et al. 2008). During the present study blood samples were collected from the calves at different intervals of times. Serum was separated from that blood and was analyzed by using Indirect Haemagglutination(IHA) Test to observe the antibodies titer in the blood.The data was analyzed to calculate geometric mean titer (GMT) of the antibodies. Immunity status is much important in the defense of disease especially in the newly born claves which are more at risk of infections.The result of present study showed geometric mean titer 16 in colostrum of vaccinated dams and their newly born claves showed 0, 3. 4, 7 and 3 at 0 hour, 72 hour, 7, 15 and 30 days of their age. Colostrum of non-vaccinated dams showed GMT 8 and their newly born claves showed 0, 1. 3, 3 and 1 at 0 hour, 72 hour, 7, 15 and 30 days of their age.The maternal antibodies which are produce in the body of mother are transferred to their calves.The calves given birth by the vaccinated dams receive much higher level of antibodies from their mother than the calves born from non-vaccinated dams. This antibodies production in non-vaccinated dams is because of the carrier status of hemorrhagic septicemia.The non-vaccinated dams which are not expose to the any type of HS infection or not expose to the vaccines, they do not produce antibodies against Pasturellamultocidaand also not transfer to their young babies after birth. The present study showed that claves of vaccinated dams are much protected in their early period of life against hemorrhagic septicemia. Buffalo calves need quick and intense care at early age and they need quick vaccinations. The high maternal antibodies level against Pasturellamultocidain vaccinated dams then in non-vaccinated dams antibodies levels in newly born buffalo calves remain effective for longer period. This study suggested for the vaccination of dams not only for the protection of themselves but also for the protection of their newly born claves at the crucial period of their young age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1807,T] (1).

4. Comparison Of Medetomidine And Xylazine As Preanesthetic With Ketamine And Propofol For Performing Neuering In Male Dogs

by Muhammad Bilal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad arif khan | Dr.Sadaf aslam | Prof . Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1951,T] (1).

5. Comparative Effect Of Cidr Based Estrus Synchronization Protocol With Or Without Gnrh In Non-Descript Cows During Low Breeding Season

by Muhammad Bilal (2008-VA-152) | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Muhammad Anwar | Dr. Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf | Dr. Muhammad Lateef.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The livestock sector occupies a peculiar position in the national plan of economic development in Pakistan. It subscribed approximately 55.9 percent to the agricultural value added and 11.8 percent to national GDP with a growth rate of 2.7 % in 2013-14 (Anonymous 2014). Dairying has become an important subsidiary source of income for thousands of rural families with an important role in generating earning opportunity. In Pakistan dairy sector is developing and commercializing at a rapid pace to meet increasing requirement of milk and other dairy products (Dongre et al. 2011). Pakistan owns renowned breeds of dairy buffaloes (Nili-Ravi and Kundi) and cattle (Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Thari and many others). Cattle in Pakistan belong to genus Bos indicus. According to the latest livestock census (Anonymous 2006), out of 29.6 million cattle, 46% (13.6 million) have been described as non-descript. Non-descript cattle do not fall in any defined breeds of cattle. Milk production of non-descript cows is < 1000 lit per lactation in mountains area of NWEP pakistan (Khan and Usmani 2005). As non-descript breeds make up the largest group of cattle in Pakistan, there is a dire need to work on genetic improvement of these animals. Artificial insemination, the best tool for genetic up-gradation in dairy cattle is applied only in 11.1% cows in Pakistan (Anonymous 2006). The main hindrances are small sized scattered herds and lack of experienced technical manpower in the field. Estrus synchronization of a large number of animals and timed insemination can be used to overcome these hindrances .The technique may also help in 11 reducing a prolonged calving interval and postpartum anestrus and seasonality of breeding in these animals (Zafar et al. 2008). Estrus synchronization widely practiced in temperate dairy cattle in developed countries (Hansen and Arechiga 1999). Before launching a large scale estrus synchronization program in non-descript cattle, there is a need to assess the efficacy of various synchronization protocols in terms of estrus incidence, intensity and conception rate. Additionaly, distinct differences have also been reported between Bos taurus and Bos indicus in terms of estrus duration and intensity of expression of estrus sign (Mattoni and Ouedraogo 2000). The low estrus intensity and less duration of estrus signs of Bos Indicus are due to smaller diameter of follicle as compared to that of Bos Taurus (Bo et al. 2003). Developing successful methods for synchronizing estrus and ovulation in cattle has been a major research interest. Ultimately, the goal has been to achieve precise synchronization of ovulation so that cattle can be inseminated without regard to estrus detection. One method to increase conception rates is to use hormonal treatments in zebu breeds for synchronizing ovulation and for timed artificial insemination (TAI). Hormonal programs for synchronizing ovulation to control the follicular and luteal phases and estrus behavior have been used in Bos taurus cows and heifers(Castellanos et al. 1997), and Bos Indicus cows (Pinheiro et al. 1998). The intensity and duration of estrus behaviors during the estrous cycle is highly variable among individuals. More commonly animals are diagnosed to be in estrus based on the mounting or standing to be mounted, appearance of mucus discharge, and other physical activities (Van Eerdenburg et al. 2002). Scoring system were established on the basis of observed estrus signs and most of them have taken mounting and standing to be 12 mounted behavior as the most reliable signs to predict ovulation time in Bos taurus cows (Roelofs et al. 2005). However, it is now well acknowledged that the expression of estrus behavior change with breed of cows (Naidu and Babu Rao 2006). Fertility is an important parameter to assess the efficacy of estrus synchronization. Bos indicus cows after treatment with CIDR conception rate in adult cows 40% and in heifers 20% (Singh et al. 2006). CIDR may have ability to overcome the problems in field condition and increasing the reproductive efficiency by minimize the hindrance anestrus postpartum cows. In Pakistan research work have been done to evaluate the efficacy of CIDR for conception rate in indigenous cattle. Until now no study conducted on non- descript cattle. Therefore, it is hypothesized that CIDR+GnRH can provide better in vivo fertility compared to CIDR. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2248-T] (1).

6. Assessment Of Correlation Between Food Choices And Fertility Status In Females

by Tamkenat Mansoor (2013-VA-923) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Mr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The changing lifestyles and eating patterns have resulted in a number of fertility related problems, especially in females. Initially it was thought that only morbidly increased or decreased body weights were the causative factors in cases of infertility and sub fertility but it has been observed that a lot of women with normal body weight are also increasingly finding it difficult to conceive. Similarly obese and underweight women have also been seen to reproduce normally. Thus, in order to have a better understanding of the relationship between food and fertility we need to compare the eating patterns of fertile women with those of infertile ones. Various eating patterns are associated, either negatively or positively, with the fertility status of females. At least 50 fertile and 50 infertile females, attending the OPDs at health centers in Gujrat, during the time of 6 months or until the benchmark of 50 control and 50 cases is not achieved, will be recruited and interviewed through a proposed questionnaire. Other than Food frequency checklist, social, medical and sexual history of the females will also be included in the questionnaire. Filled questionnaires will be analyzed using Minitab. Comparisons will be made between the food choices of fertile and infertile group using t-test and other relevant tests. The results of the proposed study will help to assess the association between the eating patterns and fertility status of females and help the practitioners to educate and better assist their patients to conceive successfully. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2415-T] (1).

7. Evaluation Of The Microbiological Quality Of Ice Cream Sold At Local Shops In Lahore

by Muhammad Bilal (2009-VA-492 | Dr. Naureen Naeem | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Ice cream is a delicious, wholesome, nutritious frozen dairy food. It is noticed that generally manufacturing of ice cream on small scale production units like local shops doesn't totally follow the standard procedures of ice cream production. Ice cream can be contaminated with microorganisms if some ingredients have been added after pasteurization or by means of improper sanitation of the equipment and environment. Microbiological quality of ice cream reflects hygienic practice in production and is an indication of food safety. There was variation in quality of locally produced ice cream in different areas of Lahore. Food safety is a scientific discipline describes handling, preparation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases. It includes a number of ways that must be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between the market and consumer with the fast pace of life the consumption of fast food is going to increase day by day in Lahore. It is imperative to prepare food at good hygienic conditions because of its perishability. The usual thought is that food should be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of food for the consumer. Microorganisms affecting food comes from natural microflora or are introduced by manufacturing steps ranging from processing storage and distribution. In some cases these micro flora have no effect on the food and can be consumed without consequence, but those that are introduced during course of processing depending on type and level of contamination can spoil the food and cause food borne illnesses. Summary 49 Food can transmit diseases from one person to another as well as serve as growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In the developed countries there are standards for food, whereas in less developed countries the main issue is the availability of safe water supply which is one of the critical item. Foodborne illness is a problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, bacteria, viruses, or parasites, natural toxins, chemicals that contaminate food. For this study total 108 locally produced samples of ice cream were carried from different areas of Lahore. Mughalpura, Sadar, Model town, Gulberg, Town ship and Johar town. 6 shops from each area and 3 samples from each shop were purchased and put in the sampling box with ice packs. Samples were analyzes for microbial load in microbiology Lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Each sample was analyzed for microbiological analysis (Enumeration of Total Viable Count (TVC), Enumeration of Total Coliform Count (TCC), Enumeration of Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) and detection of salmonella spp. Nutrient agar was used to perform Total plate count, Mackonky agar was used for Total coliform count, Mannitol salt agar was used to count S.aureus , Salmonella Shigella agar for Salmonella detection . Each analysis was performed 3 times. The samples collected from Mughalpura, Sadar and Model town were highly contaminated having more microbial count which shows contamination due to poor handling and hygienic conditions while Gulberg, Johar town and Town ship having less contaminated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2543-T] (1).

8. Comparative Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of Various Nutritional Education Methods On Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of School Going Children.

by Khadija Jamil (2014-VA-532) | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Ms. Tahreem Hussain | Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Nutrition education is an essential component of nutrition intervention to improve dietary habits, food choices and to prevent nutritional deficiencies. During the developmental stage between 9-13 years the children experiences a period of remarkable physical, social-emotional, intellectual change and puberty begins to reshape their body. Poor dietary habits and lack of physical activity can be the main cause of poor nutritional status among school going children. Balanced diet has been promoted by health care professionals and food guide pyramid as a tool in relation to balanced diet. Along with basic energy and nutrients the concept of balance must be keep in mind. For proper growth and development and to prevent nutritional deficiencies it is important that children must adopt healthy eating patterns from the early stages of their life. The most important challenging task is to change attitude and modify the dietary behavior of children because most of the children do have information about healthy eating and proper nutrition. In order to change the unhealthy eating patterns of children to become permanent part of life style, nutrition education must provide to children by different nutrition education methods. The directive of the current research helped us to enhance the understanding of different nutritional educational methods and compared the results of three different nutritional education methods (audiovisual, brochure and oral) to improved students’ nutrition knowledge, attitude and dietary practices with the view of determining which method was the most effective. . To compare the effectiveness of nutrition education methods data was collected from three different private schools of Lahore. The study sample consisted of 166 participants. The participants were divided into three groups. In Group 1 nutrition education lectures were delivered through (audio visual), Group 2 nutrition education lectures were delivered through (brochures) and in Group 3 nutrition education lectures were delivered through (traditional oral method). Baseline data included weight, height, BMI and food frequency. The effects of various nutrition education methods on three groups were evaluated by using KAP questionnaire before and after nutrition education lectures delivered. Data were analyzed statistically through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t test. Level of significance was defined as (p<0.05). Study results demonstrated that majority of participants were normal weight with BMI 20.6±2.4 kg/m2. After three months, the post anthropometric measurements of students from different groups were indicating that the mean age, height and BMI from different schools were same when compared with baseline data. Dietary habits of the study participants in three groups (audiovisual, brochure, oral) were also assessed before and after nutrition education lectures were delivered. Analysis of food frequency questionnaire explored that few consumption of food items like milk, yogurt, chapatti, white bread, mutton increased with the passage of time which were statistically significant (p <0.05). The consumption of vegetables (potato and cabbage) and fruits (apple, guava and banana) were increased but they were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The effect of three nutrition education methods (audiovisual, brochure and oral) revealed significant changes on knowledge, attitude and practices before and after nutrition education lectures in three groups. Of the three methods audiovisual, brochure, oral), the mean score of correct answers on knowledge, attitude and practices about balanced diet before nutrition education intervention was less as compared to post test. Although there was a significant changes on knowledge attitude and practices between three nutrition education methods, but the results of the present study revealed that the highest mean score of correct answers on knowledge, attitude and practices was seen in group 1 (audiovisual) than in group 3 (oral) and lastly in group 2 (brochure), indicating audiovisual as the most effective method to improve nutrition knowledge, attitude and practices of children on balanced diet. The nutrition education lectures delivered through audiovisual method has shown to bring about an improvement in knowledge, attitude and practices on balanced diet as compared to other nutrition education methods (oral and brochures) used in the study. The present study demonstrated that after audiovisual, oral method was the second most effective to improve knowledge attitude and practices about balanced diet as compared to brochures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2596-T] (1).

9. Assessment Of Nutritional Status Of End Stage Renal Disease Patients On Maintained Hemodialysis

by Ayesha Batool (2014-VA-548) | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Mr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: End stage renal disease patients on MHD (maintained hemodialysis) have critical nutritional status. The state of nutrition is always critical for the recovery from any disease. An optimal health status assures good quality of life. The study aimed to assess the nutritional status of patients diagnosed with ESRD on maintained hemodialysis. Caloric and protein intake of patients was calculated and compared with standards. Inadequate dietary intake leads to protein energy malnutrition in patients with end stage renal disease on maintained hemodialysis. A sample of 240 patients identified with end stage renal disease (age 40-60 years) visiting outdoor patient department, department of nephrology, Sheikh Zayed Hospital and nephrology department Mayo Hospital, Lahore was selected. Sample was calculated using Yummny formula. Sample was selected through purposive sampling. Direct Nutrition assessment will be conducted through ABD. Anthropometric measurements included BMI, MAMC and TAPM (Appendices I). Biochemical tests included Creatinine, BUN, Serum albumin, total proteins and hemoglobin. Dietary intake was assessed through 24 hour diet recall and FFQ. PG-SGA form was used for screening of patients for malnutrition. The study found that the nutritional status of ESRD patients on MHD is critically poor. 82% of the subjects of the study were moderately to severely malnourished. BMI of most of the patients were normal and thus it is not a reliable parameter to assess malnutrition among critically ill patients. The dietary intake data had shown significant difference between intake and requirements of calories (kcal/day) and proteins (gm/day). The MAMC and TAPM results interpreted that lean muscle mass is depleted in more than 70% of the patients. TAPM values were significantly related with protein intake and PS-SGA score. Thus, it is a reliable parameter for the assessment of malnutrition. Descriptive Summary 74 statistics, regression analysis, t-test, correlation, chi square and cross classification table was used to analyze data. Data was presented in form of graphs and tables. Statistical software SPSS version 22 was used to analyze data. Data thus obtained will serve as baseline data for improvement of nutritional status of ESRD patients. The study also validated the nutritional markers and parameters, which will be helpful in assessment of critically ill patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2605-T] (1).

10. Effect Of Various Classroom Educational Activities On Fresh Fruit Intake Of Children

by Anum Zafar (2014-VA-533) | Ms. Tahreem Hussain | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Mr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Children of age group 3-4 years are developing their dietary habits. Multiple factors affect their eating preferences. Intake of fresh fruits is observed to be less in this age group. Initiative to improve fresh fruit intake during this age is of utmost importance as fruits are rich in micronutrients. The proposed study attempts to find out the effect of class activities on fresh fruit intake of children. The current study hypothesized that class learning activities can improve the consumption of fresh fruits in children and the results of the current study indicates that fresh fruit intake can be increased by different educational activities. A sample of 100 children 3-4 years of age enrolled in The Educators (Shahdara campus) participated in the study. They were divided in four equal sub groups, 25 children in each group. Each group was given the same weighed (109grams) fruit bowls for 20 mins. One group was the control group. In contrast the other three experimental groups received the treatment in the form of different class activities like animated movie, storytelling and the talk session. The fruit bowls were served after these activities and then the weight of the fruit bowls were recorded again. The experiment was performed thrice with a gap of one week to observe the difference. Those participants who were suffering from any type of allergy were excluded from this study. Data of the leftover weight was analyzed statistically by SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics (frequency/percentage), graphs, tables and graphs were used to analyze the data of different days of the treatment. One way ANOVA was used to check the difference between the outputs of different groups. The result of the current study showed that participant with the treatment of storytelling ate more than any other treatment with lowest mean value of left over weight 14.36, however the group which receive the treatment of discussion had the mean value of 21.49 and the treatment with movie had the mean value of 34.02. Participant belong to the control group did not eat much fruit because they had highest mean value of leftover weight of 39.69. Therefore it can be concluded from the current study that there is a positive effect of different class based learning activities on fresh fruits intake in children of age group 3-4 year. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2659-T] (1).

11. Comparative Study Of Nutritional Status Of Geriatric Population Living In Old Age Homes And With Families

by Firdos Kausar (2014-VA-910) | Haroon Jamshid Qazi | Dr.Sanauallahiqbal | Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Elderly population is one of the most vulnerable groups that are on the risk of malnutrition due to various physiological and environmental reasons. Elderly population have high prevalence of malnutrition Geriatric populations living in old age homes have high risk of malnutrition a respect to those living with families. A comparative study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of geriatric population living with families and living in old age homes in the city of Lahore Pakistan. The study was cross sectional design. Participants above 60 years were included in study. Two hundred elderly persons, hundred living in old age homes and hundred (100) with families in this 65% male and 35% females were assessed through, 24 hour dietary recall and Macro nutrients intake calculated, clinical assessment and anthropometric assessments BMI, mid arm circumferences and calf circumferences Furthermore mini nutritional assessment MNA® tool was also is used to assess the nutritional status of participants. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 19. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the background characteristic profile of the respondents. Chi square was used to find the association between home living and old age homes living. The MNA results revels the prevalence of malnutrition in living with families were 6.5% and 19.5 % were at risk of malnutrition while in old age homes 14.5% were malnourished and 22.5% were at risk of malnutrition. Intake of carbohydrates, protein, energy, was significantly higher in geriatric population living with families when compared to geriatric population living in old age homes (p<0.05). The energy derived from proteins was 8% from living in old age homes while 12% elderly living with families. The results of current study showed high risk of malnutrition (p<0.05) in geriatric population living in old age homes, and verify the need for health support and nutritional interventions for geriatric population in old age homes. The energy intake and some nutrients especially protein in geriatric population living in old age homes was lower than dietary reference intake. Further studies should be conducted in neighboring areas of Lahore and other cities of Pakistan as well as to access nutritional status in elderly population especially living in old age homes. Provision of healthy well balanced diet, and considering needs of nutrients and specific micronutrients including iron vitamin A long term provision, and their like and dislike in planning of menus in this manner it will encourage food consumption Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2743-T] (1).

12. Comparison Of Response Of Oral Versus Injectible Vitamin D In Children Having Rickets

by Rabia Mazari (2014-VA-909) | Dr. Waqas Ahmad | Dr. Huma Imran | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Nutritional rickets is a common problem in Pakistan as highlighted in different studies. Nutritional rickets is a childhood bone disorder in which bones become soften and deformity occurs. The main cause of this rickets is lack of vitamin D. In Pakistan, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children has been reported as 40%. Methodology consist of division of 2 groups (oral, injectable).A specific amount of doses (200,000 i.u) was given to both groups for about 3 months. All children were followed up for two more visits on thirty and ninety day. In the follow-up visits the children were subjected to clinical, biochemical and radiological examination and their findings were recorded. Anthropometric measurements included wide wrist frontal bossing, and head circumference etc. Biochemical findings included different test for serum calcium level, serum phosphorous level, serum alkaline phosphatase and 25 dehydroxyvitamin D. Radiological examination was consisting of X-Ray reports of wrist and knee. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used. Means were compared for significance through LSD. Level of significance was defined as ≤ 0.05.Cohort software version Costat 6.303 was used for all statistical analysis. There were no undesirable side effects observed in either group of children and both oral and injectable forms of treatment were well-tolerated. The injectable route was little bit highly efficient than oral one as expected. But this difference in efficiency is not that much significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2742-T] (1).

13. Effect Of Β-Carotene And Tocopherol On Pregnancy Rate In Cidr Synchronized Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Muhammad Bilal Munawar (2015-VA-16) | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Buffalo is of unique importance in livestock and dairy industry of Pakistan due to its high milk production and shares 65% of total milk production. Reproduction is important to get good production and profit in dairy sector. Reproduction in buffalo is compromised due to its small size ovaries, poor ovarian reserves and less pronounced estrus intensity, resulting as low fertility. Synchronization techniques including CIDR based protocols are well established in cows and getting popularity in buffaloes but with low results, comparatively. Therefore, some modifications are required based on physiology of estrus cycle in buffalo. This was hypothesized that additional injection of Dalmavital in CIDR base protocol will enhance the pregnancy rates and embryonic liability by minimizing the oxidative stress. Therefore, present study is conducted to evaluate the effect Dalmavital on estrus response, Estrus intensity, Pregnancy rates and embryonic losses in CIDR synchronized Nili-Ravi buffalo. For this, buffaloes were scanned ultrasonically for the reproductive tract evaluation. Reproductively sound buffaloes were selected and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment group. 86 buffaloes with normal reproductive tract were assigned in two groups 1; CIDR group (n = 43) and 2; CIDR+D (n = 43). AI was performed twice at 48 and 60 hours after CIDR removal. Estrus response (ER) did not differ significantly (P >0.05) in groups, CIDR and CIDR-D but estrus intensity (EI) was statistically significant (P<0.05) in treatment group. Pregnancy rates were also non-significant (P>0.05) in treatment and control group but improved comparatively in CIDR-D group (63% in CIDR-D group and 56% in CIDR group). Embryonic and fetal losses were also non-significant (P>0.05) between the control and treatment group. Results were also compared in cyclic and non-cyclic, Milking and dry, BCS and parity. Results were non-significant in milking and dry, BCS and Parity. Pregnancy rates were found different significantly (P<0.05) in cyclic and non-cyclic animals, when treatment Summary 27 is ignored. From the present study it can be concluded that Dalmavital may have good effect on estrus intensity in CIDR synchronized Nili-Ravi buffalo. Nili-Ravi buffalo is known as black gold of Pakistan. They produce about 2500 liters of milk with 6.5% butter fat. Despite of benefits, this breed is highly influenced with low reproductive activity that include prolonged pubertal period, poor exhibition of estrus, inadequate ovarian activity, long calving interval, high embryonic mortality and low fertility rate with artificial insemination. These factors reduce buffalo’s reproduction which leads to great economic losses. Therefore, there is dire need to address these problems and to orchestrate novel approaches to enhance the reproductive efficiency of buffalo. In cows, during last six to decades, researchers have considerably devised certain strategies to synchronize estrus with the help of prostaglandins, progestagens and estrogens. The advent of these hormones or synchronization protocols helped significantly in improving reproductive management. Moreover, the use of fixed time artificial insemination protocols resulted in acceptable fertility. However, these tools provide inconsistent results to manage reproduction in buffalo. Therefore, unprecedented approaches are required to facilitate and improve the buffalo reproduction. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2803-T] (1).

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