Effect Of Detomidine As A Preanaesthetic Medication With Ketamine Induced Anaesthesia In Canines (Dogs)
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2004 Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the effect of detomidinc as a preanaesthetic medication with ketamine induced anaesthesia in canines. The study was conducted over eight dogs which were divided into two groups i.e. group A and group B, comprising four animals each which were medicated in a cross over fashion. Animals of group A were given Ketamine alone @ of 15 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly while animals of group B were given Detomidine @ 4Ojig/kg intramuscularly as preanaesthetic medication followed by ketam inc hydrochloride.
After a washout period of two weeks, animals of group A were given detomidine as a preanaesthetic medication followed by ketarninc hydrochloride at the same dose rate as given previously. While animals of group B were given ketarnine alone.
Different parameters such as, induction, recumbency, recovery peridd, temperature, pulse, respiration and reflexes were observed for the evaluation of anaesthesia. Liver toxicity was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT) enzymes.
The results of present study indicated that induction, recumbency and recovery were rapid, prolonged, smooth and uncomplicated respectively with detomidine premedication followed by ketarninc as compared to the ketamine given alone. Hyperthermia and respiratory depression was observed in both cases, where as tachycardia and bradycardia were noticed in the two treatments respectively. Liver enzymes gave non significant values with the use of ketamine hydrochloride with detomidine hydrochloride and ketamine (alone) in both cases .From this study it is concluded that detomidine premedication gives significant results and is recommended along with ketamine hydrochloride in dogs.
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Detection And Taxonomy Of Dust Mites In The City Of Lahore With Special Reference To Allergic Manifestation
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: The most important allergy causing mites found worldwide in houses are the house dust mite's i.e. D. farinae & D. pteronyssinus and most houses contain multiple species. The geographical distributions of mite species are vary between houses within a geographical region and among different areas. Therefore it is need to know the exact prevalence of species in a particular area when diagnostic testing is performing and prescribing immunotherapy. Among environmental factors, temperature and humidity play a key role for the survival as well as prevalence of house dust mites. The most favorite place for the better survival of house dust mites is houses belong to the humid geographical areas.
In this study, 1280 dust samples from carpet, bedroom mattress, sofa and floor of total 64 houses from posh area and old city area from May to August, 2007, were collected and two examination procedures were selected (Acarex Strips Test and Direct Microscopic Examination). 320 dust samples (160 posh area and 160 old city area) were detected with Acarex Strips Test and remaining dust samples were examined by using the direct microscopy.
In the present study, the overall occurrence of house dust mites in dust samples of carpet, bedroom mattress, sofa and floor was recorded as 22.5% (9), 22.5% (9), 20% (8) and 10% (4) respectively from posh area by using the Acarex strips test from May to August, 2007, at Lahore. Similarly from old city area, the overall occurrence of dust mites from house dust samples of carpet, bedroom mattress, sofa and floor was reported as 27.5% (11), 30% (12), 22.5% (9) and 15% (6) respectively.
Direct microscopy was performed for remaining 960 (240 carpet, 240 bedroom mattress, 240 sofa and 240 floor) dust samples to examine the occurrence and taxonomy of house dust mites. Among 26.3% (63) positive dust samples of carpet 63.5% (40) were found positive for D. farinae and 36.5% (23) for D. pteronyssinus. Total 28.8% (69) bedroom mattress dust samples were found positive for house dust mites but 74.9% (51) and 26%
(18) dust samples were containing D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus species respectively.
Among 17% (41) positive dust samples of sofa, 61% (25) were containing 13. farinae and
39% (16) D. pteronyssinus. Out of 11.7% (28) positive dust samples of floor for house dust mites, 68% (19) were examined positive for D. farinae and 32% (9) for D. pteronyssinus.
The high occurrence of house dust mites were seen during May, June, July, and August 2007. During May, 2007, there was not so highly occurrence of house dust mites observed as compare to other three months (June, July and August, 2007). From late June rainy season (monsoon) was started and high moisture remains in the environment to late August. These environmental conditions have direct impact on the population of house dust mites.
From previous study, it was suggested that two species (D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus) occur in the area of Lahore, Pakistan. The highly prevalent specie in the house dust samples of carpet, bedroom mattress, sofa and floor was reported D. farinae as compare to D. pteronyssinus.
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Urbanization: Consequences On Increase Of Garbage Eating Birs In Lahore, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: This proposed study was analyzed the increase of garbage eating birds in Lahore. Five Important sites were selected in Lahore as whole longitudinal belt of Lahore was covered. Many birds species were recorded, and especially garbage eating or scavenger birds' population was observed and its consequences on other birds species and ecosystem was studied. Different field observation methods for birds along with field guides was adopted. In this 12 month study, month wise record of birds was depicted a picture of population of birds in Lahore. The vultures were totally extinct in Lahore and were not observed at any sites. During the study observed most of the birds were the resident, few were winter visitor and very low numbers were the summer breeders. Urbanization is a major cause of habitat loss and fragmentation. According to present study density of birds were recorded at Jinnah garden, Racecourse Park, Woodland Safari Park, Mehmood Booti and Old Ravi Bridge. Different threats to the birds were also been recorded and appropriate conservation measure towards a sustainable ecosystem was proposed.
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