A Study Of Parasitic Causes Of Diarrhea In Cattle Calves In District Gujranwala
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The loss of fluids through diarrhea can- cause severe dehydration which is one cause of death on diarrhea sufferers. In present study cattle calves up to six months of age in district Gujranwala were examined for parasitic infestation. The samples were collected from different Government farms, veterinary hospitals and from villagers having livestock. A total number of 300 cattle calves were examined during the period of three months. The effect of parasitic diarrhea according to the factors like sex and age were studied, the percentage of parasitic diarrhea in cattle calves were also studied. Collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory of university of veterinary and animal sciences Lahore.
Fecal samples were processed for different coporological tests, including direct smear, floatation, sedimentation, McMaster and for cryptosporidial examination, staining of fecal smears were used. Blood parameters like Hemoglobin level, TLC & DLC was also be studied. The faecal samples result showed that 147 samples were positive from parasitic diarrhea out of 300 samples and percentage was 49 % including cryptosporidium, cooperia, oesophagostomum, fashiodorous, toxocara, coccidian & eurytrema. The samples were collected age wise as 0-1 months, 42 samples were positive out of 90 samples showing 46.6%, in 1-3 months 47 samples were positive out of 95 samples showing 49.47 %, 1n3- 6 months 58 samples were positive out of 115 showing 50.43 %.while the blood parameters Hb level, TLC & DLC were altered in parasitic diarrhea which showed milk decrease in TLC & DLC as compared to normal values while Hb level was also decreased in parasitic diarrhea.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1193,T] (1).
Effect Of Feeding Of Different Non Protein Nitrogen (Npn)Sources On Performance Of Lactating Nili- Ravi Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The feed resources in Pakistan are comprised of green fodder / pastures (mostly on canal banks and on road sides), dry roughages (mostly wheat and rice straw) and conventional concentrates. Furthermore, it has been reported that conventional feedstuffs are very low in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources. These circumstances attracted the attention of nutritionists and farmers towards the use of slow-releasing non-Protein Nitrogen sources in the livestock feed. The experimental study was conducted at LPRI Bahdurnagar Okara. Feed was reformulated by addition of urea and Optigen. Samples in triplicates were analyzed at Nutrition laboratory, UVAS Lahore and LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara. The crude protein of the concentrates A, B and C were 17.03, 17.03 and 17.04 respectively. Eighteen lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided in three equal groups using completely randomized design. Each group was fed on isonitrogenous concentrate to find out its effects on performance of lactating buffaloes. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The significant differences between means were tested by least significant difference test. Milk production was higher in group C feeding with reformulated with 1% Optigen. The highest individual milk fat was higher for group C. The average protein percentages of all the buffaloes were non-significant. The milk urea nitrogen level was higher in group B. The blood urea nitrogen level was higher in group C. It was concluded that the use of Optigen in buffalo feed improved the milk production significantly without affecting the milk composition. It can replace the conventional NPN sources without any adverse effects on health of buffaloes. Optigen can be used as economical and affective slow release NPN source.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1342,T] (1).
Correlatin Response Of Udder And Body Measurements As Affected By Age And Parity On Milk Contents And Yield In Nili- Ravi Buffaloesin Peri- Urban Areas of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is diverse specie of domestic livestock and the utmost need of
modern dairy farms in developing countries especially where it is indigenous animal as in
Pakistan and India. To achieve and enhance the full genetic potential of the animal, first of all,
one must be able to select the animal which will seems to have good genetic for the dairy
production on the basis of phenotypic characters. As far as. selection of this animal. on the basis
of its milk producing unit i.e. udder conformation is concerned has not yet been conducted
precisely. Only animals are judged by traditional ways without scientific approach. The core
purpose of this study was to select Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes on the basis of their phenotypic
features for commercial purpose. A total of 200 lactating ili-Ravi animals were measured in
and around peri-urban areas of Lahore. Out of 200 animals 4, 32, 63, 53, 34 and 14 were
belonging to first, second, third, fourth, fifth and Sixth lactations, respectively. The animals
found in different lactation stages. 47 (23.5%) were in first. 76 i.e. 38% were in second and
77(38.5%) were present in their third lactation stage. The mean and standard deviation of udder
length in first to sixth lactation were 57.0 3.05cm, 62.4 1.08cm, 63.6±0.98cm, 65.9±0.95 em,
66.1±1.17 ern and 62.7±2.41 em, respectively. Whereas, measurements of udder depth in
lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes ranged in six lactations from 13.3±3.05 cm,10.7±0.37 ern. IO.8±0.20 em, 14.7±2.64cm. 11.11:0.22 ern andl0.5±0.40clll respectively .. Udder width of lactating buffaloes in first six parities was 23.9±0.6 cm, 28.0:1..3.2 em, 28.3 4.2 ern, 29.2±4.6 cm, 31.6± 3.2 ern and 30.7±1.3cm respectively. The size of milk vein in from parity one to six was 5.6±0.7 ern, 6.6±1.1 ern, 7.3±1.2 ern, 7.4±1.6 ern, 8.1±0.8 cm and 7.9±O.77 em respectively. The average udder length, udder depth. udder width and milk vein in all lactations were found to be 64.2±0.52cm, I 0.9±0.14 ern, 29.1 0.29cm and 7.4±0.1 ern respectively. Bowl shaped udder was found in 156 animals (78%), whereas only 39 out of 200 (19.5%) had round and only five animals got goaty shaped udders i.e.2.5%. The average teat length and teat diameter in all parities under study were 9.6±0.86 ern and 4.08±0.046 ern, respectively. Whereas, average distance between both fore teats was found 14.4±0.23cm. between rear teats 6.3±0.13cm and between fore and rear teats of right and left side were 6.4±0.13cm and 6.4±0.13cmrespectively. 89% (178/200) Nili- Ravi animals in the peri-urban areas of Lahore were found to have cylindrical shaped teats. Whereas only eight animals (4%) have bottle and fourteen animals (7%), was having funnel shaped teats. Average Heart Girth. Body Length and Body Height of lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were found to be 203.2'10.77 em, 147.3 0.71 em and 140.2± I.06cm. The mean distance between the two pin bones and hook bones of the body were 30.2±0.26 em and
56.9±0.32 em, whereas, mean body depth found in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was 83.2±1.23 ern. The average scoring given to the different parts and overall body in the study were: Tail Head: 22.5±0.02; Ribs and Sacral region: 3.1±0.018; Angularity of Bones: 3.1±0.01; and Overall BCS: 2.9±0.0 17. The average fat%, protein%, SNF%, lactose% and solids (ash) % were 5.98±l.S, 3.3±O.2, 8.67±O.5, 4.58±O.3 and O.83±0.04 respectively.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1358,T] (1).
Efficacy Of Commercial Disinfectants Against The Water Contaminating Bacteria At Commercial Broiler Farms
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Water is an important constituent for poultry. Poor hygienic conditions of water are health hazard for poultry. Many outbreaks are caused by consuming poor quality water.. Fifty water samples from different broiler farms in and around Lahore were collected from drinkers in sterile containers. Bacterial load was assessed using total viable count and coliform count. The counts were above the threshold level (50cfu/ml for coliform and 100cfu/ml for total viable count) showing that water used at poultry farms was of low microbiological quality. Five Disinfectants PHMB20% (.75ml/lit, 1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit), PHMB11% (1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (0.1ml/lit , 0.2ml/lit, 0.4ml/lit) Glutral 9.8%(1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit), organic acid(1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit) were used and they resulted in log reduction of TVC by PHMB20% (5.83±4.36, 6.14±3.98, 9.35± 0.68), PHMB11% (9.42±0.21), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (2.45±0.97, 3.19±0.73, 6.33±0.80 ) Glutral 9.8%(6.87±1.00, 9.73±1.00,9.73±1.00), organic acid(4.75±1.21, 6.62±1.26, 6.90±1.15).PHMB20%,PHMB11%, Glutral 9.8% and organic acid were effective at normal dose, while 0.25 chlorine dioxide was effective at normal dose against at normal dose. Log reduction in Coliform count at half, normal and double dose by PHMB20% (6.52±3.33, 6.96±2.46, 7.96±0.98), PHMB11% (7.89±1.01), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (3.65±0.73, 5.08±0.98, 6.27±0.97) Glutral 9.8%(8.48±0.99), organic acid(5.18±1.21, 5.93±1.26,6.46±1.15±) . PHMB20%, PHMB11%, 9.8% Glutral, organic acid were effective against coliform bacteria at half dose while 0.2% chlorine dioxide was effective at normal dose. Glutraldehyde was effective at normal dose amongst all disinfectants against Total viable bacteria and coli form bacteria.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1482,T] (1).
Molecular Diagnosis Of Anaplasmosis In Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Bovine Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne haemo-rickettsail disease, caused by Anaplasma species transmitted mechanically by flies, biologically by ticks and blood contaminant fomites. It is an economically important tick-borne disease of buffalo in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In current study, we developed and optimized PCR first for detecting Anaplasma at genus level in buffaloes. One hundred (100) blood samples were collected from buffaloes around the Lahore region. The stained thin blood films were examined microscopically and 37% blood samples were found positive for intra-erythrocytic bodies which were then selected for DNA extraction. The DNA was extracted using commercially available kit for eventual use in optimization of PCR for diagnosis of bovine Anaplasmosis. The primers were designed targeting 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma. For the detection, the PCR product was run in 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and thirty seven samples showed the amplification band at 179bp. The selected samples were sent for ABI sequencing to Singapore for the accurate detection of the Anaplasma species. The sequencing results were blasted with database of Genbank and we observed homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. We found 37% prevalence of Anaplasmosis in buffaloes through PCR. However more studies are required to confirm the species of Anaplasma infecting buffaloes (Bobalus bobalis) by designing species specific primers. Furthermore, additional studies are needed to establish the epidemiology of Anaplasmosis by using molecular tools in different geographical areas of the country for their better control.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2389-T] (1).