Prevalence Of Clinical Mastities And Diagnosis Of Subclinical Mastitis In Cross Bred Cows
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Publisher: 2002 Dissertation note: The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of clinical mastitis and diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in crossbred cows in and around Lahore. One hundred crossbred cows were selected in and around Lahore.
The data for clinical and subclinical mastitis was collected by different means such as observation, palpation of udder, by streaks and surf field mastitis test. Prevalence of clinical mastitis was estimated by collected data. In this project the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 14.23%.
Prevalence of clinical mastitis in different farms was different. In three selected farms "Farm A, Farm B and Farm C", the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 16.66%, 12.72% and 13.33% respectively. For diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, samples were collected from selected farms. One hundred crossbred cows were selected. Two different tests were applied for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis such as surf field mastitis test and white side test. The overall percentage of subclinical mastitis was 12.62% with both tests. The percentages of three farms were as such 10%, 14.54% and 13.33% respectively.
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Nutritive Value Of Sunflower Meal For Poultry Feeding As Effected By Heat Treatment
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 1988 Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the effect of heat treatment and lysIne supplementation on the nutritive value of sunflower meal (SFM) , through biological trial, on the broiler chicks. It also included the estimation of lysIne contents of sunflower meal processed at different temperatures.
Two research experiments were conducted on day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the nutritive value of sunflower meal processed at different temperatures and subsequently supplemented with lysine. In the first experiment SFM was subjected to various heat treatments at 90°, 10.0°,110°, and 120° for 30 minutes. The results indicated an improvement in growth rate of the chicks fed ration H containing SFM processed at 90°C, while the chicks fed ration III to V containing SFM processed at 1000,1100 and 120°C showed a proportionate depression in weight gain, which might be due to the damage or unavailability of heat labile essential amino acid lysine. There was a non-significant difference in the feed consumption of chicks fed different experimental rations. The chicks fed ration II containing heat treated SFM at 90°C showed the best cumulative feed efficiency as the processing temperature of SFM was increased. The carcase weight of trie chicks fed different experimental rations showed almost the same trend as observed in "weight gain. However, a non-significant difference was observed in the dressing percentage and weight of internal organs of the chicks.
In the second experiment, chicks fed ration I containing SFM processed at 90°C showed the maximum weight gain while chicks fed rations II, IV and VI containing SFM processed at 100°, 1100 and 120°C showed a proportionate depression in the weight gain as well as feed efficiency. It might be attributed to the damage or unavailability of heat labile essential amino acid lysine. The depression in weight gain and feed efficiency of the chicks due to feeding of heat processed SFM was alleviated when fed rations II, V and VII, containing SFM processed at 1000,1100 and 120°C and supplemented accordingly with the synthetic lysine. The carcase weight of the chicks showed almost the same trend as observed in the weight gain. However, dressing percentage and weight of Internal organs of the chicks showed a non-significant difference. The lysine estimation of sunflower meal processed at 90°, 100°, 110° and 120°C revealed that the lysine content was proportionately decreased by 10,10.9,12.15 and 14.55 percent respectively. The results were substantiated through the biological trail of feeding heat processed sunflower meal to the broiler chicks, which showed that the weight gain and fee efficiency of the chicks were significantly improved when the heat processed SFM was supplemented with the corresponding amounts of synthetic lysine.
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of heat treatment at 900, 100°, 110° and 1200 and lysine supplementation of heat processed sunflower meal (SFN) on the growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of internal organs of the chicks.
The weight gain and feed efficiency were proportionately reduced when processing temperature was increased from 100°C onwards. The lysine supplementation improved the depressions significantly as was reflected in better weight gain and feed efficiency of the chicks. It indicated that heat processing made the lysine unavailable, which was confirmed through the analysis of lysine content of SFM.
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The Chick Growth Inhibition Of Soybean Meal (Sbm) As Affected By Autoclaving Under Varying Conditions
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; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 1987 Dissertation note: Soybean meal (SBM) is the by-product left after extraction of oil from the seeds either by solvent extracton or mechanical expeller. After animal protein sources, SBM is the best vegetable protein supplement for feeding of poultry. It is now commercially available in the country, but its use in different poultry feeds is limited due to its growth inhibitory factor(s).
The present study was planned to find, out suitable methods of heat treatments to reduce/remove the growth inhibitory factor(s) present in indigenous SBM. Effect of different levels of supplementation of methionine, the limiting amino acid was also studied. Two experiments were conducted using day old 'Hubbard" broiler chicks as experimental birds. In the first experiment effect of different levels of moisture and autociaving time on the nutritional value of SBM was studied. Growth rate, feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization of the chicks were recorded. Effect of the heat-treatments of SBM on the dressing percentage and internal organs of the chicks was also studied.
Heat treatments of SBM involving different levels of moisture andautocalving time significantly (P< 0.01) improved its nutritional value as was reflected by better growth rate of the chicks. The improved quality of the treated SBM was sub stantiated by the reduced urease activity of the meal. Both moisture and autoclaving had linear effect in improving the nutritional value of SBM. Higher moisture levels with lower heating time was equally effective as lower moisture level with higher heating time in improving the nutritional value of SBM. The chicks fed rations containing SBM with 10 percent moisture and autoclaved for 45 minutes or 20 percent moisture and autoclaved for 30 minutes showed the best growth rate of the chicks; fed ration containing raw SBM might be due to the presence of growth inhibitory factor(s) which was partially/completely removed by heat treatment of the meal.
The second experiment was designed to study the effect of supplementation of different levels of methionine, on the nutritive value of heat treated soybean cake (SBC). For the purpose, methionine was supplemented at 0.05, 0. 15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 percent of the rations containing heat treated SBC as the sole source of protein.
Methionine supplementation of heat treated SBC significantly (P <0.01) improved the growth rate and feed efficiency of the chicks as compared to the control ration, without methionine supplementation. Best weight gain and feed efficiency was found in the chicks fed ration containing 0. 35 percent methionine supplementation. This indicated that methionine was the most limiting amino acid in SBC and 0. 35 percent supplementation of methionine was enough to compensate the deficiency of the amino acid.
i) Results of the experiments indicated a significant chick growth depression along with poor utilization of feed by chicks fed ration containing raw SBM.
ii) Heat treatment involving additional moisture and autoclaving significantly improved the nutritive value of SBM, as indicated by better growth rate and feed utilization of the chicks. Lower moisture level (10% along with higher autoclaving time (45 minutes) was equally effective as the higher moisture (20%) along with lower autoclaving time (30 minutes) in improving the nutritive value of raw SBM. The improvement in the nutritive value of heat treated SBM was substantiated by the reduced urease activity of the meal.
iii) Methionine supplementation of heat treated SBC further significantly improved its nutritive value. The best level of methionine supplementation was 0. 35% of the ration containing heat treated SBC as the sole source of protein.
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Effect Of Different Dietary Energy & Perfomance Of Broiler Chicks
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 1989 Dissertation note: A research project was undertaken to study the effect of different dietary energy and protein ratios on the performance of broiler chicks. The performance of chicks were studied under the headings of weight gain, feed efficiency, feed consumption, dressing percentage and economics. Four starter rations containing calorie protein ratios of 167, 149, 136 and 123 and four finisher rations containing calorie protein ratios of 199, 178, 159 and 145 were tried on one hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks of both sexes for a period of 50 days. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 22 days the finisher rations were fed.
The results showed that the starter rations containing calorie protein ratios of 136 and finisher ration containing calorie protein ratio of 159 were best in promoting weight gain, feed utilization and were economical as compared to other calories protein ratios. Different calorie protein ratios did not influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks.
It was concluded that careful combinations of energy and protein in poultry feed formulations
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Studies On The Incidence Of Iodine Deficiency In Lahore
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Publisher: 1983 Dissertation note: The iodine which is so necessary for normal thyroid function is obtained from the food we eat, and to a much less extent: , from the water we drink4 Iodine deficiency is the commonest cause of goitre. Deficient dietary intake is the most important single cause of iodine deficiency, and its role is especially important in districts with a high prevalence of simple goitre. The best known areas of high prevalence of iodine deficiency in the world are mountanious, e.g. the Alps, the Himalayas and the Andes, but high prevalence was also found in certain low lying areas. In countries where most of the population receive iodized salt and where iodine-containing foods are widely distributed, this condition is becoming less common.
Pakistan is one of the developing countries of the world which faces malnutrition as a serious public health problem. Trace mineral imbalance and deficiency are one of the causes of malnutrition in people of the country. Surveys carried Out in recent years have shown goitrous areas particularly North-West of Pakistan. Iodine prophylaxis has been introduced in some of such areas with success and the disease has been practically controlled.
The present study was therefore designed to determine the iodine status of the people of Lahore city and collect information of the factors that interfere with the availability and utilization of iodine.
A total number of 1,000 patients of thyroid dysfunction were selected at random at the Atomic Energy Medical Centre, Mayo Hospital Lahore. The observations on the incidence of iodine deficiency and its relation to age, sex, type of thyroid diseases and financial status of the patients were recorded.
The map of Lahore city was divided into five experimental areas and the numbers of patients from each area were counted.
Clinical tests showed a wide variety of thyroid problems including iodine deficiency goitre, simple goitre, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, puberty goitre, thyroid cancer,etc. Some patients were proved to be normal.
Results of the survey showed that there was a highly significant (P/ 0.01) occurrence of thyroid patients in the experimental area II, i.e. North West of Lahore city. It showed the highest frequency of 42.1% of thyroid patients, as compared to other experimental areas I, III, IV and V having 19.3, 18.8, 9.0, 10.8% frequency respectively.
Comparison of different thyroid diseases showed that there was highest profusion of iodine deficiency goitre in the patients. There was highly significant (PLO.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre of 37.0% as compared to simple goitre, hypothyroidism and miscellaneous thyroid diseases, which were 14.2, 13.5, and 4.2% respectively. Prevalence of iodine deficiency goitre was also significantly (PLO.05) higher i.e. 37.0% in occurrence as compared to hyperthyroidism)i.e. 27.0%. Only 4.1% patients were found normal.
It was revealed that there was highly significant (L 0.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre in the patients of the experimental area II as compared to the experimental areas IV,V,III and I.
The survey revealed that there was highly significant (L 0.01) occurrence of the patients having thyroid problems from 30-40 years of age as compared to the patients of thyroid dysfunction from 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 40-50 and 50-above years of age.
It was observed that there was a much higher occurrence,i.e 76.2 % of thyroid complaints in females than in males.i.e 23.8%. The results showed that there was a higher occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre in females, i.e 30.2% as compared to males,i.e 6.8%. )
The survey revealed that thyroid dysfunction was prevalent in the patients belonging to the three categories of incomei.e upper class, middle class and lower class. But there was no significant difference between the three classes.
Out of a total number of 50 samples of drinking water from the five experimental areas 30 samples were found deficient in iodine,i.e having lower than 40 microgram of iodine per liter. 20 Samples were found normal in iodine level having more than 40 microgram of iodine per liter of water. The highest iodine level of 44.0 microgram per litre of water was found in the experimental area V and the lowest iodine level,i.e 20.0 microgram per litre of water was found in the experimental area II, having the highest thyroid dysfunction rate of 40.3% of the patients.
There was highly significant (P/_0.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency in the blood of the patients having thyroid dysfunction. Iodine deficiency in the blood was highly significant (P/_0.01) in the patients of group II as compared to the patients of group III.
The results of water test and blood test were in agreement with the findings of the general survey of the patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction. The experimental area II had the highest number of patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction, i.e 42.1% and the larger number of patients having deficiency of blood iodine was also observed in the same' area,i.e 70%. The lowest iodine level of 20.0 microgram per litre of water was also found in the same experimental area.
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Effects Of Storage And Processing Condition On The Quality Of Whola Milk Powder
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Milk is a complex mixture of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other miscellaneous constituents dispersed in water. Milk production in flush season is much more than the requirement. Milk production and supply fluctuate through out the year and during winter it is surplus to its demand. Dairy is one of the expanding industrial sectors in Pakistan; about 17 units are engaged in the production of various dairy products. Surplus milk is available in winter and this is the normal practice of dairy industry in Pakistan that surplus milk is converted in to different types of milk powders. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the physico- chemical and keeping quality of whole milk powder commercially available in the market and comparative study of functional properties among different brands of whole milk powders, evaluate the storage stability of different brands of whole milk powder atl5°C, 25°C and 40°C temperature and study the effects of processing conditions indicator like Hydroxymethyl Furfural (HMF) during storage.
Project was undertaken to study the effect of storage temperatures (15, 25 and 40°C) and processing conditions on physico chemical and sensory characteristics of whole milk powder. Statistical analysis of whole milk powder samples indicated during storage non significant changes in protein, ash, fat, lactose, acidity, burnt particles within the treatments as a function of storage was observed. Significant changes were recorded in free fatty acids, solubility index and per oxide value within the treatments and during storage period of 120 days. At 120 days of storage minimum increase in free fatty acids and peroxide value was noted in T3. Acidity, free fatty acids and peroxide value increased throughout the storage period of 120 days but at 15 °C the effect of storage on free fatty acids and peroxide value was comparatively less than 25 and 40 °C.
Hydroxy methyl furfural was found significant within the treatments and effect of storage period and temperature was also significant. Hydroxy methyl furfural almost remained same at 15 °C, with the increase of temperature it increased significantly. Sensory evaluation was carried out by a panel of six trained judges it was noted that score for color, taste; smell and mouth feel decreased with the increase of temperature and storage period. The highest score for color, smell, taste and mouth feel was obtained by T3 during 120 days of storage. Chemical analysis of whole milk powder samples showed that whole milk powder samples stored at 40 °C were most affected in terms of physico chmeical and sensory quality.
Overall results indicated that physico chemical quality and sensory properties of T3 was found best and it was comparatively less affected by storage temperatures. On the basis of this study it is recommended that for proper storage of whole milk powder 15 °C temperatures is suitable.
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Studies On The Use Of Cowpea As A Vegetable Protein Supplement On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks
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Publisher: 1990 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to find out nutritive value of cowpea (Vina sinensis) and to develop certain treatments to improve the nutritive value of cowpea. For this purpose two experiments were conducted on broiler chicks "Hubbard". In the first experiment, different levels of raw cowpea were fed to the chicks for L weeks, while in the second experiment cowpea were given with different treatments i.e. soaking, autoclaving, oil and methionine supplementation were included in the poultry ration for 6 weeks. During both experiments effect on growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of internal organs were studied.
Feeding different levels of raw cowpea in ration during first experiment showed a linear decrease in weight gain and feed utilization efficiency with increasing level of raw cowpea. The decrease in dressing percentage was highly significant (P/ 0.01) when raw cowpea level was 66 per cent. It was also observed that feeding of raw cowpea significantly (PL 0.01) increased the weight of pancreas of the chicks. The same was the case with gizzard weight. The poor chick performance (weight gain and feed utilization efficiency) on account of feeding higher levels of raw cowpea might be attributed due to the higher contents of enzyme inhibitor(s), low digest- ability and deficiency of sulfur containing amino acids.
To investigate these possible limiting factors, second experiment was conducted. For this purpose soaked (1:1 moisture treatment) and autoclaved (15 psi for 30 mm.) cowpea were incorporated at 51 % level in the ration, while the methionine was supplemented at the level of 0.14/-f per cent and oil at the level of 6.7 per cent. Autoclaving improved weight gain of the chicks during first 4 weeks period, however, methionine supplementation improved the weight gain after 4 weeks (total period is 6 weeks). The feed utilization efficiency was improved through autoclaving, methionine supplementation and oil supplementation in the descending order. Soaking did not improve the nutritive value of cowpea with respect to weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage. The pancreas weight did not increase when autoclaved cowpea were fed as compared to ration I (corn soya ration). However, soaking increased the gizzard weight significantly (PC0.01)
The results of experiments indicated a linear depression in growth rate and feed efficiency with increasing level of raw cowpea in the rations. The weights of internal organs i.e. gizzard and pancreas were increased with increasing level of raw cowpea.
Autoclaving of cowpea improved its nutritive value in terms of weight gain and feed efficiency. Methionine supplementation did improve the weight gain and feed conversion ratio to a significant level. However soaking had adverse effects with respect to pancreas and gizzard weight and no effect regarding weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage.
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Studies On The Chick Growth Inhibitory Factor In Sunflowr Oil Meal
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Publisher: 1990 Dissertation note: The cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and total particulate matter ('1PM) of cigarette smoke is sternly toxic to health and may produce several pathologies. In our study, we have focused on the toxicological effects of CSC and '1PM on different events of angiogenesis using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). CSC and 1PM from four different commercial filtered cigarettes were applied to the CAMs on day 4 of incubation. Macroscopic vascular transformations were evidently observed among all treated CAMs. Applications of CSC disk caused sturdy obliteration of main blood vessels, while whole architecture of the secondary and tertiary vasculalure was completely destroyed. Likewise, application of '1PM from all brands of cigarette caused disproportionate thinning of all primary and secondary blood vessels. Reduction in the total area and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels were observed after treatment with CSC and TPM. 1-listological evaluations revealed loss of ectodermal and mesodermal integrity in botl'i types of treatments. Scanty capillary plexuses formation, deterioration of extracellular matrix and delayed migration of blood vessels were prominent findings among all treated groups. Results obtained from CSC treated groups were more localized, while generalized results were prominently recorded in 1PM treated groups. Special considerations of CSC and 1PM should he given while smoking during pregnancy and after surgery because it may severely affect the process of angiogenesis, which is vital in maintenance of pregnancy and wound healing.
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