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1. Effect Of Virginiamycin And Zinc Bacitracin On New Castle Disease Virus Vaccinated Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Sohail Azhar | Prof.Dr. Muhamamd Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The project was designed to study the effects of Virginiamycin and Zinc bacitracin on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccinated broilers. Two hundred broilers were divided into four groups comprising fifty in each. These groups were treated with Virginiamycin (Stafac-500), Zincbacitracin (Albac) and Cyclophosphamide at the dose rate of 20ppm/50kg, 25 gm/50kg and 0.3ml/bird, respectively. Effect of the treatments on weight gain, lymphoid organs and humoral immune response was evaluated. The virginiamycin treated group had higher body weight than the Zinc bacitracin and Cyclophosphamide treated or untreated control groups. Both virginiamycin and Zinc bacitracin treatments did not adversely affect the weights of bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver of the birds. Cyclophosphamide treatment of birds in early life induced the bursal atrophy and slight depression in splenic weight gain. As compared to Cyclophosphamide treated and non-medicated control groups, the sera of virginiamycin / Zinc bacitracin treated groups had higher anti-NDV antibody titres at 42 days of age. The post-challenge sera of NDV vaccinated birds fed virginiamycin and Zinc bacitracin also had higher antibody titre as compared to NDV vaccinated Cyclophosphamide treated birds. The NDV vaccinated birds fed on virginiamycin / Zinc bacitracin medicated rations and those on non-medicated rations did not have any significant post-challenge mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0875,T] (1).

2. Clinico-Biochemical Studies At Variable Degree Of Jejunal Resection In Dogs

by Muhammad Sohail Dilawer | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr.Shahan Azeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of jejunectomy; indicated in case of necrosis, devitalization, malignancy, and evidence of foreign body and trauma in jejunum. A total of 20 mongrel dogs were selected which underwent a clinical evaluation to be termed physiologically normal. These were divided into four groups A, B, C, D designated for 70% jejunal resection, 80% jejunal resection, 100% jejunal resection and control without resection respectively. The dogs within the groups were evaluated on 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days post-operative for various blood parameters, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions, body weight and fecal consistency. After the study, dogs were euthanized and postmortem was conducted to observe and analyze the changes associated with the respected portion Regain in body weight was evident in group A, B but it was very slow in group C. Fecal consistency became soft and firm on day 15 in group A, B and on day 45 in group C . No effect between jejunectomized groups and control without jejunectomy was observed for chloride, potassium and bicarbonate ions. However, significant difference was observed for sodium ions indicating low serum sodium levels for jejunectomized group compared control. The WBCs levels were significant in all jejunectomized groups compared to normal indicating higher WBCs in the former groups. Granulocytes and lymphocytes were also higher in group A, C and Group B respectively as compared to D at the 90 day the study. Red blood cells, hemoglobin, PCV, MCH, MCHC values were significant at various days of study period between the different groups but their values were within the normal range indicating the blood parameters reversion to normalcy. For platelets, the values were also in the normal range in the studied groups when compared with control. A total number of 3 dogs died during the study, all of them from jejunectomized groups. At the end of experiment, the dogs euthanized for postmortem findings depicted no abnormal condition at the anastamotic site and in abdominal cavity. CONCLUSION: The study indicated that after the surgical procedure of jejunectomy, the dogs tend to reinvigorate their blood physiological parameters and serum ions. Three dogs died out of 15 jejunectomized thereby indicating that there is a probability of postoperative complication, which in that case was strangulation and torsion. Regain in body weight was the slowest in group C indicating the loss of nutrients essential for maintaining body weight. Therefore it is better to go far 700/G resection and 80% resection. RECOMMENDATIONS: Further research regarding the various aspects necessary for maintaining health should be studied before coming to a decision about the percentage of resection performed. The metabolic problems that may arise due to removal of jejunum and loss of nutrients because of loss of absorptive capacity needs to be studied and standardized in this regard. Post operative care and duration of study for experiments should be increased to observe changes in physiological parameters with the passage of time. Other parameters like Liver Function Tests, Kidney Function Tests be studied and clinical nutrition trials be conducted so as to counter the negative effects of jejunectomy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1089,T] (1).

3. Variation Of The Primary And Secondary Productivity In Monoculture And Polyculture System Of Fish Pond

by Muhammad Sohail | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Dr. Saima | Mr. Noor Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was planned to check the primary and secondary productivity of fish ponds. The primary productivity was checked by the estimation of chlorophyll-a and abundance and diversity of phytoplankton in fish pond, the secondary productivity was studied by identifying and counting the species of zooplankton. Sample were obtained from treated and controlled ponds; in treated ponds in addition to periodic fertilization of ponds, supplementary experimental fish feed was provided but in controlled ponds only fertilizers (organic and inorganic) was applied to enrich the productivity. This study provides a comparison of the effect of fish feed on plankton productivity. Data were obtained on weekly basis during l " September to 31 November and on daily basis from I st November to is" November. The data were collected weekly for chlorophyll concentrations in fish ponds and fortnightly for phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and diversity and were related with the physico-chemical parameter. The amount of chlorophyll a pigment and plankton abundance in treated and control pond of Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita was observed. It was high in pond containing Cirrhinus mrigala ranging from 2.056-4.421 IJ.g/L in pond containing Catla catla it was low (ranging from 0.313-0.768 IJ.g/L). It was observed those ponds that were treated although showed significantly higher chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton and zooplanktons but fish was keeping the biomass grazed and there were no blooms of phytoplankton were observed after the application of fertilizer. Data obtained weekly as well as every day showed a decrease in the level of chlorophyll with the time. It was high in the treated ponds compared to control pond however the decreasing trend remained same. Primary productivity as studied from chlorophyll was significantly difference in the ponds with Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 40.14**) and was non significant in ponds with Labeo rohita ( F = 2.9SNS) and Catla catla (0.75NS) when studied weekly and chlorophyll concentration values when observed daily showed Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 52.91 **) Labeo rohita ( F = 20.00**) and Catla catla (11.73*) all were significantly different and were higher in treated ponds in comparison to control ponds. The diversity indices for phytoplankton and zooplankton distribution abundance were estimated for treated and control ponds with different species of fish (Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). Higher values of diversity (H' =), equitability (E =) and Simpson index (D= ) was observed in treated pond of Cirrhinus mrigala. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1337,T] (1).

4. Risk Factors Associatede With Calf Mortality In Smallholder Dairy Farms In Per-Urban Area Of Lahore

by Muhammad Sohail | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhary | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A case control study was conducted to confirm association of hypothesized risk factors like age, sex, breed, colostrums ingestion time, feeding practices, season, housing, hygiene status of the farms and tick infestation. This study was conducted in Rakh Chandra dairy colony the biggest dairy colony situated in periphery of Lahore, rich with dairy animal. 10% sample size was taken of the total population consisting of young calves' cattle and buffaloes of 90 days age. The overall mortality rate was (31.88%) while the crude mortality rate was found to be higher in the cattle calves that was of (35.76%) than in the buffalo calves (28%). Amongst all risk factors in the form of diseases and other health related conditions point of view calf diarrhea (54.7%; p=0.000) significantly associated with calf mortality and was found to be the leading cause of death followed by the respiratory diseases (28.5%) and other several risk factors were also seen to be associated with calf mortality. Ticks infestation was found to be (p=0.000: OR=13.618) strongly associated with calf mortality rate. While season was found to be associated (p=0.04: OR=1.21) with calf mortality rate in dairy farms. The major cause of death recorded was diarrhea accounted 54.7% of total deaths. The higher mortality rate was recorded in the first month of age mostly in the 3rd week of life. Therefore it was concluded that age, sex, breed, tick infestation and colostrums were all associated with calf mortality. Further research work is needed to identify the individual magnitude of each risk factor associated with mortality in calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1838,T] (1).

5. Epidemiological Investigation Cf Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever In Reported Cases And Its Associated Risk Factors

by Muhammad Sohail | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr.Mansur-ud -Din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1897,T] (1).

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