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1. Mutation Screen Of "Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (Gaba)-A Receptor, Gamma 2" In Punjab Population

by Muhammad Javed Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Abu Saeed | Dr. Ali Raza Awan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Epilepsy is a formidable form of neural disorder that can impose its long lasting effect on person's life and development. To date, it lacks any effective therapy and is multistep disease strengthened by an overwhelming number of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that streamline epileptic attacks. This particular study encompasses two major types of epilepsy, CAE and GTCS by targeting a GABRG2 gene. Mutation analysis of the coding exons (exon 3, 5 and 9) was performed by direct sequencing of GABRG2 in order to sought out complex biological entities in both types of epilepsies. GABRG2 is a molecule that has recently been characterized as the culprit for epileptic seizures onset. GABRG2 encodes GABA receptor that is fundamental inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain and is a ligand-gated chloride channels. This ligand-receptor coupling results in the inward shuttling of chloride ions through the channels and this hyperpolarizes the neurons, which induce the inhibitory effect of neurotransmitters. Direct sequencing of candidate gene "GABRG2" traced out a single polymorphic site in the exon 3 of the CAE as well as GTCS cases. However, this single nucleotide alteration is more commonly identified in childhood absence epilepsy patients as compared to the generalized cases. Silent mutation was identified at locus 27909 C>T of 46.66% of the total screened or analyzed cases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1500,T] (1).

2. Effect Of Eugenia Jambolana (Jamun) Seeds And Leaves Etract On Angiogenesis

by Muhammad Javed Iqbal | Dr. Aqeel Javedd | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study was designed to explore the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds of Eugenia jambolana on angiogenesis by means of the chicken chorioallentoic membrane assay. The Eugenia jambolana was collected from the locality of Lahore. Sequential dilutions were made with distilled water. Eggs were taken from local hatchery and divided into 4 groups. Each group was comprised of five eggs. The eggs were incubated at 37 C0. At day 4, 3-4 ml albumin was removed with the help of syringe. At day 5, sample solutions of various concentrations were applied to chorioallentoic membrane (CAM). After 24 hours, the change in CAM was observed by taking the images. SPIP was utilized for computerized measurements of the diameter of blood vessels and CAM. Overall area of the CAM was also drastically minimized among all groups treated with sample solutions. The data was analyzed for statistical analysis by using SPSS software (version 13 for windows). ANOVA was performed to determine significance among different groups. The value of P<0.05 was considered as significant. Different extracts of Eugenia Jambolana exhibited anti-angiogenic potential in the following order. WS > WL = ES > EL. In case of WS 4% solution area of CAM is 285.66 mm2, WL 4% 586.77 mm2, ES 4% 567.47 mm2 and EL 4% 634.23 mm2 while in case of negative control area of CAM 2473 mm2 . The extracts exhibited anti-angiogenic potential in variable magnitude. Dilutions of water extract of seeds exhibited most anti-angiogenic potential (p<0.01) in comparison to other treated groups. Collectively, these observations show that extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds and leaves contains polar compounds that ceased growth, primary vessel formation and cell propagation in CAMs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1830,T] (1).

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