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1. Studies On The Use Of Cowpea As A Vegetable Protein Supplement On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Zahid | Dr. Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Ehtisham.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to find out nutritive value of cowpea (Vina sinensis) and to develop certain treatments to improve the nutritive value of cowpea. For this purpose two experiments were conducted on broiler chicks "Hubbard". In the first experiment, different levels of raw cowpea were fed to the chicks for L weeks, while in the second experiment cowpea were given with different treatments i.e. soaking, autoclaving, oil and methionine supplementation were included in the poultry ration for 6 weeks. During both experiments effect on growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of internal organs were studied. Feeding different levels of raw cowpea in ration during first experiment showed a linear decrease in weight gain and feed utilization efficiency with increasing level of raw cowpea. The decrease in dressing percentage was highly significant (P/ 0.01) when raw cowpea level was 66 per cent. It was also observed that feeding of raw cowpea significantly (PL 0.01) increased the weight of pancreas of the chicks. The same was the case with gizzard weight. The poor chick performance (weight gain and feed utilization efficiency) on account of feeding higher levels of raw cowpea might be attributed due to the higher contents of enzyme inhibitor(s), low digest- ability and deficiency of sulfur containing amino acids. To investigate these possible limiting factors, second experiment was conducted. For this purpose soaked (1:1 moisture treatment) and autoclaved (15 psi for 30 mm.) cowpea were incorporated at 51 % level in the ration, while the methionine was supplemented at the level of 0.14/-f per cent and oil at the level of 6.7 per cent. Autoclaving improved weight gain of the chicks during first 4 weeks period, however, methionine supplementation improved the weight gain after 4 weeks (total period is 6 weeks). The feed utilization efficiency was improved through autoclaving, methionine supplementation and oil supplementation in the descending order. Soaking did not improve the nutritive value of cowpea with respect to weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage. The pancreas weight did not increase when autoclaved cowpea were fed as compared to ration I (corn soya ration). However, soaking increased the gizzard weight significantly (PC0.01) CONCLUS ION The results of experiments indicated a linear depression in growth rate and feed efficiency with increasing level of raw cowpea in the rations. The weights of internal organs i.e. gizzard and pancreas were increased with increasing level of raw cowpea. Autoclaving of cowpea improved its nutritive value in terms of weight gain and feed efficiency. Methionine supplementation did improve the weight gain and feed conversion ratio to a significant level. However soaking had adverse effects with respect to pancreas and gizzard weight and no effect regarding weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1119,T] (1).

2. Pathological Changes Induced By Deltamethrin In Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) And Its Treatment With Vitamin E and Selenium

by Muhammad Zahid Khan | Dr.Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr.KAmran | Prof.Dr.M.Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1277,T] (1).

3. Comparayive Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Trails Against Hypodermosis In Cattle In Rajanpur

by Muhammad Zahid | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Study was carried out in district Rajanpur from February, 2011 to April, 2011 to find out percentage of infestation and to study chemotherapeutic trails against warble fly infestation in cattle in three tehsils namely Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur of district Rajanpur. In each tehsil 200 cattle were examined to record clinical signs of hypodermosis. For treatment of affected animals drug trail were done with Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) and Ivermectin (Imec, SJG, Pakistan) 1% subcutaneously @ 0.2mg/kg body weight. Study included percentage of infestation in cattle in the households, veterinary hospitals and private farms. Average percentage of warbles in cattle was calculated and found 10 %, 17% and 16.5% in Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur respectively. It was found that percentage of infestation was 12% to 18% in hilly areas as compared to semi-hilly areas with 8% to16% and riverine areas 8% to 18% warble fly infestation in cattle. It was observed that warble fly infestation in cattle was absent in some plane areas in tehsil Jampur. The comparison of different chemotherapeutic trails against Hypodermosis in cattle were observed and recorded. Three groups of cattle were made for chemotherapeutic trails against hypodermosis. Application of Tagafon in two different groups of cattle was carried out to evaluate their efficacy against Hypodemosis. In one group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) was applied with cotton gauzes by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution of trichlorophon. In second group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star, Pakistan) was given by drenching method with 2% solution at a dose rate of 0.2ml/kg body weight. In third group (Inj.Imec, SJG, Pakistan) Ivermectin 1% at dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneous injection was carried out. Ivermectin1% was found to be 100% effective. Tagafon (Trichlorophon) was found 90% effective by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution and Tagafon (Trichlorophon) by drenching method with 2% solution was found 85%effective against warble fly infestation in cattle in the study area. The data was analyzed statistically and found significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1297,T] (1).

4. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory And Analgesic Potential Of Aqueous Methanolic Extract Of Thuja Orientalis In Albino Rats

by Muhammad Zahid Tanveer | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In the present study in vivo anti-inflammatory assay, central analgesic assay and peripheral analgesic estimation of methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis was performed by using carrageenan induced paw oedema model, hotplate test and acetic acid induced writhing test on albino rats, respectively. For anti-inflammatory assay, the experimental animals were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals and three groups of six animals were arranged each for central and peripheral analgesic evaluation. In all groups of animals in antiinflammatory assay, oedema was produced by using 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan. The group II served as standard control group and was additionally treated with 10mg/Kg p.o indomethacin (a standard drug). The Groups III, IV and V received 50, 100 and 300 mg/Kg p.o of aqueous methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis (TO-Cr) respectively. All the treatment groups (II, III, IV and V) were treated 1 hour before injection of carrageenan. The volume of paw of rats was measured at 0 h and 3 h and the results of all treatment groups were compared with group I. In the present work, central analgesic study was done by using hot plate method. Tramadol was used as the standard drug in positive control group. Peripheral analgesia was determined by acetic induced writhing test using aspirin as standard analgesic drug. In the writhing test 1 % solution of acetic acid at dose of 0.1 ml / 10 grams was injected intra peritoneal. All the groups were pre treated 30 min before chemical stimulus with the standard drug and extract dose. Number of writhings was counted for 20 min. after injection. The statistical analysis of these values showed that results at 0 hour are non significant as P > 0.05 (Table 3).But it is evaluated from the study of paw volumes after 3 hours that there was significant decrease in oedema in group treated with standard drug i.e. indomethacin (79.70 % decrease) as compared with the 60 negative control (Fig. 11). The response of the extract under study was dose related. There was 13 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 50 mg / kg dose of TO-Cr (Table 7). Similarly there was 34 % and 59.57 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 100 mg / kg and 300 mg / kg doses of TO-Cr (Table 7). In central analgesic model of hotplate, there was significant increase in latency time in treatment group at 60 min interval (Table 15) and then it remained almost same after 90 min (Table 18). In peripheral analgesia of acetic acid induced writhing test, there was significant decrease in the number of writhings in positive control (7.33+1.63) and Thuja orientalis extract (12.50+2.35) also decreased the number of writhings significantly as compared with the negative control group (20.67+2.16) (Table 22). It is concluded from the results that aqueous methanolic extract of the fruit of Thuja orientalis has significant anti-inflammatory activity and produced dose dependant reduction in inflammation and it also has both central and peripheral analgesic properties. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1599,T] (1).

5. Effect Of Feeding Frequency On The Growth Performance Of Lohi Lambs During Post Weaning Period

by Muhammad Zahid Farooq (2010-VA-271) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis Submitted with Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2192,T] (1).

6. Effect of Fish Oil on Response of Lymphoid Organs of Broiler Experimentally Infected With Newcastle Disease Virus

by Muhammad Zahid (2013-VA-441) | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2353-T] (1).

7. Effect Of Cholesterol Loaded Cyclodextrin (Clc) Addition On Post Thaw Quality Of Jack Semen

by Muhammad Rafi Ullah (2009-VA-54) | Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Improvement of post-thaw quality of Donkey (Equusasinus) semen is essential to augment the in-vivo and in-vitro fertilization rate. Whenever we think about the techniques for long term storage of the germ cells cryopreservation appears most useful but it causes lethal and sub-lethal damage to the sperm. Sperm cryosurvival rates are not optimal for most species including donkey because of its plasma membrane composition. Egg yolk is an important component of most of the equine freezing extenders. But another factor regarding this important component is that its higher concentrations can have some deleterious effects such as oxidase activity of dead spermatozoa, bacterial/ xenobiotic contamination, reduced respiration and motility of the spermatozoa, which ultimately results in lowering fertility rate. That’s why, cold shock resistance is more in those species semen possessing higher membrane cholesterol to phospholipids ratio as compare to those species semen having less cholesterol to phospholipids ratio. Indeed it may be a useful strategy to improve cryopreservation protocols for jack sperm. Addition of CLC may also be a substitute for egg yolk in semen extender always considering that the cryo-protective effect of EY is partially due to its high cholesterol content. Semen was collected in artificial vagina at 42ºC from two mature donkeys (n=2) five times (replicates=10) which were maintained at Ravi campus Pattoki. Semen samples possessing >60% motility were used in this study. Each ejaculate was divided into 6 aliquots and CLC was added into these aliquots according to desired concentrations (0 mg, 1.5 mg and 3 mg/120 million sperms) then kept at 25ºC for 15 minutes. After incubation semen aliquots were diluted in 1:1with centrifugation media and centrifuged at 600g for 15 minutes to separate seminal plasma after bead formation. Beads of the semen were resuspended in the centrifugation media having different concentrations of egg yolk for different CLC concentration groups in such a way that 100 million / ml sperms concentration was achieved. When this final dilution was done semen was shifted at 4 ºC for 2 hour CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 37 cooling then further 2 hours for equilibration at 4º C. Then semen was packed in 0.5 ml plastic straws. These straws were suspended on liquid nitrogen vapors upto7 mints then plunging these straws in the liquid nitrogen in freezing box and then shifting these straws to the liquid nitrogen container by placing them in the goblets and stored there until post thawing was done. After post thawing semen was analyzed for motility, Acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, live ratios DNA integrity and MDA levels. Post-thaw parameters were analyzed by PROC MIXED as factorial ANOVA using SAS enterprise Guide Version 4.2. And it was observed that. And it was observed that both CLC 1.5 and 3 mg/120 million sperms with full egg yolk did not improved (p˃0.05) the post thaw quality except in malondialdehyde levels in which 3 mg dose with full yolk significantly (p˂0.05) decreased the level of malondialdehyde. While CLC with lower levels of egg yolk maintained the quality same as the control or improved significantly in some parameters.CLC1.5 HEY and CLC3 NEY both compete the control in motility, PMI by HOST and total viability parameter..DNA integrity increased with the decrement of egg yolk as CLC1.5 HEY, CLC3 HEY and CLC3 NEY are significantly (p˂0.05) better than the remaining three groups.MDA level is significantly lower in CLC1.5 HEY and CLC3 HEY groups comparable to control means that with partial removal of egg yolk and supplementation of CLC malondialdehyde levels are decreased significantly as compare to control. Thus CLC substitutes the egg yolk completely when 3mg of CLC /120 million sperms is added in kenney’s extender for jack semen cryopreservation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2553-T] (1).

8. Comparative Efficacy Of Albendazole, Pyrantel Pamoate, Ajwain And Kamala Against Toxocara Vitulorum Infestation In Bovine Calves

by Muhammad Zahid IQbal (2007-VA-72) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Arshad Javid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Toxocara vitulorum is a round worm of cattle and buffalo that is common in tropical and subtropical area.Toxocara vitulorum from infected cattle and buffalo transmitted to calves via colostrum and placenta while its transmission was very less though feed and water. Toxocara vitulorum infestation was very high in calves and it caused mortalities in calve ages between 1 to 3 months, while infestation was less in high age groups.Mortality in cattle and buffalo calves reached up to 50% andcause poor growth, colic, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia and ketosis in calves. These worms could cause intestinal strangulation, holes and blockage in intestines of calves. Resent study was designed to check the prevalence and therapeutic trial of Toxocara vitulorum in cow and buffalo calves. These results were very helpful for the treatment of the Toxocara vitulorum that was a major endo-parasite in the cows and buffalo calves. Fecal samples from 300 cows and buffalo were examined under the compound microscope for ova. Positive cow and buffalo calves were divided in five groups and different treatments were given to each group. Egg per Gram (EPG) counted at day 7and 14th post-treatment. Overall prevalence Toxocara vitulorum was 49% in cow calves and 59% in buffalo calves. Prevalence was higher in 1-3 month age group calves (78% in cow calves & 91% in buffalo calves) while prevalence was higher in female calves (52% in cow and 61% in buffalo calves) as compare to male calves (44% in cow and 55% in buffalo calves). Prevalence was higher in the summer stress months. The efficacy of the Albendazole was lowest in both cows and buffalo calves. The efficacy of Albendazole in cow was 25% and 31% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Albendazole was 24% and 31% at 7th and 14th days of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 98% and 100 % in cow calves at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 81% and 100% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Ajwain in cow calves was 59% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves it was 58% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Kamala in cow calves was 33% and 39% at day 7th and 14th day of post-treatment, respectively and buffalo calves the efficacy was 34% and 42% at day 7th and 14th of post-treatment. It is concluded from the present study that both in cow and buffalo calves, Toxocara vitulorum is most prevalent parasitic infestation. This parasite is more prevalent in female calves, 1-6 months of age and during hot and humid season in both cows and buffaloes. Pyrantel pamoate is proved to be better than Ajwain but Albendazole and Kamala was not justified good dewormer against Toxocariasis in bovine calves. . Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2656-T] (1).

9. Development Of Enriched Compost From Waste Generated At University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences (UVAS) And To Evaluate Its Efficiency On Tomato Plants

by Muhammad Zahid Iqbal (2014-VA-912) | Ms. Isbah Hameed | Dr. Saif Ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Solid waste management is basic concern of all most all countries on the Earth because it has direct contact with human life. So its management is major concern in developed as well as developing countries. In solid waste management, we characterize solid waste in two types. One is organic and other is inorganic waste. Inorganic waste is disposed off in landfill but organic waste can be utilized in very beneficial way. We can use this waste to form compost (Organic Fertilizer). In this research, we utilized organic waste to convert it into organic fertilizer like compost. We established three types of setup for composting by using different percentages of urea as type 1 with 5% urea, type 2 with 10% urea and type 3 with 0% urea separately. We checked major physical parameters for composting procedure like Temperature, Moisture content, pH, Cabon content and nitrogen concentration in percentage. This procedure take 10 to 12 weeks for complete formation of compost. But setup with 5% urea was better than others. This setup take 8 weeks for conversion of organic waste into compost. In setup 1, with 5% urea achieve highest temperature very fast. Other also achieve good temperature but not as 5%. After formation of compost, we also measure following parameters for good quality of compost. Organic matter was checked and it values between 40-60%. It shows great value of organic matter in compost. This value is very beneficial for soil having low organic matter. We also checked this parameter for soil, but it have low organic content rather than compost. Summary 51 Other parameter checked was heavy metals in compost and soil. Heavy metals were present in great concentration in soil rather than compost. Because heavy metals were somehow utilized in breaking down of organic matter. Carbon content was also observed in soil and compost. After these parameters, tomato plants were grown on compost, soil and mixture of both things with different percentages sprayed with rock phosphate in solution form. And observed for 3 weeks. In analysis of plants, we checked root, shoot and leave length and numbers of leaves grown. Compost have greater effect on plants growth because it have basic nutrient for growth of plants. Phosphate also have effect on growth because it strong the stem and leaves of plant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2908-T] (1).

10. Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats

by Syed Muhammad Faheem Ahmed (2010-VA-147) | Dr. Ayesha Safdar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality. This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient. For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated. Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Conclusion: Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2891-T] (1).

11. Qualitative And Quantitative Assessment Of Fertile Period In Bitches

by Anam Mushtaq (2009-VA-388) | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The estrous cycle of the bitch consists of 4 phases including proestrus, estrus, diestrus and an obligatory anestrus. Most of the owners normally assess the fertile period on the base of qualitative parameters and mate their bitches on predetermined days. This is the major cause of apparent infertility in bitches. The most reliable assessment for timing of mating is through quantitative assessment through vaginal cytology and progesterone assay. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of qualitative and quantitative assessment of fertile period in bitches. Furthermore, the effect of assessment method was studied on fertility (number of pregnant bitches) and prolificity (number of pups in a litter). This study was conducted on 148 referral cases of bitches brought to Theriogenology Laboratory. The data of qualitative assessment by the owners was collected by a questioner while quantitative assessment was based on vaginal cytology and progesterone assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS and logistic regression to compare the fertility (number of pregnancies) and prolificacy (number of pups) among groups. In qualitative group, only 32% bitches were diagnosed pregnant. In contrast, the quantitative group showed a significantly higher fertility (83%) as compared to qualitative group (P<0.05) with odd ratio of 3 times higher fertility. Similarly, in qualitative group, 58% bitches had litter of 1-4 pups while the rest had a litter ranging in 5-10 pups. In contrast, quantitative group showed significantly (P<0.05) higher prolificity with 79% bitches having a litter of 5-10 with 4 times higher odd ratio. Meanwhile, the percentage of bitches having a smaller litter (1-4 pups) was considerably low (21%). In conclusion, the quantitative assessment of fertile period is more accurate and results in significantly higher fertility and prolificity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2946-T] (1).

12. Effect Of Antibiotic Treatment During Ovulation Synchronization In Repeat Breeder Holstein Friesian Cows

by Masood Shabbir (2010-VA-120) | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Repeat breeding is one of the major causes of reproductive, productive and economic losses in dairy sector. The main causes of repeat breeding include sub-clinical infection of reproductive tract, age of the animal, error in the detection of estrus, endocrine dysfunction and nutritional deficiencies. In Pakistan, a very high incidence of repeat breeding has been documented (Kakar et al. 1997). In the past, intrauterine infusions have successfully been used with a variety of antiseptic and antibiotic solutions. Meanwhile, therapeutic use of GnRH and PGF2α has also been demonstrated to result in improved pregnancy rates. In particular, Ovsynch protocol leads to an increase of 6-17% in conception rate. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive efficiency with antibiotic treatment during ovulation synchronization in repeat breeder Holstein Friesian cows. This study was conducted on 30 pure bred Holstein Friesian cows kept under standard farm conditions of feeding and management at Hussain Cattle and Dairy Farm, Kasur. The reproductive efficiency of treated and control animals was based on ovulation rate, non-return rate, conception rate, pregnancy rate, embryonic losses and luteal function. Results were analyzed by independent T-test. A probability level of 95% was consider as significant (P<0.05). All the experimental animals were screened to confirm non-pregnant and normal genitalia. Both the treatment and control groups were synchronized using ovsynch protocol. Following first injection of GnRH, the treatment group was subjected to intrauterine antibiotic infusion for five days. On Day 7 of protocol both groups received an injection of PGF2α. At day 9 of ovsynch protocol before second injection of GnRH both groups were scanned for ovarian status. Follicles and CL measurement were noted and mapped by using 7.5 MHz trans-rectal probe (Honda 22 Summary Model HS-1600) in both groups and second injection of GnRH was given. Timed artificial insemination was performed after 16-20 hours of second injection of GnRH in both groups. After 8 hours of artificial insemination again ultrasonography was conducted to check the ovulation rate in both groups, there was no significant difference between control and treatment, 60% and 75% of the animals in control and treatment groups ovulate respectively. At day 11 blood samples were collected for progesterone assay. Non-return rate was visually observed at day 18 to 21 of artificial insemination. Blood was collected at day 18 for progesterone assay by puncture of tail vein. After D28 andD42 of artificial insemination first and second pregnancy test were conducted by using 7.5 MHz trans-rectal probe (Honda Model HS-1600) in control and treatment group. There was a significant difference of pregnancy among the control and treatment group by independent T-test. 3 rd and 4 th blood samples were collected for progesterone assay at day28 and 42 of artificial insemination in both groups respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2951-T] (1).

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