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1. Islam As An Ethical and Political Ideal

by Dr. Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Lahore: Islamic Book Service; 1988Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297 Iqbal 22348 3rd 1988 Islam] (1).

2. Identification And Chemotherapy Of Ectoparasites Of Camels (Camel Us Dromedarius) In Dera Ghazi Khan

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. H. A. Hashmi | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Syed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project has been designed for identification and chemotherapy of ecto-parasites of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different areas of Dera-Ghazi-Khan. For this purpose 300 camels were examined during the period October to November 2004. Out of 300 camels 109(36.3%) were found infested with ecto-parasites. Two types of ectoparasites were found to be active during those days. Sixty three camels were infested with ticks. After collection these ticks were mounted for identification, with the help of their morphological characters. The only tick found to be identified was Hyalomma dromedarii and the tick infestation was found to be 21% in those areas during October-November 2004. Similarly, 85 suspected camels were examined by skin scraping in the District Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Dera-Ghazi-Khan, for identification of mites 46 camels weie found to be infested with mange mites and the mange mites infestation was 15.3%. The species of mites identified was Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli. For chemotherapeutic trails 60 positive ecto-parasitic camels were divided into 3 groups i.e. A, B and C, 20 camels in each group. For further procedures these groups were divided into sub-groups i.e. A (Al + A2), B (Bi + B2) and C (Cl + C2) where each sub-group contained 10 animals (camels). Al, Bi and Cl were infested with mites and A2, B2 and C2 with ticks. The group A was treated with Ivermectin (Baymec; Bayer) at dose rate of 1 m1150 kg body weight sub/cut. Similarly the group B was treated with Neguvon (0.15%) solution with spray machine. Where the group C acted as infected, non-medicated control group. The efficacy of Baymec on 7th day was 75% and on 14th day was 80%. But the efficacy of Neguvon (0.15% solution) on 7th day was 65% and on 14th day was 75%. The camels of group C were not treated and acted as control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0895,T] (1).

3. Assesment Of Buffalo Semen By Reduction Assay

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: In this study twenty Nili Ravi buffalo bulls were used. Semen was collected once weekly and each collection comprised two ejaculates .. Total volume of the semen was observed using graduated tube and the concentration by Spectrophotometer. Both the ejaculates were pooled and a representative sample of each collection was evaluated for viability using MTT Reduction Assay, Eosin and Nigrosin Staining, Hypo Osmotic Swelling Test and Motility. The results of the study shows high correlation (r = 1.00) between the MTT reduction rate and the sperm viability. When the %age of MTT viable sperm cells were compared with the E&N, HOST and Motility a negative correlation was found suggesting the physiological difference between the tests. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the MTT reduction Assay is an objective test and more reliable than the other tests which are more subjective and can be influenced by the experience of the indivi~ MTT Reduction Assay is more reliable test for the assessment of viability as it is simple and inexpensive. The results of our study suggest additional advantages of this test in evaluation ofNili Ravi Baffalo semen. Many samples and its replicates can be measured in the same time. It can be used successfully in routine analysis, where time, costs and practicability are important Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1014,T] (1).

4. Relationship Between Live Body Weight And Body Measurement S In Kajli Sheep

by Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal | Dr.Khalid Javed | Mr.Nisar Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Khizrabad is a small town of tehsil Bhalwal district Sargodha. The objective of the study was to fing out or develop the relationship between live body weight and body measurements in Kajli sheep. The sheep were arranged in nine age groups, A 0-3, B 4-6, C 7-9, D10-12, E= 13-15, F16-18, G 19-21, H 22-24 and 1 above 24 months. Group A, B, C, and D were further divided into sub groups (Male & Female), where as the groups E, F, G, H and I comprised of Ewes only. Body weights were taken using digital weighing scale and measurements of body height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width with the help of measuring tape graduated with inches. Data on 788 female! 120 male and total of 908 observations of different age groups of sheep were collected. The mean height at wither (Inches) of Kajli sheep in nine age groups (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, 16-18, 19-21, 22-24 and above 24 months of age) was found to be 19.34 ± 1.36 (Overall), 19.33 ± 1.33 (female), 19.52 ± 1.26 (male), 20.42 ± 1.04 (Overall), 20.54 ± 1.01 (female), 20.25 ± 1.11 (male), 21.59 ± 0.90 (Overall), 21.84 ± 0.97 (female), 21.38 ± 0.78 (male), 23.55 ± 1.00 (Overall), 23.76 ± 0.84 (female), 22.58 ± 1.14 (male), 27.34 ± 1.25, 28.57 ± 0.92, 28.49 ± 1.39, 29.30 ± 1.01 and 29.57 ±1.30. The mean body length (Inches) in Kajli sheep in nine age group was noted to be 17.76 ± 1.44 (Overall), 17.76 ± 1.21 (female), 17.92 ± 1.48 (male), 20.18 ± 1.26 (Overall), 20.54 ± 1.32 (female), 19.68 ± 1.03 (male), 20.72 ± 1.22 (Overall), 20.54 ± 0.94 (female), 20.86 ± 1.40 (male), 22.23 ± 0.88 (Overall), 22.44 ± 0.72 (female), 21.30 ± 0.94 (male), 26.51 ± 1.36, 27.95 ±1.21, 27.77 ± 1.59, 28.65 ± 1.41 and 29.16 ±1.3. The mean heart girth (Inches) for all age groups was 18.64 ± 1.46 (Overall), 18.70 ± 1.46 (female), 18.69 ± 1.37 (male), 20.94 ± 1.20 (Overall), 21.21 ± 0.94 (female), 20.57 ± 1.45 (male), 21.63 ± 1.06 (Overall), 21.59 ± 0.99 (female), 21.67 ± 1.12 (male), 23.46 ± 1.82 (Overall), 23.66 ± 1.87 (female), 22.55 ± 1.28 (male), 29.33 ± 1.95, 30.61 ±1.12, 31.48 ± 1.68, 32.42 ± 1.43 and 33.33 ±1.64 respectively. The mean head length (Inches) of Kajli sheep recorded in nine age groups was 7.55 ± 0.53 (Overall), 7.48 ± 0.55 (female), 7.68 ± 0.48 (male), 7.74 ± 0.53 (Overall), 7.64 ± 0.40 (female), 2.77 ± 0.20 (male), 8.02 ± 0.48 (Overall), 7.96 ± 0.42 (female), 8.07 ± 0.53 (male), 9.36 ± 0.82 (Overall), v.47 ± 0.81 (female), 8.88 ± 0.75 (male), 11.48 ± 0.65, 12.08 ± 0.77, 12.06 ± 0.71, 12.12± 0.77 and 12.52 ± 0.54 respectively. The mean head width (Inches) for all age groups was 2.70 ± 0.19 (Overall), 2.71 ± 0.19 (female), 2.69 ± 0.18 (male), 2.76 ± 0.19 (Overall), 2.75 ± 0.19 (female), 2.77 ± 0.20 (male), 2.83 ± 0.15 (Overall), 2.80 ± 0.15 (female), 2.86 ± 0.15 (male), 2.70 ± 0.20 (Overall), 2.71 ± 0.20 (female), 2.66 ± 0.21 (male), 3.23 ± 0.17, 3.44 ± 0.21, 3.23 ± 0.29, 3.22 ± 0.16 and 3.39 ± 0.23 respectively. The mean rump length (Inches) for all age groups was 3.82 ± 0.33 (Overall), 3.89 ± 0.29 (female), 3.74 ± 0.36 (male), 3.98 ± 0.19 (Overall), 4.02 ± 0.17 (female), 3.93 ± 0.21 (male), 4.03 ± 0.24 (Overall), 4.11 ± 0.32 (female), 3.97 ± 0.11 (male), 4.58 ± 0.21 (Overall), 4.61 ± 0.14 (female), 4.40 ± 0.34 (male), 5.49 ± 0.42, 5.68 ± 0.44, 5.79 ± 0.41, 5.85 ± 0.40 and 6.00 ± 0.41 respectively. The mean rump width (Inches) for all age groups was 6.03 ± 0.51 (Overall), 6.01 ± 0.50 (female), 6.04 ± 0.53 (male), 6.69 ± 0.35 (Overall), 6.66 ± 0.25 (female), 6.75 ± 0.47 (male), 6.89 ± 0.41 (Overall), 6.74 ± 0.43 (female), 7.02 ± 0.35 (male), 7.52 ± 0.24 (Overall), 7.56 ± 0.16 (female), 7.33 ± 0.42 (male), 8.18 ± 0.53, 8.98 ± 0.80, 8.73 ± 0.63, 9.06 ± 0.72 and 9.06 ± 0.65. The mean body weight (Kg) for all age groups was observed as 8.69 ± 1.56 (Overall), 8.68 ± 1.46 (female), 8.83 ± 1.63 (male), 12.27 ±1.36 (Overall), 12.42 ± 1.19 (female), 12.05 ± 1.59 (male), 13.25 ± 0.94 (Overall), 13.30 ± 1.01 (female), 13.22 ± 0.90 (male), 16.35 ± 1.85 (Overall), 16.63 ± 1.83. (female), 15.10 ± 1.38 (male), 31.84 ± 3.12, 37.18 ± 3.10, 38.03 ± 3.46, 41.97 ± 3.42 and 44.51 ±4.30, respectively. The correlation between body weight and height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width of group A were 0.698, 0.659, 0.829, 0.435, 0.287, 0.275 and 0.388, respectively, for females were 0.623, 0.582, 0.793, 0.453, 0.234, 0.258 and 0.297, respectively, while for male were 0.746, 0.689, 0.861, 0.342, 0.238, 0.283 and 0.489, respectively. For group B the correlation between body weight and height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width were 0.737, 0.731, 0.845, 0.340, 0.250, 0.484 and 0.482, respectively. Correlation for female of group B were 0.714, 0.801, 0.760, 0.040, 0.094, 0.081 and 0.242, respectively, while for male were 0.757, 0.708, 0.910, 0.607, 0.431, 0.798 and 0.666, respectively. The correlation for group C were 0.315, 0.400, 0.300, 0.090, 0.05 1-0.180 and 0.004, respectively, for females were 0.362, 0.328, 0.354, 0.388, 0.078, 0.077 and 0.060, respectively, while for male were 0.262, 0.481, 0.263, 0.118, 0.047, 0.072 and 0.026, respectively. The correlation for group D were 0.906, 0.892, 0.778, 0.919, 0.703, 0.466 and 0.718, respectively, for females were 0.926, 0.912, 0.749, 0.908, 0.860, 0.333 and 0.768, respectively, while for male were 0.913, 0.912, 0.896, 0.956, 0.933, 0.740 and 0.835, respectively. The correlations for group E were 0.416, 0.305, 0.555, 0.361, 0.220, 0.452 and 0.448, respectively. The correlations for group F were 0.337, 0.612, 0.467, 0.493, 0.282, 0.357 and 0.690, respectively. The correlations for group G were 0.342, 0.3 18, 0.2 10, 0.397, 0.323, 0.427 and 0.199, respectively. The correlations for group H were 0.376, 0.055, 0.231, 0.126, 0.144, 0.360 and 0.187, respectively. The correlations for group I were 0.286, 0.184, 0.534, 0.117, 0.143, 0.158 and 0.270, respectively. It was found during the study that body weight was highly correlated with body measurements in Kajli sheep of all age groups. The height at wither, body length and heart girth were observed to be significantly correlated with body weight. During the present investigation males were heavier and longer than females in all age groups. Similarly the heart girth as well as height at wither were also bigger in males than those of females. Conclusion: It was concluded that body measurements had high correlation with body weight indicating that body measurements can be used for estimation of body weight in the field where scales are not usually available. These may also be used as selection criteria. However, further research is needed to investigate the relationship between the body weight and linear body measurements in other breeds of sheep, goats and other livestock breeds of the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1088,T] (1).

5. Comparision Of Mineral Profile In Lactating And Non-Lactating Nilli-Ravi Buffalo

by Mohammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Saghir Ahmed Jafri | Dr. Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Rashid | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Nih Ravi is the well established breed of buffalo in Punjab. There are about 140 million buffaloes in the World out of which the largest buffalo population is in India, China and Pakistan. It is a multipurpose animal and fulfils milk and meat demand of mankind. In Pakistan it contributes about 74% of total milk yield. The annual rate of increase in buffalo population is 2.5% and increase in milk production is 3.5% in India and Pakistan. To fulfil the increasing demand of milk and meat, there is an immense need to improve the health status and production potentials of dairy animals. This can he achieved only if we are abreast with physiological norms, the disturbance of which lowers productivity. There are numerous problems of health, reproduction and milk production of Nih Ravi buffalo. Despite this very little information is available on blood chemistry of buffalo belonging to different agro-clirnatic conditions. There are various factors which play important role in their rate of production and minerals are one of those factors. Imbalances of minerals, produces deterimental effect on the performance of livestock e.g. Mineral imbalances lead to syndromes manifested in form of retarded growth, low production, late maturity, wasting disease, non infectious abortion, infertility, silent heat, retained placenta, dystokia and prolapse of vagina and uterus. To cope with the situation more research is required on the subject to locate the extent of mineral imbalances. The conclusive results will produce direct or indirect effect on the production and reproductive performance of livestock. The study is therefore planned to find out the serum mineral profile of lactating and non lactating buffaloes from different areas of Punjab and the effect of stage and number of lactation on mineral profile and to find the correlation of serum mineral profile with prolapse of vagina and uterus. To determine the mineral profile in lactating and non lactating Nih Ravi buffaloes 200 blood samples were collected from Okara, Jhelum and Lahore/Sheikhupura. The serum was separated from blood by centrifugation. Serum was analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron on spectrophotometer. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and the differences in means were tested by using (L.S.D. test) least significant diference test. The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on overall basis were subjected to statistical analysis and found non significant differences. However serum magnesium levels were found to be significant in lactating and non lactating buffaloes. The means values of serum minerals in buffaloes of various districts were subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and significant differences were found between districts (P <0.05) for sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron, while non significant differences were found for calcium and chloride (P>0.05). The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on the basis of lactation number were subjected to analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and found non significant differences for serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron, while serum phosphorus showed singificant differences on the basis of lactation numbers and stage of lactations. The differences in the mean values of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium and phosphorus were found to be significant. While calcium and iron showed non significant differences within distircts. The serum sodium showed deficiency in Lahore/Sheikhupura district while serum potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron values were found in normal range in all districts. However serum phosphorus level were slightly higher in buffaloes of all the districts. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1131,T] (1).

6. Effect Of Feeding Citrus Pulp Silage On The Growth Performance Of Sahiwal Calves

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Livestock is contributing about 53 per cent of agricultural value added and 11.4 per cent to the national GDP with a total animal heads of 157.3 million but feed availability of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) is deficient by 38.10 and 24.02%, respectively. However, a decline in domestic feed resources and the need for Pakistan's livestock production to become internationally competitive are strong reasons for promoting the use of alternative locally available and cheap sources of feed ingredients, such as citrus pulp from fruit processing industry which do not attract competition in consumption between humans and livestock. The primary objective for the use of these by-products is to reduce the feed cost and consequently cost of producing a unit of the product like milk or meat as well as to fulfill the nutrients demands of animals. Citrus pulp is a by-product widely available in Pakistan and is mainly discarded as waste. Its cost is relatively low compared to its nutritive value but is seldom used as ruminant feed. The large amounts which are available during the harvesting season can be ensiled in combination with dry roughage, to get the required moisture level of it. So in the present study citrus pulp with wheat straw was ensiled and the silage was fed to Sahiwal calves to observe its intake, weight gain as well as economics. Results of the present study revealed that the optimum level of 20% citrus pulp in feed gave good results while intake and weight gain decreased for 30% citrus pulp in feed. Average total weight gain were 27.5, 37.5, 28.75 and 23.75kg for ration A, B, C and D, respectively (containing 10, 20 and 30 citrus pulp, respectively). Average daily gain for group A, B, C and D were 0.44, 0.60, 0.46 and 0.38kg, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When average daily feed intake for each calf was calculated on dry matter basis it showed 4.40, 4.50, 3.39 and 3.13kg respectively for group A, B, C and D which was not significantly different between diets. By ascertaining the cost of the feed for ration groups it showed significance difference having average cost of production per animal per kg body weight 37.07, 23.80, 21.68 and 25.58 Rs for group A, B, C and D, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1284,T] (1).

7. Uterine Microbial Frlora Of Nili Ravi Buffalo During Estrus And Its Relationship With Pregnancy Rate

by Sohail Raza | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Ali Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Iqbal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The low conception rate has been reported as one of the major cause of poor productivity of livestock. Beside other reasons, presence of different types of microflora inside the uterus of breeding animals, play a key role in the failure of pregnancy. All these microbes results in the infection of uterus ultimately affecting drastically the animal's conception rate. To study the impact of microbial flora on conception rate, 50 Nili Ravi buffalos were selected from Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. The breeding animals in heat just before artificial insemination were used to collect bacterial samples with the help of especially prepared and sterilized AI rod with some accessories. The samples were processed for the identification of bacterial microflora by doing number of conventional tests for final characterization. In this study seven different bacterial isolates were identified from all the samples. These include: Escherichia coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Citrobacter species, Proteus species, Lactbacillus species, and Micrococcus species. After elapse of proper period of time the pregnancy statuses of all these buffaloes were determined and correlated with the presence or absence of isolated microbes. The results indicated that Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were the most prominent bacteria in all the samples collected from pregnant, non pregnant and aborted animals. These two isolates could be designated as normal uterine microbial flora of Nili-Ravi buffaloes because of their presence during all the physical and pathological conditions. Proteus species and Micrococcus species were mostly isolated in pregnant animals. Statistical analysis also confirmed the above statement. Previous reports corroborate the present study and confirm that these bacteria are ranked as normal uterine microbial flora of bovines. So the previous study and present results confirm that both are the normal uterine microbial flora of pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes In the present study the prevalence of the Citrobacter spp. only in the aborted animals is supported by the previous studies which show that Citrobacter spp. Is only present in the diseased animals and it also cause the sporadic abortion. Statistical analysis of the data also proved the significance of Citrobacter spp. in aborted animals. So this concludes that Citrobacter spp. are the abnormal uterine microbial flora of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan which leads to abortion. The present study has been able us to find the normal and the abnormal uterine microbial flora of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. This information will help to understand the infection process in breeding buffaloes and through corrective actions may decrease the infection rate / abortion rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1306,T] (1).

8. Effects Of Stair-Step Nutrition Regimen On Growth Rate, Nutrien Utilization And Pubertal Development In Nili-Ravi

by Muhammad Iqbal Anjum | Prof. Dr. Mukhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Under this study, effect of stair-step nutritional regimen compared to the standard NRC recommended energy levels on growth rate, nutrient utilization, some selected blood metabolites, pubertal age, conception rate and economic analysis in ili- Ravi buffalo heifers were measured. Study lasted for 18 months during the years 2008- 20 I O. Twenty-two heifers, 6-8 month old, 98.57±5.07 kg average ody weight were divided into two equal groups and randomly assigned either control or stair-step nutritional regimen (SSNR) diets. The SSNR was designed in three phase program each having 6 months duration i.e., postweaning (7 to 13 month age), repubertal (13 to 19 month age) and pubertal/breeding (19 to 25 month age). In each phase, the treatment group during step 1, was fed on low energy diet (80% ME of NRC) for 4 months followed by high energy diet (120% ME ofNRC) for 2 months in step 2. The heifers in ontrol group were fed according to NRC (200 I) requirements of Holstein Friesian heifers continuously for 6 months. For both the groups individual feeding was carried out. Daily feed intake and fortnightly fasting weights were recorded. Nutrients digestibility and N balance trials were conducted during last week of each step during each phase. Blood samples were collected at the end of each low or high energy diets for blood metabolites analysis. Oestrus detection was done with the help of a teaser bull at age of 15-16 months. Transrectal ultrasonography was done to assess uterus and ovarian structures development. Measured blood serum progesterone concentration collected every 10 days interval at 09.00-10.00 hours during 18-20 months age by ELISA using commercial kit. The age and live weight at onset of puberty was recorded when heifer tood to be mounted by the bull first time in her life. The heifers detected in oestrus were bred by natural mating at approximately 12-15 hours of the onset of oestrus activity. Heifers not returning to oestrus were examined for pregnancy diagnosis through rectal alpation of uterus at 70-90 days post breeding. Data of feed onsumption during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertallbreeding phases were used to calculate the feed cost used per kg gain between the SSNR and control heifers. During postweaning phase, heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (2.03 Meal/kg) ained significantly (P<O.OS) lower daily weights than those fed control diet (2.SS Meal/kg), When heifers fed high energy diet (3.01 Meal/kg), daily weight gain was significantly (P<O.O 1) higher in SSNR compared to control. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was poorer (P<O.OS) in SSNR heifers fed low energy diet compared to those fed control diet. But on high energy diet FCR was better (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group. During prepubertal phase, there was no difference (P>O.OS) in weight gain between the heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (1.89 Meal/kg) and control diet (2.3S Meal/kg). But on high energy diet (2.80 Meal/kg) weight gain was higher (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. On low energy diet there was no difference (P>O.OS) in FCR between the two groups. But on high energy diet FCR was significantly (P<O.OS) better in SSNR compared to control group. Average DMI in heifers of both groups was similar (P>O.OS). During pubertal/breeding phase, similar trend of weight gain, DMI and FCR was found in SSNR versus control group as reported in prepubertal phase. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) as percent body weight were statistically non-significant (P>O.OS) differet between the SSNR versus ontrol groups during all phases. Metabolizable energy (ME) consumption was significantly P<O.OS) lower in SSNR group fed low energy diet than the heifers fed control diet. But ME consumption was significantly (P<O.O 1) increased in SSNR group fed high energy diet than control group. Similar, trend of ME consumption was observed in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets during prepubertal and pubertal phases. Water to dry matter intake ratio in heifers during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertal phases were statistically similar (P>O.OS). In all phases, apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility was higher (P<0.05) when SSNR heifers fed low energy diet, but on high energy diet NDF digestibility was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control, respectively, during all phases with the exception of step I in the prepubertal phase and step 2 in pubertal phase where the differences were non-significant (P>0.05) between the groups. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility with SSNR low energy diet was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the heifers fed control diets during three phases. But on high energy diet, ADF digestibility was not different (P>0.05) between the two groups. Also N intake was not different (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) diets and control diets, respectively, with the exception of step 2 in the postweaning phase when the control group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in intake of N compared to the SSNR group. Faecal N as well as Urinary N losses in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) versus control diets did not differ significantly (P>0.05). All heifers have shown haematological values which are almost similar in heifers of two groups. Except total cholesterol, concentration of urea N, glucose and macro minerals in serum did not differ between the two groups. There was no significant (P>0.05) differences in age and weight at onset of puberty and number of services per conception between the two groups. Pregnancy rate in heifers fed on SSNR diet was 50% while on control diet was 57%. Fifty percent of heifer fed SSNR and 60% of heifers fed control diet as per NRC requirement had serum progesterone concentrations> 1.0 ng/ml in two samples collected 10 days apart before reaching puberty. The overall feed costs incurred (42660.88 vs 44509.96 Rs./animal) on SSNR heifers was significantly (P<0.05) less than the control heifers fed according to NRC recommendations from weaning to breeding age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1376,T] (1).

9. Rasm-e-Farhadi

by Muhammad Iqbal Asar.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Lahore: Book Home; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 30424 1st 2015 Poetry] (1).

10. Talaq Ke Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication, n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.77 Iqbal 30582 1st N.D Islam] (2).

11. Libaas Ka Bayan

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.77 Iqbal 30566 1st N.D Islam] (2).

12. Kabira aur Saghira Gunahon Ka Bayan

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.071 Iqbal 30564 1st N.D Islam] (2).

13. Jahad Ke Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.72 Iqbal 30562 1st N.D Islam] (2).

14. Jannat Ka Bayan

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan; Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.1 Iqbal 30561 1st N.D Islam] (2).

15. Janaze K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.77 Iqbal 30558 1st N.D Islam] (2).

16. Ittabae Sunnat K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.124 Iqbal 30556 1st N.D Islam] (2).

17. Hakook-e-Rehmatalilalamin

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.246 Iqbal 30554 1st N.D Islam] (2).

18. HAJJ aur Umrah K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.3 Iqbal 30553 1st N.D Islam] (2).

19. Fazaael-e-Sahaba Akraam

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan; Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.63 Iqbal 30551 1st N.D Islam] (4).

20. Zakat ke Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publishers; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.31 Iqbal 30586 1st n.d Islam] (2).

21. Dua ke Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: ist ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication, n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.5 Iqbal 30543 1st n.d Islam] (2).

22. Qiyamat ka Bayan

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publications; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.4 Iqbal 30575 1st n.d Islam] (2).

23. Alamaat-e-Qayamat Ka Bayan

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.4 Iqbal 30597 1st n.d Islam] (1).

24. Fzael Rehmut-ul-Aalmeen

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Lahore: Hadees Publications; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.246 Iqbal 30547 1st n.d Islam] (2).

25. Nikah K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadsi Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.3 Iqbal 30571 1st n.d Islam] (2).

26. Masjid Ka Bayan

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st Ed Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.351 Iqbal 30569 1st n.d Islam] (2).

27. Alamaat-e-Qiyamat ka Bayan

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.5 Iqbal 30596 1st 2015 Islam] (1).

28. Dosti Aur Dushmani

by Muhammad Iqbal Kailani.

Material type: book Book Publisher: pakistan: Hadith publication; Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297 Iqbal 30541 1st n.d islam] (2).

29. Amar Bil Maroof Wa Nahi Anal Munkir

by Muhammad Iqbal kelani.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.122 Iqbal 30537 1st n.d Islam] (1).

30. Fazaal-e-Quran

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis publishers; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.122 Iqbal 30544 1st 2015 Islam] (2).

31. Darood Sharif K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297 Iqbal 30538 1st n.d Islam] (2).

32. Toheed K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publications; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.2113 Iqbal 30584 1st n.d Islam] (2).

33. Taleemat-e-Quran Majeed

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publicationers; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.122 Iqbal 30580 1st n.d Islam] (2).

34. Taharat K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.261 Iqbal 30579 1st n.d Islam] (2).

35. Rozon ke Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.53 Iqbal 30577 ist n.d Islam] (2).

36. Namaz K Masael

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan; Hadis Publication; n.dAvailability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.3822 Iqbal 30600 1st n.d Islam] (1).

37. Rooh, Azab-e-Qabar aur Smah-e-Mouta

by Muhammad Iqbal Kelani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan; Maktab tul Islam; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.2 Iqbal 30594 1st 2013 Islam] (1).

38. Kulyaat e Iqbal

by Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu).

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Ilmo Irfan Publishers; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.43915 Iqbal 31100 1st 2014 Poetry] (1). Checked out (1).

39. Sharaah-e-Baang-e-Dara

by Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Pakistan: Al Faisal, 2012Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 29438 1st 2012 Poetry] (1).

40. Shikwa Jawab e Shikwa

by Allama Muhammad Iqbal | Muhammad Sharif Baqa (Translator).

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Ilmo Irfan Pulishers; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 22275 1st 2006 Poetry] (1).

41. Mehkaan Wand'day Bol

by Muhammad Iqbal Najmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Farogh e Adab Academy; 1994Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 22286 1st 1994 Poetry] (1).

42. Hamd Charagh Dilan Da Chanan

by Muhammad Iqbal Najmi | Poetry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Farogh e Adab Academy; 2001Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 22263 1st 2001 Poetry] (1).

43. Zarb-e-Kaleem

by Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Ilm-o-Irfan Publishers; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.492 Iqbal 22276 1st 2003 Poetry] (1).

44. Mufeez: Hamd

by Muhammad Iqbal Najmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Gujranwala: Farogh e Adab Academy; 1997Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 22233 1st 1997 Poetry] (1).

45. Masanvi Pus chay ba yad

by Allama Muhammad Iqbal.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Sheikh Mubarik Ali; 1964Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 801.951 Iqbal 9015 1st 1964 Poetry] (1).

46. Naghma-e-Hamad

by Muhammad Iqbal Najmi.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Takhilaq; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.14 Najmi 22261 1st 2005 Poetry] (1).

47. Mufiz: Hamd Number

by Muhammad Iqbal Najmi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Gujrawala: Frog Adab Akadmi Publications; Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 22234 1st Poetry] (1).

48. Talash e Hamsafar

by Muhammad Iqbal Nasir.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Muhammad Iqbal Nasir; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.1 Iqbal 22316 1st 2003 Islam] (1).

49. Talash e Hamsafar

by Muhammad Iqbal Nasir.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Iqbal; 2003Availability: No items available

50. Sik the Dali

by Muhammad Iqbal Najmi.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Gujranwala: Farogh e Adab; 1989Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 891.42 Iqbal 22192 1st 1989 Punjabi.Literature] (1).



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