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1. Comparative Efficacy Of Hormonal & Surgical Treatment For Pymetra In The Dog

by Fazle Azim | Mazhar Iqbal | Muhammed | Muhammed Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Pyometra is one of the serious disorders of the female reproductive system in the dog. It can lead to infertility in some cases and death in others. Ovariohysterectomy is believed to be the treatment of choice for pyometra but the reproductive potential of the animal is lost during this process. That is why ovariohysterectomy is of no value in breeding animals. Therefore, there must be an alternative treatment to save the animal and its reproductive ability. This project was designed with the same idea in mind. For this experiment twenty clinically healthy female mongrel dogs were selected and were injected with progesterone for 5 days to initiate the hyperplasia of their uteri. The cervices of these animals were dilated by giving them Stilboesterol injections for two days. Thereafter pathogenic culture of Escherichia coil was inoculated within the hyperplastic uteri to induce pyometra. Then these animals were reswitched to progesterone therapy for 5 more days/ Pyometra was confirmed by clinical signs and white blood cell counts, which were found increased 2-4 folds, 5-7 days after inoculation. The diseased animals were divided into two groups, group I (Surgical treatment group) and group II (Hormonal therapy group), consisting of 10 animals each. In the group I, ovariohysterectomy was performed and these animals were divided into two subgroups Ia and lb, consisting of 5 animals each. The animals of group Ia were kept on antibiotics only whereas the animals of group lb were kept on antibiotics and intravenous fluids, post operatively. The animals of group II were kept on Prostaglandins for treatment. This group was also divided into two subgroups Ila and Nb (consisting of 5 animals each). The animals of group Na were kept on antibiotics only and the animals of group lib were kept on antibiotics and intravenous fluids, during the hormonal therapy. All the animals of surgical treatment group (Ia and Ib) responded to the treatment very nicely and 100 per cent recovery rate was recorded. In the hormonal therapy group (ha and Nb) 60 per cent recovery rate was recorded, as one animal of group Ila died due to shock on the 2nd day of hormonal therapy and one animal did not respond to the hormonal therapy. Among the 5 animals of group lIb, 2 animals did not respond to the treatment. Although 60 per cent recovery rate was observed in the hormonal therapy group but serious side effects of prostaglandins were also noticed (vomiting, restlessness, defecation and urination was observed just after the prostaglandin injection). As far as the supportive therapy (intravenous fluids) was concerned it did not affect the recovery rate of the animals and there was no noticeable difference between the blood analysis and urinalysis of the animals kept on intravenous fluids and those which did not receive intravenous fluids. The analysis of the results indicated that no doubt ovariohysterectomy has an edge over the prostaglandins therapy in cases of pyometra. However, ovariohysterectomy should be advised in those cases where the dog is a mediocre one and the owner is interested in saving the life and not the reproductive potential of the animal. But in cases where the dog belongs to a breeding stock with a very good pedigree record, and the owner is particularly interested in her reproductive ability, one should not hesitate to try the hormonal therapy, as based upon the findings of this research at least 60 per cent chances exists to get that end. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0208,T] (1).

2. Comparative Study Of Early And Delayed Skin Autografting On Front Of The Canine Knee

by Azhar Hanif Khatana, M | Dr.Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Muhammed | Dr. Muhammed Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Cutaneous injuries particularly when quite massive are burning problems for the working clinicians. Healing in such injuries is unduly prolonged with subsequent granulation and scar formation resulting in uncosmetic look of the skin. Wounds of the canine knee have plagued both the veterinarian and the owners since long. Most of these wounds fail to respond to conventional methods of treatment. In such cases skin grafting serves as a good alternative for successful covering of the lesions. The study was done on 20 randomly selected mongrel dogs of either sex. A skin defect starting from 3 cm above and going the same distance down the joint encompassing the medial, cranial and lateral aspects was created and covered with a full thickness skin graft harvested from the lateral aspect of the thigh. In half of the dogs the grafts were fenestrated whereas in the other half they were kept unfenestrated. In each of the group the right knee was grafted fresh while the left knee underwent delayed grafting when the wounds were uniformly granulating without any clinical signs of infection. The animals were kept under observation for a period of 21- days. The survival rate of the unfenestrated grafts was 70% (7 out of 10) and 50% (5 out of 10) for the right and left limb respectively whereas in the fenestrated group the success rate was 90% (9 out of 10) in the right limb and 60% (6 out 10) in the left limb. The results indicated that the fenestrated grafts had an edge over the unfenestrated ones whether they were used to cover a fresh or an old granulating wound on the cranial aspect of the canine knee. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0491,T] (1).

3. Efficacy Of Different Conjunctival Flaps For Corneal Ulceration In The Dog

by Mubashra Mukadas | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Muhammed Arif Khan | Dr. Shahkeel | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The use of conjunctival flaps is one of the procedures adopted for the repair of cornea in cases of corneal ulceration where the medicinal therapy has limited or no effect. In the begining of the twentieth century many ophthalmic surgeons of human side as well as veterinarians used conjunctiva for the repair of corneal ulcers. They adopted many procedures for this purpose but only a few were found to be successful. These procedures were used to relieve the animal from keratopathies such as infectious keratitis, severely chemically burnt eye, damage of the cornea during accident and progressive deep ulcers. These conditions mostly cause discomfort due to ocular pain and impairment of vision and corneal surgery becomes a necessity. During this study, fifteen healthy mongrel dogs of either sex were used. These dogs were divided into 5 groups of 3 animals each. The animals of group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were operated upon for the repair of experimentally produced corneal ulcers using conjunctival hood, bridge, complete and pedicle flaps respectively. Group No.5, was kept to serve the purpose of control animals. The cornea was superficially scratched with scalpel blade in all the animals from group No.1 through group No.4 to produce corneal ulcers. The animals were then kept for 15-20 days till corneal ulcers were fully developed. The corneal ulcers thus produced were repaired afterwards, using four different types of conjunctival flaps mentioned earlier. For preparing conjunctival hood flap, a 1800 incision was made in the bulbar conjunctiva at the limbus and the conjunctiva was superficially dissected towards the fornix. The flap was then pulled centrally and sutured to the sciera with simple interrupted sutures using 6-0 silk. The complete or double hood flaps were prepared by continuing the limbal based conjunctival incision 360° around the limbus. Superficial dissection of the conjunctiva was performed 1-1.5 cm towards the fornices, thus dorsal and ventral flaps were created (by mobilizing the bulbar conjunctiva) and advanced over the cornea to meet centrally. These flaps were apposed with horizontal mattress sutures of 6-0 silk. To prepare bridge or bucket handle flaps, the conjunctiva was first superficially dissected from the limbus and the flap was created via a second incision in the conjunctiva 1-1.5 cm from and parallel to the limbal incision. The flap was then made free and shifted over the corneal ulcer and sutured with simple interrupted sutures using 6-0 silk. The pedicle flaps were dissected and advanced from the limbus and sutured to sciera, covering the corneal ulcers, with simple interrupted sutures of 6-0 silk. The conjunctival defects were left un-sutured. These procedures were first carried out on the left eyes of all the dogs and then repeated on the right eyes after the healing of left ones. It was concluded on the basis of this study that: 1. The raw bulbar surface of conjunctiva providing direct access of vascular and fibrous connective tissues can be used, to repair the corneal ulcers. 2. Vision remains almost normal during post operative period without the use of any contact or intra ocular lens. 3. There was no recurrent corneal erosion or penetrating infection, so deeper layers of cornea as well as other intra ocular structures remained normal. 4. Use of topical and/or systemic antibiotics for a long time in the post operative period was not needed. The successful attempt at repairing the corneal ulcers with the conjunctival flaps strengthened the belief in cases where there was no other way of saving the animal's vision except surgical intervention. So, it is incumbent upon the veterinarian to involve himself devotedly in the operative procedure with the aim of achieving good results. Whether he succeeds or otherwise, he must have a satisfaction of being loyal to his profession. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0499,T] (1).

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