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1. Standardizaion Of Indirect Elisa For Detection Of Antibodies Against Newcastle Disease Virus

by Muhammad Imran Najeeb | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Azhar | Dr. Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: An Indirect ELISA was developed to detect Newcastle disease virus antibodies in chicken sera. Out of solid phases used flat bottom 96 well microtitration polystyrene plates proved best. Out of four types of antigens tested, crude antigen and alcohol precipitated antigen gave inconsistent results. An ultracentrifuged virus passed through sucrose gradient prepared from infectious allantoic-amniotic fluids (AAF) was proven best for ELISA antigen. However, an ammonium sulphate precipitated antigen prepared from AAF was also satisfactory. A comparison was made between the HI titers of chicken sera and the corresponding ELISA values. The ELISA is much more sensitive than the HI test. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0876,T] (1).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Prophylactic & Curative Measures Against Caecal Coccidiosis In Poultry

by Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. H. A. Hashmi | Dr. Irshad | Mr. Wasim Shehzad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: To find out the therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of toltrazuril against coccidiosis, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. One hundred and sixty (160) day old chicks were divided into 8 groups, i-e, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H each consisting of 20 chicks. Group A acted as non-infected and non-medicated control, B was infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts on day 16 and 26 @ 20000 per chick and acted as infected control. Similarly, all other members of different groups were also infected at the same rate. Members of Group C were administered toltrazuril orally in drinking water @ 7 mg/ kg body weight on day 18 & 19 and 25 & 26. Members of Group D were given toltrazuril @ 3.5 mg/kg body weight, of Group E @ 1.75 mg/kg as in group C & D, of Group F toltrazuril was given as prophylactic @ 7mg/kg on day 3 & 10. Members of Groups G & H were given irradiated (IEV) and formalized (FEV-48) Eimeria tenella vaccines respectively. IEV was orally given on day 3 & 10 whereas FEV was only given on day 10 of age. The result indicated that maximum reduction of OPG counts (94.28 %) occurred in members of group D which was given half the dose (3.5 mg/kg) of toltrazuril, Group E (Administered quarter dose) was placed at no.2 and the reduction in this Group occurred as 93.71 %. The group G (IEV immunized) was placed at no. 3 by reducing 89.71 % mean OPG counts as compared to control Group B. In terms of reduction of OPG counts other Groups were placed at no.4 (Group F given full dose prophylactic), no.5 (Group H immunized with FEV-48) and Group C showed the poorest performance (63.42 %) which was given full dose was placed at no. 6. In terms of Mean body weight gains as compared to control (healthy) Group A, Group D was placed at no.1, Group E at no.2, Group G at no.3, Group C at no. 4 Group F at no.5, Group H at no.6 and Group B which acted as infected and non-medicated was placed at no.7. Ultimately, it was concluded that toltrazuril @ 3.50 mg/kg or immunization with IEV (irradiated vaccine) would be the best solution to the coccidiosis problem Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0941,T] (1).

3. Genotyping Of Echinococcus Granulosus And Its Comparative Prevalence In Sheep, Goat And Human

by Muhammad Imran Bhatti | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Miss. Sabiqaa Masood | Mr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Hydatidosis is caused by metacestode of the dog worm Echinococcus granulosus. It is a serious problem for both Public health and livestock economy.Echinococcus granulosus has number of genetically distinct strains which are known to differ morphologically and epidemiologically. Out of 1000 sheep and goat examined only 45 Samples of hydatid cysts were collected from different organs i.e. livers, kidneys, lungs and hearts from Lahore abbatoir. Fertility and viability of the cysts was observed microscopically. Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus was performed through Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Seroprevalence of hydatidosis in 50 butchers working in abattoir was also determined by the use of Latex agglutination test (LAT) kit for detection of hydatidosis. Considerable information is available about genetic variants of E. granulosus around the world. Ten genotypes of E. granulosus have been described, which exhibit a diversity of morphology, development, and host range, as confirmed by various studies. In the Mediterranean area, the Gl or common sheep strain, 02, the buffalo strain 03, and the equine strain 04 have been found in Spain, Italy, Lebanon, and Syria To date, molecular studies using mainly DNA sequences cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COl) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) genes have identified ten distinct genotypes (01 -G 10) within E. granulosus. This categorization follows very closely the patterns of strain variation emerging from biological and epidemiological traits. In this study we perform serum analysis of butchers to detect antibodies against Echinococcus so that the prevalence of Echinococus can be checked, the data available indicated that 14% of butchers population is infected with Echinococus. In order to confirm the starin of Echinococcus in sheep and goat the PCR-RFLP analysis of ND I gene of Echinococus were performed .The data obtained was analysed and it was concluded that the 01 strain of echinococus is prevalent in sheep and goat in Punjab area. It is hoped that the findings of the present study will be helpful for further planning about the control of the disease and correlating the prevalence in sheep, goats and butchers from the zoonotic point of view. The results demonstrated that PCR-RFLP analysis of samples of patients suspected for Echinococcus is a promising diagnostic method and also confirms the type of Echinococus prevalent in that area and also enables an early direct detection of parasite DNA. This will help to curtail this drastic malady at an early stage and will help to devise the trategy to minimize the losses due to this disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0967,T] (1).

4. Effect Of Malathion On Serum Cholinesterase Activity And Lipid Profile In Rabbits

by Muhammad Imran | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Malathion is an organophosphorous compound widely used as pesticide, mostly in spray form. The present project was designed to study the effect of Malathion on lipid profile and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in rabbits. The experimental rabbits were kept at the animal shed of Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and were divided into five groups A, B, C, D, and E, each comprising of five animals. All the animals of each groups were shaved from their dorsal side for the application of Malathion. The animals of group A were treated with Malathion 50 mg / kg body weight, dermally. Group B was treated with 100mg of Malathion per kg B.W., dermally. Rabbits in group C were treated with Malathion at the rate of 200mg! kg B.W. Group D was treated with 400mg/kg B.W., dermally. The application of Malathion was repeated on Day 1, Day 3, Day 5 and Day 7 of the experiment. Group E was as control. Blood samples were collected from each animal separately before and after the experiment from their marginal ear veins. Serum was separated from the blood samples and was further analyzed for cholinesterase activity and lipid profile by spectro photometric method. Specified Randox kits were used for this purpose. Data collected from the experiment showed that Malathion inhibits the activity of cholinesterase enzyme. Also Malathion influences the lipid profile. In group A which was treated with Malathion 50mg/kg, the total cholesterol was increased up to 27.11%, high density lipoprotein (HDL) were increased up to 22.40%, low density lipoprotein were increased up to 175.44% and triglycerides (TGs) were decreased by 14.42%. In group B which was treated with Malathion 100mg/kg, total cholesterol was increased up to 34.46%, HDL increased up to 35.40%, LDL increased up to 183.09% while TGs were decreased by 14.02%. In group C which was treated with Malathion 200mg/kg, total cholesterol was increased up to 31.46%, HDL were increased up to 42.10%, LDL were increased up to 137.44% and TGs were decreased by 15.44%. While in group D which was treated with Malathion 400mg/kg, total cholesterol was increased up to 23.46%, HDL were increased up to 45.76%, LDL were increased up to 82.37% and TGs were decreased up to 14.95%.Activity of cholinesterase was decreased up to 82.74%, 91.59%, 89.63% and 86.64% in different groups like group A, B, C and D respectively. All the results were compared with the values of control group E. All the data obtained from these experiments was analyzed statistically. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0974,T] (1).

5. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Of Levofloxacin In Healthy Volunteers & Patients Suffering From Typhoid Fever

by Muhammed Usman | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Imran Khokhar | Dr. Shehryar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Levofloxacin in healthy volunteers and in human patients suffering from typhoid fever (target individuals). The study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers and six male patients suffering from typhoid fever in Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) Lahore. Only those patients were selected who were suffering from typhoid (confirmed after widal test) between the age of 25-40 years. Healthy volunteers were also between age of 25-40 years. The patients were considered as group A and healthy volunteers were considered as group B. Both groups were treated with Levofloxacin 5 00mg tab orally per individual. 5m1 Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 & 72 hr from vein through 5m1 B.D syring of 23guage needle after oral administration of Levofloxacin. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 5000 RPM and stored at -20°C until assayed. Levofloxacin concentrations in plasma were measured by previously described HPLC method. Calculation of all the pharmacokinetic parameters was done by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmacological analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02 by assuming bio-availability of levofloxacin after oral administration as 1. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Levofloxacin in healthy volunteers and in typhoid patients were compared. Data was analyzed by appropriate statistical methods and it was observed that there is no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of Levofloxacin in healthy volunteers and in typhoid patients after oral administration and there is no need for dose adjustment of Levofloxacin in typhoid patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1027,T] (1).

6. Dominant Inheritance Of Myopia Linked Loci Myp10 And Myp11

by Saira Nabi | Mr. Asif Nadeem | Mr. Muhammad Imran | Prof.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Myopia, a refractive error is one of the most common ocular disorders worldwide with elongation of axis of the eyeball. Genetic plays an important role in the development of myopia. Familial myopia is common in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to find out the dominant inheritance through linkage analysis and molecular characterization of Myopia in Pakistani myopic families and also to determine the presence of loci (MYP 10 and MYP1 1). Six families with three or more affected individuals in two or more ioops were enrolled from different areas of Lahore. The persons with refractive error equal or worse than -l were considered as myopic. Out of the total 36 samples, 26 were myopic. For the each locus, 3 markers were designed .Polyacrylamide Gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used for genotyping of amplified DNA samples. Haplotypes of all the families were constructed based on the PAGE results to check weather a family is linked or unlinked to those loci. Result of allele haplotyping were analysed to evaluate the linkage of Myopia loci and dominant inheritance in Pakistani families. No linkage was found for any of those selected families. The negative results for these chromosomal regions have several possible reasons; sample size, family size and ethnicity of the families are the major reasons for these negative results. Although there was no linkage for the loci MYP10 and MYP11, this would be the first molecular investigation of the Myopia loci MYP10 and MYP11 in Pakistani families. The findings of the proposed study will be vital for victim familes in terms of genetic testing, genetic counseling, for designing a management plan and resource alloction for victims. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1215,T] (1).

7. Study On Different Closure Techniques Of Nephrotomy In Dogs

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Safdar Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Kidney is a vital organ of body. It plays an important role in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and regulation of blood pressure. Kidney performs these functions in coordination of various endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide. There are different problems of the kidney like calculi lodged in the renal pelvis and neoplasia of the kidney in which nephrotomy is indicated. The project was designed to find out the most suitable technique of closing nephrotomy incision. For this purpose three groups A, B and C of dogs were arranged containing eight animals in each group. In group A after performing nephrotomy, 2/0 absorbable suture was placed through the cortex in horizontal mattress fashion and renal capsule was closed with 4/0 absorbable suture in a simple continuous fashion while in group B nephrotomy incision was apposed by applying gentle digital pressure for five minute and incision in the renal capsule was closed with 3/0 synthetic absorble suture. Whereas, in group C cut edges was apposed through tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Physical evaluation, Urine examination i.e urine colour, Complete blood count, blood urea Nitrogen, serum creatinine and excretory urography at different intervals was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these three techniques. The present project clearly indicated that suturless nephrotomy closure technique was found to be more suitable and compatible technique with excellent clinical superiority in terms of good weight gain, better hemostais, minimal post operative complication and maintaining kidney function. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1447,T] (1).

8. The Diagnostic Value Of Tta Codon Substitution In Los Angeles Galactosemia

by Sahr Malik | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Muhammad | Miss. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1590,T] (1).

9. Pcr (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Test Development And Its Application For The Diagnosis Of Congenital Leptin Deficiency

by Nida Fakhar | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Miss Faiza | Miss. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1383,T] (1).

10. Identification Of Pesticide Residues In Different Vegetable Collected From Market Of Lahore, Pakistan.

by Anam Munawar | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Pesticides are the chemicals which are used to kill or repel the unwanted objects such as pests. Different types of pesticides are present which undergo a different mechanism and kill the pests. Four different types are being used in Pakistan such as organophosphate, organochlorine, pyrehtroid and carbamates. Use of organophosphate and organochlorine become less due the presence of residues. Use of pesticides is increased for a number of purposes such as to increase the rate of production, to decrease the damage of crops and to increase the saving time of different vegetables. Vegetables are the main source of income of Pakistan, and vegetables are common in our use. Vegetables contain different nutritional elements of our diets. That's why vegetables play an important role in the nutritious diet of a person. The spray of different chemicals on vegetables not only decreases the nutritional elements but also increase the risk of different diseases. As pesticides leave their residues in vegetables, different techniques can be used to detect the residues and their maximum residue limit, at which limit these pesticides are harmful for humans. Pesticides can also act on unintended individual such as human beings and cause different acute and chronic diseases. Different vegetables were selected for analyses that are common in use and available in every season. Pesticides which were selected are that which are common in Pakistan and from different pesticide classes. In present study vegetables of different areas of Lahore were collected and analyzed through HPTLC and GC/MS. HPTLC was used to analyze and calculate the concentration and GC/MS was used for the confirmation of results, and it was concluded that which vegetable contain the high concentration of pesticides. It was studied that which vegetable absorb large amount of pesticides. Potato, tomato, egg plant, okra and cucumber of different markets of Lahore contain high concentration of pesticides as compared to the other vegetables. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1510,T] (1).

11. Diagnostic Value Of 4Bp- 5' Gtca Deletion In Duarte Galactosemia

by Sadia Zia | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1602,T] (1).

12. Leptin Mutations In Morbidly Obese And Severely Lean Individuals From Pakistan

by Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1623,T] (1).

13. Identification Of Pesticides Residues In Defferent Samples Of Milk

by Neelam Shahzadi | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1646,T] (1).

14. Community Trials Of Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccines In District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1649,T] (1).

15. Identification Of Polymorphism In Bone Morphogentic Protein Receptor Type-1B (Bmpr-1B) In Teddy Goats

by Sonia Noreen Anjum | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Abu Saeed | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Teddy goats provide a great scope for enhancing meat and milk production being the primary objective to compensate for increased demand in Pakistan. It is an established fact that an animal producing twins or triplet contributes more than 1.5 times toward meat than the animals producing single offspring per kidding. Hence, the identification of major fecundity genes, mutations of which are thought to elevate ovulation rate and litter size in goats as well as sheep breeds, has been the center of attention for all scientists. Four major fecundity genes expressed in goat ovary namely: GDF-9, BMP-15, ESR-? and BMPR-1B are the causative genes for high prolificacy. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B (BMPR-1B) gene first identified ingranulosa cells of ovary. A-G transition at 746 bp at the FecB gene locus causing an amino acid substitution namely Q249R increases the antral follicular maturation leading to the release of a large number of ovules hence increasing litter size in range from 1.4-2.7 kids/birth. In this study, blood samples from 52 Teddy goats were collected having twining record and processed for DNA extraction. DNA fragments containing FecB gene were PCR-amplified from extracted DNA samples. The PCR amplicons containing Q249R substitution were subjected to RFLP so that the presence or absence of these polymorphisms could be analyzed. On analysis with DdeI restriction enzyme, three types of allelic fragments namely: wild type, homozygous mutant and heterozygous mutant of FecB gene mutation in Pakistani Teddy goats were to be observed. Whereas,the results obtained for this study strongly suggests that the Q249R mutation of FecB marker in BMPR-1B gene was not present in Teddy goats and these goats were found to be non-carriers for this mutation having wild type alleles. However, this work did not claimed the absence of any other mutation in BMPR-1B. There may be the involvement of other fecundity genescausing the increased prolificacy of these goats causing twining and triplets namely: Growth differentation factor-9 (GDF-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1670,T] (1).

16. Comparasion Of Differnt Presumptive Tests For Detection Of Bloodstain After Washing Fabric With Different

by Samreen Mushtaq | Ms. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1674,T] (1).

17. Detection And Quantification Of Dna From Saaliva From Cigarette Butts In Different Genders

by Qurra-tul-Aien | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Abu Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1675,T] (1).

18. Principal Component Factor Analysis Of The Morphostructure Of Aalt Range Sheep

by Muhammad Imran Khan | Mr. Imran Mohisn | Dr. Jalees Ahmed Bhatti | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1692,T] (1).

19. Genetic Characterization Of Livestock Species Of Pakistan Through Dna Barcoding

by Madiha Booter | Dr.Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Abu saeed | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The interaction of livestock with ecosystem plays a vital role in sustainability of life. The demand of livestock products is rising day by day which is changing the relationship between livestock and natural resources. Livestock animals are playing a major role towards domestication and also contributing to fulfill human needs through meat and milk production for food industry, which generate big revenues. Pakistan is blessed with the world's best livestock species and there is a need to establish a well characterized system for the classification and identification of these important livestock species. Mitochondrial DNA is of small size, constitutes a small fraction of the total of cell's genome and due to high rate of mutation, it is considered to be an ideal model to study evolutionary relationships. DNA barcoding is being used to characterize animals by using a standard region of mitochondrial DNA as a molecular marker. The study is designed to develop the DNA barcode for genetic characterization of livestock species of Pakistan which includes sheep, goat, cow, buffalo and camel. Blood samples were collected from the selected livestock species. Primers were designed using primer designing free-ware software. The amplified PCR products weresequenced in both orientations by chain termination method. For data analysis,Chromas was used to read sequencing results. To study variation in all sequenced data, alignment tools were used from NCBI. Theblastnalignment tool available at NCBI is more reliable to give authentic results.The alignment results showed 100% homology with the reference sequences (No SNP or mutation was identified). The results can further be validated with the help of mass level sampling to rationalize the study at population level.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that COIDNA barcode region can be used to discriminate unknown samples of any of the species under consideration. The COIgene successfully cladded already reported sequences of the same species. This study provided genetic data which help in species identification, to assess evolutionary pattern and genetic diversity. So, it will also be helpful to monitor legal or illegal trade of livestock species and to identify processed and unprocessed meat for quality assurance. Establishment of an elaborated DNA barcode system for livestock species will help to start taxonomic investigation and will lead towards to identify many new mammalian species of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1752,T] (1).

20. Recovery Of Latent Finger Prints From Materials Immersed Om Aqiatic Environment: The Under Water Crime Scene Investigation

by Tahir Ismail | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Finger prints evidence is regarded as the best means of personal identification. It can also distinguish between identical twins. The type of finger prints invisible to the naked eye is known as latent finger prints. Recovery of latent finger prints from materials depends on a number of factors such as type of material, environmental conditions and duration of exposure. Water comprises about 71% of the earth. As the number of people visiting water ways (rivers, canals, streams etc.) is increasing, the incident rate of crimes has been found to rise at these places. Moreover, criminals find it convenient to dispose of weapons and evidences in the water ways. Forensic science consists of a variety of techniques that are applied in order to answer the questions of interest to legal system. Cyanoacrylate fuming and dusting powder methods are used for the development of latent finger prints from materials immersed in aquatic environment. By examining the characteristics of latent finger prints, on materials thrown in to water, the forensic scientist may positively identify the perpetrator. This research activity was conducted to evaluate the effect of type of material, immersion medium and time length of immersion in aquatic environment, in a realistic setting, using materials that closely resemble the common evidences. The materials comprised stainless steel knives, aluminum foils, used brass cartridges, soft drink plastic bottles and glass slides. For every material, sample size was kept 196. The samples were labeled with permanent identification numbers. After deposition of finger prints by volunteers, the materials were placed in the tubs of immersion media, one tub for each type of material. Maximum immersion time was 35 days. 21 samples of each material were taken out of water at day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35. The taken out 21 samples and 7 controls were processed for latent finger prints development, with cyanoacrylate fuming and dusting powder methods. Cyanoacrylate fuming was performed in a zip lock transparent polythene bag. A china dish covered with aluminum foil and having NaOH treated cotton balls was introduced in the fuming chamber. Samples, controls and a beaker of hot water were also placed. Cyanoacrylate (ELFYTM) drops were put over the cotton balls and zip was closed immediately. The controls were observed for optimum development of latent finger prints. After development, each finger print was lifted using tape lifter, placed on a white finger print card and examined with the help of a magnifying glass. The finger prints were assessed using a scoring system, based on the visibility of finger prints, as adopted in various published studies. Similar results were obtained for up to 5 days immersion in all the immersion media. Differences arose from day 10. This time and onwards, finger prints could not be developed from brass cartridges immersed in any media. Canal water was noted to favor the retention of latent finger prints because suspended particles in canal water tend to adhere the latent finger prints. Detergents in sewerage water were found to quickly wipe the latent finger prints residue. Chlorine used as dis-infectant in swimming pools is acidic in nature. Under acidic conditions, development of latent finger prints becomes difficult. The data was analyzed for results by Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation using IBM SPSS 20.0 software. The study illustrated that there is correlation among type of material, immersion medium and time length of immersion in aquatic environment. It will provide valuable information for crime investigation agencies to establish a link between finger prints evidence recovered from various materials immersed in aquatic environment and the suspected person. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1763,T] (1).

21. Effect On Hematological Indices And Serum Mineral Profiles Of Beetal Goats In District Swat At Different Altitudes

by Faisal Anwar | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Mr. Muhammad Imran Khan | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Livestock is the major source of income of rural population. Approximately 70% of the people in rural areas depend directly or indirectly on livestock for their house hold income and nutrition. Livestock efficiency mainly depends on their health and well-being. Blood is one of the reliable medium from which we can evaluate the health condition of an animal. Livestock in Pakistan is reared in various altitudes. Information on various physiological indices in goats related to altitude is scarce for Pakistan. The present has been conducted at three different altitudes, two altitude groups from district Swat and one group at Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A total of 60 blood samples were collected from three different altitudinal groups and then the hematological parameters was determined through hematological analyzer and serum concentration of Calcium and Potassium by flame photometer, Phosphorus by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, Chlorine by silver Nitrate titration method and Iron by Drabkin method. The White blood cell count (WBC) found 10.47±0.34 × 103/µL at altitude 1177 feet, 8.33±0.13 × 103/µL at altitude 2863 feet and 11.52±0.52 × 103/µL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The lymphocytes count (LYMP) found 28.90±0.46 percent at altitude 1177 feet, 28.55±0.60 percent at altitude 2863 feet and 31.15±0.99 percent at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The granulocytes (GRAN) count found 65.10±0.85 percent at altitude 1177 feet, 65.89±1.41 percent at altitude 2863 feet and 67.23±1.87 percent at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The red blood cell count (RBC) found 10.98±0.22 million/µL at altitude 1177 feet, 11.65±0.15 million/µL at altitude 2863 feet and 14.62±0.26 million/µL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The hemoglobin count (Hb) found 5.17±0.19 g/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 7.23±0.10 g/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 10.96±0.59 g/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Hematocrit count (HCT) found 29.14±0.39 percent at altitude 1177 feet, 28.94±0.42 percent at altitude 2863 feet and 30.69±0.48 percent at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) found 28.83±0.43femtoliter at altitude 1177 feet, 31.06±0.37 femtoliter at altitude 2863 feet and 35.94±0.39 femtoliter at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) found 5.27±0.12 picogram at altitude 1177 feet, 5.73±0.10 picogram at altitude 2863 feet and 6.78±0.09 picogram at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) found 29.82±0.49 g/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 32.10±0.57 g/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 34.32±0.39 g/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The platelets (PLT) count found 270.9±3.81 103/µL at altitude 1177 feet, 294.95±3.61 103/µL at altitude 2863 feet and 283.50±5.28 103/µL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Calcium (Ca) level found in serum was 8.79±0.23 mg/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 9.44±0.16 mg/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 9.80±0.16 mg/dL at altitude 4200 from sea level. The Chloride (Cl) level found in serum was 102.91±0.39 m?q/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 104.08±0.42 m?q/dL at altitude 2863 and 105.50±0.57 m?q/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Phosphorus (P) level found in serum was 3.98±0.02 mg/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 5.52±0.08 mg/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 6.34±0.08 mg/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Potassium (K) level found in serum was 3.98±0.04 m?q/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 4.61±0.06 m?q/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 4.93±0.04 m?q/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Iron (Fe) level was found 87.12±0.97 µg/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 97.44±0.67 µg /dL at altitude 2863 feet and 106.35±0.87 µg/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. A significant difference was found between different altitudes in WBC count, LYMP percent, RBC count, Hg level, HCT percent, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, Ca level, Cl level, P level, K level, Fe level and no significant difference was observed in GRAN percent. This study generated a better understanding that hematology and serum mineral profile has been affected as an increase occurs in the altitudes and it reflects that increase in RBCs, Hematocrit and hemoglobin level at different altitudes also the serum mineral level goes high as there is an increase in the altitudes shows the adaptation of animal to the environmental condition and this study will be helpful in disease investigation and management of animals at different altitudes and different stress conditions. Further studies are been required to evaluate the effect of altitude, feed intake, nutrition, environmental stress and climatic condition on the hematology and serum mineral profile of different breeds of small ruminants and large ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1777,T] (1).

22. Isolation Of Local Strain Of Toxoplasma Gondii Through In-Vivo Cultivation In Mice

by Rahim Gul | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate apicomplexan, intracellular, parasite that infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals and birds. Human beings can be infected by ingestion of oocysts from cat faeces or through the consumption of meat containing Toxoplasma gondii cysts. Thus, food animals can be the source of transmission of Toxoplasmosis in human population especially among people who consume undercooked meat in the forms of barbecues, beef steaks, kebabs, burgers and shawarmas. Oocysts of T. gondii from cat faeces were identified by using direct microscopy and flotation technique. The positive oocysts were confirmed by micrometry having diameter of 9-13 ìm. The oocysts were then sporulated in aerated condition. After sporulation oocyst were inoculated in Swiss albino mice for in-vivo culturing. After 56-70 days brain tissue was collected from infected mice and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR amplification. Similarly DNA was also extracted from sporulated oocyst for copro-PCR. Out of 200 faecal samples only three were found positive for Toxoplasma gondii through direct microscopic examination and flotation technique. From positive faecal sample and brain tissue DNA was extracted by QIAGEN mini stool kit and QIAGEN DNA mini kit. After DNA extraction the samples were examined through PCR by using specific Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene primer having 529 bp size. Two hundred faecal samples were examined for T. gondii using direct microscopy, flotation technique, bioassay and polymerase chain reaction. Out of 200 samples 3 (1.5%) were found infected through direct microscopy and flotation technique. Toxoplasmosis was more prevalent in adult cats (1.65%) as compared to young ones. Prevalence was also found high in females (2.08%) as compared to males. Similarly healthy cats have higher prevalence rate (1.30%) as compared to diseased ones. A further confirmation was done through polymerase chain reaction and brain tissue cyst Bioassay give 1 positive amplification while Copro-PCR gives 2 positive amplifications. Therefore it can be concluded that the copro-PCR is can be used for the confirmation of Toxoplasma oocysts from cat faeces and tissue cysts from bioassay in mice. Therefore, we propose that the copro-PCR can be used as the new gold standard for determining potential cat infectivity and tissue cysts from bioassayed mice or contaminated meat samples of livestock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1778,T] (1).

23. Development Of The Test For The Diagnosis Of Classical Galactosemia In General Papulation

by Mehmmona Iqbal | Dr Muhammad Imran | Ms Faiza | Ms Sehrish Firyal | IBBT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1856,T] (1).

24. Molecular Chracterization Of Pakistani Gaucher Disease Type 2 Patients From Lahore

by Maliha Afreen | Dr Muhammad Imran | Ms Asma Waris | Ms Sayeda Kalsoom | IBBT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1857,T] (1).

25. Molecular Diversity Of Fumaryl Acetoacetate Hydrolase Gene In Mammalian Species

by Sadaqat ijaz | Dr. Muhammad yasir zahoor | DR. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: The present study has been planned to study the pathogenicity of FAdv-4 by inoculation of different age groups of broiler birds through different parenteral routes and oronasal routes. The liver homogenate suspension prepared from infected liver samples and cell culture propagated infectious agents were used to infect the susceptible broiler birds via parenteral routes and through oronasal routes. For this purpose two experiments were designed as Experiment I and II. In Experiment I the 25-day-old broiler birds were inoculated with different dilutions of liver homogenate and cell culture propagated HPS virus through intramuscular (i/m) and oral routes. Similarly in Experiment II the one-day-old, 1-week-old, 2-week-old, 3-week-old and 4-week-old broiler chickens were inoculated with the original dilution (100) of same liver homogenate and cell culture propagated HPS virus through S/C and oral route. The birds were kept under observation for recording morbidity and mortality. In Experiment I the liver homogenate caused 64% mortality in broiler birds of the Group A through intramuscular route, while 33.33% mortality in broiler birds of Group B through oral route. The cell culture propagated HPS virus caused 60% and 13.33% mortality in broiler birds of Group C and D through intramuscular and oral routes, respectively. In Experiment II none of the day-old-chick died from Group A inoculated with liver homogenate and cell culture propagated HPS virus through s/c and oral route. The liver homogenate and cell culture propagated HPS virus caused high mortality in different age groups of broiler birds through s/c route than oral route. The blood samples were collected from the broiler birds before and after infection and various hematological parameters such as Hemoglobin and packed cell volumes were studied. The values of hemoglobin and packed cell volume showed highly significant (P<0.05) reduction indicating anaemia. The values of hemoglobin and packed cell volume of the broiler birds inoculated with infectious liver homogenate showed highly significant reduction than the birds inoculated with cell culture propagated HPS virus. The results indicated that the liver homogenate is more pathogenic than cell culture propagated HPS virus. There changes may be due to adoptability of the original FAdVs after continued passages in the culture of chicken embryo liver cells. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0946,T] (1).

26. Genetic Characterization Of Pakistani Flayer Pigeons Using Mitochondrtial Nd2. And 16S Rrna Genes As Genetic

by Ahmad Ali | Dr. Sehish firyal | DR. Muhammad imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1970,T] (1).

27. Molecular Analysis Of Mitochondrial Hypervariable Region In Three Consecutive Generations Of Buffalo

by Zara zaheer | Dr. Muhammad Yasir zahoor | Dr. MUhammad Imran | MR. Tariq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2003,T] (1).

28. In-Silico Functional Prediction Analysis Of Prion Protein Polymorphisms In Sheep Scrapie

by Mubashar ahmad | Dr. Muhammad imran | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Wasim shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2012,T] (1).

29. In Silico Functional Prediction Of Prion Protein Polymorphisms In Chronic Qasting Disease

by Iqra khizar | DR. Muhammad imran | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad yasir zahoor.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2024,T] (1).

30. A Studyof Pesticidues In Different Fruits Collected From Differentfruit Markets Of Lahore Punjab

by Muhammad shafi | Dr. Muhammad imran | Ms. Huma mujahid | Ms. Saeeda.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2037,T] (1).

31. Phylogenetic Analysis Of Haemoproteus In Chicken And Sparrows

by Anha fatima | Dr. Muhammad imran rashid | Dr. Azhar maqbool | Dr. Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2038,T] (1).

32. Analysis Of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor P16 Polymorphism In Canin Tumors

by Hafiz muhammad farooq yaqub | Dr. Muhammad wasim | Dr. muhammad imran | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2047,T] (1).

33. Effect Of B- Mannanase On Broilers Performance At Different Dietary Energy Levels

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Talat Nasir Pasha | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2147,T] (1).

34. Development Of Molecular Tools For The Diagnosis Of Plasmodium Vivax Using Cytochrome C Oxidase Gene

by Ayaz Shaukat | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2153,T] (1).

35. Effect Of Phytase Supplementation On Growth Performance And Biochemical Parameters In Broiler Chickens

by Hafiz Kalimullah Khan | Dr. Muhammad Quaid Zaman | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Dr. Muhammad Imran Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2165,T] (1).

36. Incidence Of Canine Trypanosomiasis And Standardization Of PCR For Its Diagnosis

by Sajid Bashir Khan Qaisrani (2006-VA-60) | Dr. Muhammad Haroon Akbar | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr.Wasim Shahzad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Thesis Submitted With Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2198,T] (1).

37. DNA Based Characterization Of Arginase Gene From Geobacillus Sp. SBS-4s

by Raabia Bibi (2012-VA-537) | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Geobacillus is a group gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, endospore-forming and obligate thermophilic bacteria, isolated from the diverse habitats, hot springs, thermal environments, terrestrial soils, deep sea sediments (Zeigler, 2014), petroleum and soil of desserts (Claus and Berkeley 1986). It grows at a wide range of temperature from 45 to 75°C and pH ranging from 6.2 to 7.8 (Nazina et al. 2001). These bacteria survives at higher temperature where most of other living species fail to survive (Claus and Berkeley 1986). Geobacillus have achieved a significant population with a worldwide distribution, probably in large part due to adaptive features of their spores (Zeigler, 2014). These can be found singly or in short chains and motile by means of peritrichous flagella and is capable of secreting a wide variety of extracellular and intracellular enzymes i.e amylase, lipase, carboxypeptidase, cellulase, xylanase, protease and galactosidase (Fogarth et al. 1974; Obeidat et al. 2012). Geobacillus sp. SBS-4S was isolated from hot spring located in Gilgit, Northern areas of Pakistan. It was found to be an aerobic, gram-positive and rod-shaped bacteria having ability to hydrolyze a variety of sugars, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures from 45 to 75°C. SBS-4S was found to be involved in the production of various intra and extra cellular enzymes (Tayyab et al. 2011). Arginase is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of arginine resulting in the production of urea and ornithine (Kaur et al. 2009). It is accomplished by the cleaving of the guanidinium group from arginine which yields urea (Turras et al. 2008). Arginase present in many mammals (Homo sapiens), Bacilli (cyanobacteria), protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fungi (Neurospora crassa) and plants (Lathyrus sativus) etc (Kaur et al. 2009). The crystal structure of arginases have been determined by X ray crystallographic studies. This is a manganese dependent enzyme. The enzyme shows its activity through the metal ion. Metal ion is actively responsible for the incorporation of water molecules essential for the activity of the enzyme. A second proposed mechanism, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies postulates direct coordination of the substrate to manganese and disruption of the aqua bridge. Arginases are homo-oligomers, with a typical subunit mass of 32 to 36 kDa (Bewley et al. 1999). There are two types of arginases, arginase-I and arginase-II, located in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, respectively. The principal ureagenic enzyme activity arginase-I is most abundant in normal mammalian liver and acts in coordination with the other enzymes of the urea cycle to sequester and eliminate excess nitrogen from the body. The second form arginase-II can be found in many organs, with the highest levels found in kidney and prostate where as lower levels in macrophages and lactating mammary glands (Iyer et al. 2002). Important role of arginase in controlling the cellular levels of arginine and ornithine, which are required for various critical metabolic processes, including protein synthesis and the production of creatine, polyamines, proline and nitric oxide (NO). Type II arginase is found in a variety of different tissues and have a key role in the regulation of urea cycle arginine metabolism by regulating levels of arginine in the cell (Bewley et al. 1999). The enzyme arginase plays key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders such as asthma through dysregulation of L-arginine metabolism and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis and it also play role in the development of chronic airway remodeling through formation of ornithine with downstream production of polyamines and L-proline, which are involved in processes of cellular proliferation and collagen deposition (Benson et al. 2011). Arginase involved in tissue repair processes by the synthesis of L-ornithine, which is the precursor of polyamines and proline that are involved in cell proliferation and collagen synthesis (Maarsingh et al. 2009). Genetically engineered arginase as fusion protein with prolonged half-life and increased efficacy are used to treat different tumor lines that inhibit cell proliferation and impaired cellular migration in vitro and in vivo (Li et al. 2013). This is a arginine-degrading and ornithine producing enzyme and is used to treat arginine-dependent cancers (Yu et al. 2013). Chemically modified arginase-II has been employed for the treatment of taper liver tumor and L5178Y murine leukemia (Kaur et al. 2009). The enzyme was cloned and expressed in E. coli and subsequently conjugated to polyethylene glycol to increase the circulating half-life and decrease the immunogenicity of the recombinant mycoplasma enzyme. The human hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma cell lines and tissue samples do not express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), making them auxotrophic for arginine and thus reasonable candidates for arginine deprivation (Yang et al. 2010). Arginase is induced in murine myeloid cells mainly by T-helper 2 cells cytokines and inflammatory agents and participates in a variety of inflammatory diseases by down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis, induction of fibrosis and tissue regeneration. In humans, arginase I is constitutively expressed in polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is liberated during inflammation. Myeloid cell arginase-mediated L-arginine depletion profoundly suppresses T cell immune responses and this is a fundamental mechanism of inflammation-associated immunosuppression. Pharmacological interference with L-arginine metabolism is a novel promising strategy in the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity or unwanted immune deviation (Munder, 2009). Arginase has very important role in nitrogen fixation and fruit ripening (Yu et al. 2013). Putrescine (1,4-butanediamine) is the product obtained from arginine with the highest market value and it is used as an intermediate in a large number of industries, including the pharmaceutical industry, agrochemical industry and textile industry (Turras et al. 2008). Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid and is the precursor for the formation of nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthases (Getz and Reardon, 2006). One of the major functions of arginine within the body is as an intermediate in the urea cycle. In the cytosol of hepatocytes, arginase-I removes the guanidine group from arginine to produce urea and ornithine. Urea is then transported from the hepatocyte into the bloodstream and ornithine is used to regenerate arginine within the hepatocyte. Arginine deficiency causes several disorder like, hyper cholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, hyper homo-cysteinemia, smoking, and aging (Alvares et al. 2012). Arginine is used to modulate the cellular immune response during infection. The generation of nitric oxide from arginine is responsible for efficient immune response (Das et al. 2010). Arginine is synthesised in humans and other mammals from citrulline in two steps through the urea cycle enzymes, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). ASS catalyses the conversion of citrulline and aspartic acid to argininosuccinate, which is then converted to arginine and fumaric acid by ASL (Yang et al. 2010). Ararinase play important role in conversion of arginine to 1,4–butanediamine (a building block for nylon-4,6), through two main transformations: the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea; and the decarboxylation of ornithine to 1,4–butanediamine and carbon dioxide. Both steps can be catalyzed chemically or enzymatically (Turras et al. 2008). The present study deals with the characterization of arginase gene. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2244-T] (1).

38. Isolation Of Surface Antigen 1 Gene Of Toxoplasma Gondii And Its Cloning In The Expression Plasmid

by Farooq Riaz (2008-VA-231) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which comes under the classification of phylum Apicomplexa, subclass Coccidiasina (Cornelissen et al. 1984). Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide caused by Toxoplasma gondii which is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species (Tenter et al. 2000). It is the most important source of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals, with cat as definite host and warm-blooded animals as intermediate host (Frenkel et al. 1970). It was first described by Nicolle, Manceaux and Splendore in 1908 from rodents Ctenodactylus gondii (Black and Boothroyd 2000). Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic disease and it is estimated that about one-third total population of the world is seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii (Tenter et al. 2000). Prevalence of infection varies between countries, geographical areas and ethnic groups living within a specific region. In Humans, infection rates range from 50% to 83% in Brazil (Tenter et al. 2000; Dubey et al. 2012). Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in China is about 8% with continuously increase while in USA its 10-15%, 50-70% in France and 20% in UK (Dubey and Jones 2008; Zhou et al. 2008; Jones et al. 2009). Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in males (79%) as compared to females (63.4%) and the age dependent sero-prevalence reaches >92% in age group of 40 to 50 (Coêlho et al. 2003). Transmission occurs through the ingestion of contaminated vegetable /water with oocysts, as well as the ingestion of contaminated raw/undercooked meat with tissue cysts (Gajadhar et al. 2006). Transmission may also occurs by ingestion of sporulated oocysts, or bradyzoites within cysts present in the tissues of numerous food animals (Esteban-Redondo et al. 1999). In humans, transmission of Toxoplasma gondii happens mainly by eating raw or undercooked contaminated meat, raw cow’s milk and birds eggs, swallowing oocysts dis-charged in feces of infected cats, inoculation of trophozoites through the skin, or by inhalation (Wallace 1971; Wallace 1973; Bannister 1982). In humans, mostly infections (congenitally or post-natally acquired) are asymptomatic. Congenital infection occurs only when a woman becomes infected during pregnancy. Congenital infections acquired during the first trimester are more severe than those acquired in the second and third trimester (Desmonts and Couvreur 1974). The main clinical signs associated with toxoplasmosis are anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, dyspnea, ocular signs, pyrexia, vomiting and diarrhea, jaundice, myositis, encephalitis and abortion. Humans become infected when they ingest the toxoplasma at infective stages (oocysts and tissue cysts) found in some cat feces and in raw meats. In addition to being hazardous to livestock animals, the T. gondii infection is also important due to its zoonotic implications (Jittapalapong et al. 2005). Congenital abnormalities in humans, such as microcephaly, hydrocephaly, chorioretinitis, convulsion, cerebral calcification, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and mental retardation may occur if the mother acquires infection during pregnancy (Jones et al. 2003). In addition to congenital anomalies, T. gondii also causes severe neuropathologic infections in immuno-compromised hosts, such as AIDS and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (Del Valle and Piña-Oviedo 2005). Seroprevalence studies of T. gondii among domestic animals in South-Western Pakistan has indicated considerable prevalence (25% in cattle, 2.5% sheep) (Zaki 1995) and suggesting potential transmission to the human community. Small scale study in urban area of Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), Pakistan has revealed that the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in food animals is 19% (Ramzan et al. 2009). Another study has already been published that untreated patients with leprosy in Pakistan have shown significant seroprevalence (29.6%) of antibodies against T. gondii (Hussain et al. 1992). Vaccine against toxoplasmosis is not available yet with one exception (“Toxovax” for sheep). Vaccine against T. gondii in animals used for human consumption may block the possible transmission to humans (Bhopale 2003). SAG1, among one of the major antigenic components of Toxoplasma gondii is a major surface antigen identified on the surface membrane of this parasite using a monoclonal antibody (Handman et al. 1980). SAG1 is an important surface antigen, expressed by tachyzoite form of T. gondii and is a putative candidate for vaccine and diagnostic against toxoplasmosis (Sharma et al. 1983; Godard et al. 1990). Immunization with SAG1 adjuvanted with saponin Quil A or incorporated in lysosomes provided total protection after challenge (Bülow and Boothroyd 1991; Khan et al. 1991). SAG1 is single copy gene with no introns (Burg et al. 1988), regulates both humoral as well as cellular Th1 immune responses (Liu et al. 2008) and is powerful candidate for vaccine against toxoplasmosis. SAG1 is a potent candidate of diagnostics for detection of serum antibodies against toxoplasmosis in Man and animals (Abu-Zeid 2002). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2258-T] (1).

39. Comparison Of Intravenous And Inhalation Anesthesia For Performing Minor And Major Surgeries In Sheep And Goat

by Muhammad Imran Ibraheem (2006-VA-108) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Hafsa Zainab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Anesthesia can be achieved with injection or inhalation of substances that produce reversible state of unconsciousness. For scientific quality, anesthetic technique must be reliable and safe and the effects, of anesthetic compounds on animals must be well documented. If animals undergo survival surgery, they need to recover quickly and not suffer unnecessarily disturbance in biological parameters. This is of importance for both animal welfare and scientific quality. Awareness among animal lovers and increase in value of animals, the impedance has increased to many folds on surgeons to select ideal anesthetics for ideal outcomes during major surgical interventions. The anesthetic agents should be standardized for minimal recovery time in animals, so that the animals have to bear minimum cardiovascular, hepatic and renal distress due to different anesthetic drugs used. The present study was carried out on twelve sheep and goats. The selection criteria was surgical cases presented for minor and major surgeries at Indoor Surgery Clinic, UVAS, Lahore. All surgical cases were subjected into two treatment groups, viz. group A and B comprising six surgical cases in each group. In group (A) animals were given Xylazine @2.2mg/kg (Xylaz; Farvet, Holland) as a preanesthetic followed by Ketamine @2-4mg/kg (Ketarol; Global pharma, Pakistan) as anesthetic and maintenance whereas group (B) animals were given xylazine @2.2mg/kg as preanesthetic and afterwards induction and maintenance were performed with Isoflurane (4%) (Forane; Abbott, Pakistan) inhalation anesthesia with oxygen flow rate of (3 L/min) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………SUMMARY 63 The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylazine, ketamine and isoflurane gas anesthesia on different biological systems of body. Comparison among different drugs was evaluated during minor and major surgeries in sheep and goat. The parameters used to evaluate the efficacy of these anesthetic drugs exposed that isoflurane has less outcome on cardiovascular, liver and renal system. In adding together it has an edge over other injectable anesthetic drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on other physiological parameters of animals. Clinical trials have proved that isoflurane a narrative anesthetic agent is a drug of choice in minor as well as major surgical procedures without any injurious effects. Conclusion: The mean value of specific all parameters TPR, LFT and RFT and CBC shows that Injectable xylazine and ketamine was not safe. Isoflurane anesthesia was the safest anesthetic agent in geriatric or weak animals for longer procedure. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2273-T] (1).

40. Combine Effect Of Ionomycin And Strontium Chloride To Induce The Parthenogenetic Activation Of Mouse Oocytes

by Muhammad Ashraf (2013-VA-13) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parthenogenesis is a phenomenon in which the development of oocyte oocur without fusion of male gamete. During fertilization spermatozoa trigger intracellular Ca+2 oscllation in M-II stage oocyte which initiates the embryonic development. The rises of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) ions is the basic step for the parthenogenesis. During parthenogenetic activation calcium channel open from endoplasmic reticulnum or depletion of calcium store and facilitate the calcium (Ca2+) from extracellular environment. Parthenogenetic technique is applied in cloning and production of embryonic stem cell lines for used to treat different diseases. Many scientists used different chemicals agents for artificial activation such as strontium, Ionomycin and Ethanol. Strontium chloride has been used widely for parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocyte, but its result to blastocyst development is poor. The objective of present study is to improve parthenogenetic activation and embryo development by combination of Ionomycin with strontium. Hypothesis of my study was Addition of Ionomycin in Strontium based activation protocol improves embryonic development. The present study was conducted in embryology lab of department theriogenology, university of veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore.Six to eigth week old female mice (n=100) were super ovulated with intra-peritoneal injections of eCG (5iu) followed by hCG injection (5iu) at 48 hrs interval. 14 hrs post hCG, the cumulus oocyte complexes were collected from oviduct of the mice. In experiment 1, the oocytes were activated by using Ionomycin with concentration of 5, 10 and 15 µmol/l for 5 and 10 followed by this activation with strontium chloride (10mmol/l). In experiment: 2, The oocytes were activated by activation medium having strontium (10 mM/l) and Ionomycin (5, 10 or 15 µmol/l) in combination. CZB medium were used for oocyte cultured in CO2 incubator of 5% CO2 at 37°C. Number of activated oocytes were analyzed by cleavage rate to blastocyst stage. In-vitro developmental potential of the activated oocytes were assessed by blastocyst. In experiment: 3, Zygotes were collected 18 h post-hCG and treated with the optimum concentration to check the toxicity effects on embryo development. In experiment 1, There were insignificant results observed on the bases of cleavage rate in each groups and time of activation as compared to control group. The tendency of morula and blastocysts formation rate was higher (p<0.05) in the 15µM for 10 min activation time as compared to other treatment groups and control group. In experiment 2, The tendency of cleavage rate was significantly higher in the 10 µM and 15µM groups as compared to other treatment group. The blastocyst formation rate was no statistically difference in all treatment and control group. While the toxicity experiment, there was no toxic effect of Ionomycin with Strontium Chloride. In conclusion, there was higher cleavage rate, 4 cells, morula and blastocyst formation rate in 15µM concentration of Ionomycin for 10 min with Strontium Chloride, there was no toxic effect of Ionomycin with Strontium Chloride on embryos and Ionomycin improved the activation rate and embryo development in combination with strontium chloride. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2319-T] (1).

41. Analysis Of Genetic Polymorphism In Exon 6 & 11 Of Glucosidase Beta Acid (Gba) Gene In Gaucher Diseased Patients From Punjab, Pakistan

by Aysha Arshad (2009-VA-571) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Gaucher disease (GD) is amajor predominant heterogenic, inherited and metabolic lysosomal storage disorder. It is prompted by an alteration in glucosidase acid beta (GBA) gene. GBA gene encodes a 497 amino acid glucocerebrosidase enzyme. It is a lysosomal hydrolase, present in all mammalian cells membrane that carries the catalysis of complex ubiquitous sphingolipids called glucocerebrosides (GlcCer) into smaller and simpler molecules of sugar and ceramide. The human glucocereborside (GBA) gene is present in highly gene dense area on q arm of 21 chromosome and its fragment length is 7.8kb comprising of 11 exons. A pseudogene is also present in vicinity of GBA gene which shares 96% homology of sequence with functional gene. Genetic recombination and gene conversion among these two GBA genes are responsible for 10-20% GD mutations. >300 mutations of GBA have been described till 2014. GD has three different clinical forms depend on its heterogeneity. These are characterized by the age of onset and with or without the participation of CNS. In this study, 10 blood samples were collected of GD patients from repository at Molecular and Genomic Laboratory located at IBBT department, UVAS Lahore and from Children Hospital Lahore. DNA extraction was done by using organic method from blood samples. Amplification of GBA gene exons 1, 6 and 11 was performed using PCR. PCR products were sequenced using Sanger di-deoxy sequencing method. Different bioinformatics tools were applied for the sequence analysis of exon 1, 6 and 11. We found two variants of GBA gene. A deletion of CT nucleotide repeat in intron 1 was found. We also found a substitutional change of nucleotide T>A in intron 8. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2334-T] (1).

42. Variation Analysis Of Hepatitis C Virus Gene Encoding E2 Glycoprotein

by Saimoon Theeen (2009-VA-565) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) major cause of liver infections was discovered in 1989. It is positive stranded RNA virus and belongs to Flaviviridae family. Its genome shows high rate of variations due to which, its rate of infection is high. As in Pakistan 3% to 6% population and 170 million people worldwide are affected by it. Due to variations in its genome it is classified into 6 major genotypes and these genotypes are further classified into many subtypes. Size of HCV is about 9500 bps which only encodes single polyprotein. This 3000 to 3300 amino acids polyprotein is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides consisting of 4 structural (Core, E1, E2 and P7) and 6 non-structural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, NS5B). Whereas E2 is considered the most immunogenic gene from all the genes. It involves in the interaction with the host cell and easily escape from the immune system of host due to the presence of hypervariable regions in E2 gene. To isolate the E2 gene RNA extraction was done using the kit method and then it was converted to the cDNA which is then followed by the PCR amplification. The amplification products were then purify and sent for the sequencing to CAMB. Then the bioinformatics tools were applied on the results. In which the protein structural analysis and epitope mapping was done. Then the conserved epitopes were predicted using the IEDB conservancy analysis tool. The conserved B-cell epitopes (TElAILPCSFTPMPAL and RGERCDIEDRSEQH) and T-cell epitope (TPMPALSTG) are now considered valuable to produce the antibodies against E2 protein. For diagnosing HCV genotype 3a, these conserved epitopes may be highly useful and may also help in developing a successful vaccine that can target 3a genotypes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2333-T] (1).

43. Mutational Analysis Of Hepatitis C Virus Ns4b Gene Encoding Protein

by Faiza Nisar Bukhari (2013-VA-12) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. M.Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has an estimated global prevalence of 2%–3% with approximately 270 million infected people worldwide of which 10 million belongs to Pakistan. HCV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus from the family of Flaviviridea. Its genome encodes 10 proteins including a 261 amino acids protein NS4B. NS4B is a non-structural protein that performs hyperphosphorylation of NS5A, transactivates interleukin 8 promotor, suppresses HCV translation and modulates the ER stress response. Mutation in NS4B encoding gene may be targeted to develop an effective vaccine against HCV before virus invasion in host immune system. Serum was collected from 20 patients who are infected with HCV. RNA was isolated from these samples to reverse-transcribe it into cDNA. This cDNA were PCR-amplified and amplicons were detected by UV light after their separation through agrose gel electrophoresis followed by seguencing of NS4B encoding gene. Variations in HCV NS4B gene was analyzed by using Mega 6 software and sequence 2 blast analysis NCBI tool. Protein modeling was performed with phyre 2, DIANNA tool and I-Tasser online server and quality of model and antigenicity was checked by Vaxajen V 2.0 and Epijen softwares. Conservative analysis and epitope mapping were performed by using Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). A systematic approach was employed for the prediction of potential epitopes in NS4B protein. Vaxijen V 2.0 was used to determine overall antigenicity of NS4B using cut off value of 0.4. Values above this threshold level show probable antigens in the protein. The topology of NS4B was determined by TMHMM server with the help of membrane topology data. Regions outside membrane and transmembrane were eradicated for epitopes prediction. T cell epitopes propred was used with proteosome cleavage site filter of 4% threshold. From the following data analysis 12 to 15 possible T-cell epitopes can be predicted; only these T cell epitopes were included in conservation analysis. The present study provides information about mutational changes in HCV protein NS4B and thus preliminary data for the development of vaccine against HCV. This can also lead to future prospects for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of HCV. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has an estimated global prevalence of 2%–3% with approximately 270 million infected people worldwide of which 10 million belongs to Pakistan. HCV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus from the family of Flaviviridea. Its genome encodes 10 proteins including a 261 amino acids protein NS4B. NS4B is a non-structural protein that performs hyperphosphorylation of NS5A, transactivates interleukin 8 promotor, suppresses HCV translation and modulates the ER stress response. Mutation in NS4B encoding gene may be targeted to develop an effective vaccine against HCV before virus invasion in host immune system. Serum was collected from 20 patients who are infected with HCV. RNA was isolated from these samples to reverse-transcribe it into cDNA. This cDNA were PCR-amplified and amplicons were detected by UV light after their separation through agrose gel electrophoresis followed by seguencing of NS4B encoding gene. Variations in HCV NS4B gene was analyzed by using Mega 6 software and sequence 2 blast analysis NCBI tool. Protein modeling was performed with phyre 2, DIANNA tool and I-Tasser online server and quality of model and antigenicity was checked by Vaxajen V 2.0 and Epijen softwares. Conservative analysis and epitope mapping were performed by using Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). A systematic approach was employed for the prediction of potential epitopes in NS4B protein. Vaxijen V 2.0 was used to determine overall antigenicity of NS4B using cut off value of 0.4. Values above this threshold level show probable antigens in the protein. The topology of NS4B was determined by TMHMM server with the help of membrane topology data. Regions outside membrane and transmembrane were eradicated for epitopes prediction. T cell epitopes propred was used with proteosome cleavage site filter of 4% threshold. From the following data analysis 12 to 15 possible T-cell epitopes can be predicted; only these T cell epitopes were included in conservation analysis. The present study provides information about mutational changes in HCV protein NS4B and thus preliminary data for the development of vaccine against HCV. This can also lead to future prospects for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of HCV. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2339-T] (1).

44. Evaluation of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Economic Appraisal of 3 Broiler Strains Under 4 Brooding Sources And Varying Feeding Regimens In Termianal Phase

by Muhammad Shabir Shaheen (2013-VA-778) | Dr. Shahid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Mr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with corrupt cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2351-T] (1).

45. Study Of Wound Healing Effects Relating To Topical Application Of Human Saliva On Rabbits

by Sanila Amin (2013-VA-281) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Habib ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Histatin proteins present in human saliva have been observed to show natural antibacterial and antifungal properties, as well as play a role in wound healing. These naturally occurring proteins can serve as effective agents when combating microbial infections of vulnerable wounds that have become drug resistant, without inducing negative side effects in the host. Focusing on these proteins can create a new outlook with regards to wound-healing medicine for both humans and animals. Subjects of this study were 30 fully grown adult male rabbits weighing 2.0 to 3.4 kg and ranging from 8 to 16 months in age. They were acclimatized for two weeks in stainless steel cages and fed commercial diets, vegetables, crushed wheat and corn all over the whole experiment. Out of all 30 rabbits 24 rabbits were experimental on which saliva was applied, three were negative control to check natural wound healing, and three were positive control on which wound healing medicine was applied. The 24 experimental rabbits were further divided into four groups with each group consisting of 6 rabbits to check the effect of age on wound healing. The age groups of human samples were divided as 15-25, 25-35, 35-45 and 45-55 (Verma et al. 2013). Saliva of human individuals belonging from these four age groups was applied on the wounds of experimental group. Furthermore, all age groups contained saliva from both gender i.e. each age group consisted of 3 male and 3 female saliva samples. Furthermore, DNA was extracted from blood samples of the same individuals from whom saliva samples were procured. HTN1 gene which is responsible for the production of salivary histatin protein was amplified using specific primers and PCR optimization. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY 33 The results of this study demonstrated the wound healing properties of histatin proteins present in saliva and thus, providing a basis of using the natural ability of human saliva to act as a major component in the future of medicine for wound healing and preventing wound infections in both human and animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2344-T] (1).

46. Mutational Analysis Of Hcv Gene Encoding E1 Glycoprotein

by Muhammad Saad Junjua (2013-VA-893) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus that belongs to Flaviviridae family and causes liver related issues like hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. HCV is affecting people worldwide; more than 170 million peoples have been affected so far and the number is increasing day by day. Its prevalence in Pakistan is about 3% to 6%. There is lot of variation in its genome and it is classified into 6 major genotypes and these genotypes are further classified into many subtypes. Size of HCV is about 9500 bps which only encodes single polyprotein. This 3000 to 3300 amino acids polyprotein is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides consisting of 4 structural (Core, E1, E2 and P7) and 6 non-structural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, NS5B). The most immunogenic gene from all the genes is E1. It involves in the interaction with the host cell and easily escapes from the immune system of host due to the presence of hypervariable regions in E1 gene. To isolate the E1 gene, RNA extraction was done using the kit method. RNA was converted to cDNA which was then amplified in two rounds of PCR using nested primers from HCV core region. After confirming the presence of HCV RNA in serum samples, PCR amplification of HCV E1 gene was carried out using gene specific nested primers. Amplified E1 gene products were Sanger sequenced and aligned with standard sequence to find out genetic variations. E1 gene sequences were converted to protein sequences for which secondary protein structures were made and analyzed. No noticeable change was seen in these secondary protein structures. The protein sequences were also analyzed for the presence of B-cell and T-cell epitopes; two T-cell epitopes (QAFTFRPRR, FLVGQAFTF) were found which may inform the development of a proper vaccine against HCV. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2399-T] (1).

47. Molecular Diagnosis Of Anaplasmosis In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Salman (2008-VA-135) | Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne haemo-rickettsail disease, caused by Anaplasma species transmitted mechanically by flies, biologically by ticks and blood contaminant fomites. It is an economically important tick-borne disease of buffalo in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In current study, we developed and optimized PCR first for detecting Anaplasma at genus level in buffaloes. One hundred (100) blood samples were collected from buffaloes around the Lahore region. The stained thin blood films were examined microscopically and 37% blood samples were found positive for intra-erythrocytic bodies which were then selected for DNA extraction. The DNA was extracted using commercially available kit for eventual use in optimization of PCR for diagnosis of bovine Anaplasmosis. The primers were designed targeting 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma. For the detection, the PCR product was run in 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and thirty seven samples showed the amplification band at 179bp. The selected samples were sent for ABI sequencing to Singapore for the accurate detection of the Anaplasma species. The sequencing results were blasted with database of Genbank and we observed homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. We found 37% prevalence of Anaplasmosis in buffaloes through PCR. However more studies are required to confirm the species of Anaplasma infecting buffaloes (Bobalus bobalis) by designing species specific primers. Furthermore, additional studies are needed to establish the epidemiology of Anaplasmosis by using molecular tools in different geographical areas of the country for their better control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2389-T] (1).

48. Indigenous Elisa Kit For Toxoplasma Gondii: Optimization Of Antibody Detection Elisa Of Sag 1 Protein As An Antigen In Mouse Model

by Madiha Sana (2013-VA-957) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Toxoplasma is an apicomplexan intracellular parasite which is the cause of toxoplasmosis in man and animals. It occurs by the ingestion of oocyst from feces of cats or by eating raw meat in which cysts are present. It is the one of the major cause of encephalitis and abortion in immuno-compromised animals and humans. As it is difficult to screen out infected live animals from field, it is important to vaccine animals as well as humans for toxoplasma to prevent its transmission from animals to humans and from humans to their off springs. Cloning of surface antigen genes plays an important role in development of vaccine and for serology of T. gondii. Enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay proves to be a significant tool to estimate the humoral response elicited against expressed recombinant protein in mice. The recombinant protein of SAG1 was collected from Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. In the previous studies, SAG1 sequence was cloned in the expression plasmid and successfully expressed in prokaryotic expression system. In the current study, rSAG1 was quantified by using BCA protein assay through BioWORLD protein quantification kit. In another experiment, the Swiss mice were immunized with 15 μg rSAG1 protein 3 times with 2 weeks intervals. Two groups of mice were formed with five mice in each group. Sera were collected after 2 weeks of each inoculation. For performing ELISA, four different experiments were performed with different concentrations i.e. 5μg/ml, 250μg/ml and 500μg/ml with two different dilutions; 1/50 and 1/20. The O.D. values of concentrations 5μg/ml and 250 μg/ml with two dilution series of 1/20 and1/50 were not observed significant while the antigen coating concentration of 500 μg/ml with 1/50 dilution showed 1:160 titre and with 1/20 dilution showed 1: 1280 titre after the 3rd shot. The O.D values with 500 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY SUMMARY 36 μg/ml concentration with 1/20 dilution after the 3rd shot were observed significant in the inoculated group as compared to the O.D values of un-inoculated negative group. It is suggested to carry out ELISA with purified rSAG-1 protein and to optimize ELISA to test toxoplasma infected mice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2433-T] (1).

49. Genetic Polymorphism Of Prss12 Gene Responsible For Cognitive Dysfunction And Its Homology Analysis With Canine

by Hafsa Amjad (2014-VA-776) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Mr. Shahid Abass.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Neurotrypsin a multi domain serine protease predominantly expressed in brain is considered to be involved in cognition by the establishment and maintenance of synapses in mammals. Mutations in PRSS12 gene have been reported for cognitive disability in Algerian family. In present study, DNA of 10 enrolled non-relative cognitive dysfunctioned patients was extracted through organic method. The normal individual samples of siblings and parents of relevant families was also included in this study as control. This amplification exon 7 of PRSS12 was done after designing primer by using Primer3 software. Exons was sequenced by using BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Kit(Perkin Elmer/ABI) and read in automated sequener, ABI Prism model 3730 (Perkin Elmer). No significant mutation was identified in affected individuals. Computational comparative sequence analysis tools were used for the nucleotide and amino acid sequences to predict the homology in PRSS12 gene among mammals of well-developed cognition. PROSITE domain database search was performed to determine domain organization and Phyre software was used to develop secondary structural features and 3D protein models and ReptroX for multiple sequence alignment of tertiary structures. Using the generated alignments highly conserved regions in primary and secondary structures of neurotrypsin in mammals were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated highest similarity of human PRSS12 with non-human primates (chimpanzee, orangutan and monkey) followed by Catecians, Felis, and Canine evolving from the same ancestor. The predicted domain architecture shows the neurotrypsin consisting of kringle domain, four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 68 domains and a serine protease domain named trypsin. Whereas mouse consists of only three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. Prediction and comparison of domains in mammals indicated that primates and catecians protein domains have high similarity with humans. Computational analysis by using animal models can aid in evolutionary studies and. understanding the role of neurotrypsin in cognition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2498-T] (1).

50. Occurrence And Economic Losses From Theileriosis On Commercial Dairy Farm Of Holstein Friesian

by Muhammad Rashid (2014-VA-503) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr. Liaquat Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Background: Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease and it is transmitted by the bite of ticks. Previous work on disease problems in the study area suggested that Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases (TTBDs) are the major constraints to cattle production. They cause economic losses to farmers in terms of cattle mortality, loss of body weight, loss of milk production and costs of control of TTBDs by use of acaricides. Theileria is one of the major threat to cattle as it causes anemia, weight loss, decrease production, mortality, treatment cost and cost for the control of theileria. The proper data for losses atributed to theileriosis is still not available in Pakistan. For this purpose a study was carried out in a commercial exotic dairy farm to evaluate losses associated with theileriosis Methodology: The study was done during the period of theileriosis to calculate its economic effect on animal health and production. A total of 150 animals were selected randomly using random number sample formula. The animal tag numbers were compared with random number table, comparing animals were slecteded for study. Thin blood smear was performed for diagnosis haemoparasite, further PCR was performed on those animals that were found +ve for intraerythrocytic bodies. Faecal examination, California mastitis test, teat abnormality and parturition history were recorded for the screening of these factors that decrease milk production. After final grouping, milk production was recorded to identify the effect of theileriosis on production. As theileriosis cause anemia due to destruction of RBC’s. body condition scoring was also performed. Physical examination (lymph node and body temperature) of animals were also performed to evaluate the clinical and subclinical theileriosis. Results: For the evaluation of theileriosis, microscopy was performed on all the animals’ blood samples. Haemoparasites were found in 28.67%. These were further processed by PCR for the CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 55 detection of theileriosis. Theileria was found in 27.90%. Screening of clinical and subclinical mastitis by Califirnia Mastitis Test and microscopy for gastrointestinal parasite were performed. On faecal examination, there found nematode, cestode and balantidium in 51.72%, 60.92% and 42.53%% respectively. After deworming with Valbazine and curafluke, nematode, cestode (monzia), balantidium and coccidiosis were found in 0%, 39.13, 43.48% and 4.35% respectively. Before grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were found in 5.38% and 24.62% respectively. After grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were evaluated by California mastitis test with two weeks interval. At 7th week clinical and subclinical mastitis were 3.85% and 7.69% due to improved management. The decrease in milk production for clinical and subclinical theileriosis was 87 lit./animal and 42.77 lit./animal. Costs for control, treatment and mortality were 0.12%, 0.20% and 13.09% respectively from overall farm expenditure. The prevalence of haemoparasite was 28.67%, while the prevalence of theileriosis was 8%. The new cases of theileriosis were recorded and incidence of theileriosis was found to be 2.25%. Overall losses due to theileriosis was 13.70%. Outcomes: We can conclude from our finding that theileriosis has drastic affect on the profitability of the farms. Then losses can be attributed to decreased milk production and mortality. Medications and control measure for theileriosis have added effect on the losses at exotic animal breed dairy farms. Perspectives: Cost analysis studies need to be done on different dairy farms of cattle of different breeds at different ecological/climatic zones of Pakistan so that investors would know the risks of establishing dairy farms. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2515-T] (1).



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