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1. Study On The Effect Of Artificial Insemination On Fertiligy And Hatchability Of Eggs In Poultry

by Nisar Ahmad | Mubbasher Ahmed Shah | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Sagir Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1983Dissertation note: The main objective of this research was to examine the possibility of using skimmed milk and whole milk as diluents of fowl semen under the local environment. The research was carried out on 56 weeks old hens at the poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. The birds were trap nested in individual cages and cages were arranged in three tiers. The birds were exposed to 16L: 8D. Feed and water were available at all times. Study was executed in two phases. In the first series of trials, skimmed milk was used in five different dilutions comprising 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20 and 1:25 undiluted semen (Treatment A) served as control group. The experiment was repeated four times to remove any experimental error and to minimize variability between the trials. The hatchability of eggs was maximum in the control group, and it was observed to be statistically significant (P<0.01) than all other competitive treatments. The skimmed milk dilutions gave poor hatchability although hatchability increased with the reduction in the dilution ratio. The second phase of trials consisted of two trials and each trial had three treatments, i.e. undiluted semen (A), skimmed milk dilution 1:2 (B) and whole milk dilution 1:2 (C), treatment B was included in the trials to make the skimmed milk studies comprehensive and to compare it with the whole milk as diluents of chicken semen. The hatchability of eggs in treatment A and C was substantially higher than the skimmed milk group (Treatment B). The number of infertile eggs in the skimmed milk group was very high and it was significantly (P<0.01) more than all other treatments. This higher infertility could e ascribed to old age of the birds and high temperature (above 40oC) of summer season. This might, therefore, be concluded that the whole milk proved satisfactory diluents of fowl semen while pure skimmed milk gave poor hatchability. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0018,T] (1).

2. Fattening Of Lambs With Different Vegetable Protein Sources

by Mohsin Raza Malik | Dr . Muhammad Yapoob Malik | Dr . Nisar Ahmad | Dr . Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0055,T] (1).

3. Taxonomical Study On Prevalent Ectoparasites & The Effect Of Tick Infestation On Various Blood Parameters

by Nisar Ahmad | Asif Rabbani | M.Sarwer khan | Muhammed Afzal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: A study was conducted to see the prevalence and to identify the species of ectoparasites (Ticks, mites, fleas, lice) in dogs. Samples were collected from College of Veterinary Sciences and different pet clinics in the city. Specimens were collected and then transferred into the glass bottles containing 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, alcohol for preservation. The specimens were examined and identified in the laboratory. The species of ectoparasites identified were: Rhipicephalus anguineus (tick), Sarcoptes scabiel Var canis (mite), Ctenocephalides Canis (flea) Trichodectes anis (lice). The percentage of the above mentioned species were: 39.3%, 11.1%, 2.1% and 2.1% respectively. Haematological examination were made to compare the blood picture of healthy and infested dogs. For this purpose 20 blood samples each from healthy and infested dogs were examined. The blood parameters studied were: Haemoglobin level, total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and differential leukocyte count. The results of haemotological examination showed a significant decrease in haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, and packed cell volume, whereas a significant rise in leukocyte count and D.L.C. of infested dogs as compared to healthy dogs was observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0213,T] (1).

4. Studies On Uterine Involution And Ovarian Activity In Postpartum Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Given Prostaglandin F2 Alpha Analogue

by Farrukh Nazir | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Dr. Mian Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Tayyab | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0324,T] (1).

5. Effects Of Substitution Of Fish Meal With Soybean Oil Meal On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Khurshid Ahmad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Ehtisham | Dr. Javed Ahmed Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present study was under taken to investigate the effects of substitution of fish meal which is comparatively costly protein supplement with the soybean oil meal on the performance of Broiler chicks. One hundred and eighty day old (Male and Female) hubbard chicks were purchased from local market and were reared on four experimental rations A, B, C, & D upto fifty days of age. The starter rations were fed upto 28 days of age and the finisher rations were fed from 29th to 50 days of age. Results revealed non-significant difference among weight gain and feed consumption of chicks fed on different experimental rations. Apparently better feed utilization was noticed by the chicks fed on ration C (8 percent soybean oil meal and 4 percent fish meal. Statistically non significant difference were observed in the feed efficiency value of chicks fed on different experimental rations. The present result revealed that chicks fed on ration C (8% soybean oil meal and 4% fish meal) apparently showed increased growth of broiler chicks, required less amount of feed per unit weight gain and were economical as compared to birds fed on other experimental rations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0362,T] (1).

6. Effect Of Substitution Of Fish Meal With Cotton Seed Meal On Performence Of Broiler Chicks

by Umer Malik, M | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr M. Javed Qurshi | Dr. M. Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The present study was under taken to investigate the effect of substitution of fish meal which is comparatively costly protein supplement with cheaper cotton seed meal on performance of broiler chicks. As one hundred and eighty Star Bro day old broiler chicks were reared on five experimental rations upto 50 day of age. The control ration contained 12 % fish meal (100 %) which was replaced by the cotton seed meal at 0, 4.17, 7.39, 11.03 and 14.72 % level (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on Protein equivalent basis). The starter rations were fed upto 28 days of age and finisher rations were fed upto 50th day. Results revealed however non significant difference among weight gain of chicks fed on different experimental starter rations. But significant differences among weight gain of chicks fed on finisher rations were noticed. The chicks fed on rations containing 100%,75%, 50% and 25% fish meal were heavier as compared to those chicks fed on rations in which fish meal was replaced by cotton seed meal on protein equivalent basis. Non significant differences in total weight gain were noticed amongst chicks fed on different experimental rations. highly significantly more feed was consumed by the chicks fed on starter and finisher rations containing 100%, 75%, and 50% fish meal as compared to those chicks fed on other experimental rations. Apparently better feed utilization in chicks were noticed by addition of cotton seed meal at different levels i.e 4.17, 7.39 and 11.03 % in the starter and finisher rations. However non significant differences among the feed efficiency values were observed in chicks fed on various experimental rations. However dressing % of all the birds fed on different rations was found non significant. Present study indicated that addition of cotton seed meal did not significantly effect the growth rate, however, slightly decreased growth rate was observed with progressive increase of cotton seed meal in the ration. Feed efficiency was comparable with that of fish meal. Results also indicated that ration containing cotton seed meal were comparatively cheaper and cost per Kg of live weight was decreased. Therefore, net profit per chick was greater. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0394,T] (1).

7. Influence Of Varying Levels Of Proten & Energy On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Safiq ur Rehman | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Ehtisham | Dr. Jawad Ahmad Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A study was undertaken to investigate the influence of varying levels of protein and energy on the performance of broiler chicks. The performance of chicks were studied under the heading of weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, organs weight, abdominal fat and economics. Nine experimental rations containing metabolizable energy 2600, 2900 and 3200 Kcal ME/kg with 18, 20 and 22% crude protein were tried on two hundred and seventy day old broiler chicks of both sexes for the period of 50 days. The results showed that the ration containing 20% C.P. and 2600 KCal ME/kg were best in promoting weight gain, feed utilization and were economical as compared to other experimental rations. Different energy-protein levels did not influenced the dressing percentage and organs weight, but the diet containing high energy resulted significantly more deposition of the abdominal fat. It was concluded that low energy and high protein combination in poultry feed formulation improved the growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio and could be economical as compared to the high energy and high protein ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0395,T] (1).

8. Studies On The Use Of Sesame Meal (Punjnb Til 90) As A Vegetable Protein Supplement In Broiler Rations

by Safdar Mahmood Saeed | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Supervisor | Dr. Javaid Qureshi Member.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0399,T] (1).

9. Studies On The Use Of Brewer'S Dried Yeast (Saccharomyces Yeast) As Vegetable Protein Source In Broiler

by Zahid Hussain | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Jawad Ahmad Qureshi | Dr. M. Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: As about 60% of the total cost of poultry production incurs on feed, therefore, it is the major component, which mostly affects the economical poultry production. Unfortunately the poultry industry of Pakistan is mainly affected by substandard poultry feeding, which is due to limited availability of quality feed resources particularly protein sources. The incorporation of various non- conventional vegetable protein sources in poultry feed, if properly added have given satisfactory results. Keeping in view a study was conducted to determine the nutritional value of Brewer's dried yeast replacing sesame meal on growth rate and feed utilization of broiler chicks. Two hundreds and ten day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven groups of 30 birds each so as to have three replicate per group, each having ten chicks. The chicks were fed on seven different experimental rations A to G containing Brewer's dried yeast at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of the ration respectively replacing sesame meal. The results indicated that average weight gain of the chicks fed experimental ration A to G was 1203, 1175, 1175, 1166, 1138, 1127 and 1096 grams respectively. There was a proportionate depression in weight gain as the level of Brewer's dried yeast was increased. The proportionate depression in weight gain with increasing level of Brewer's dried yeast replacing sesame meal could be attributed to poor quality amino acid profile or biological value of the yeast as compared with sesame meal. It could also be attributed to certain anti-nutritional factors or high amounts of nucleic acids of yeast. The feed consumption of the chicks fed experimental ration A to G was 2516, 2484, 2526, 2502, 2436, 2501 and 2469 grams respectively. The chicks fed ration C consumed greater amount of feed, while the chicks fed ration E had the poor feed consumption. The feed consumption showed no proper pattern as was observed in case of weight gain and there was non-significant difference in feed consumption of different groups of chicks The feed conversion ratio of the chicks fed experimental rations A to C was 2.06, 2.11, 2.15, 2.15, 2.14, 2.15 and 2.15 respectively. The results indicated that the chicks fed ration A had the best feed conversion ratio of 2.06 and the feed conversion ratio was adversely affected on account of incorporation of Brewer's dried yeast. The dressed weight of the chicks fed ration A to 0 was 612, 600, 599, 593, 577, 577 and 555 grams respectively. The dressed weight showed the same trend as was observed in weight gain. The dressing percentage was 50.9, 50.1, 50.4, 51.30, 50.80, 51.20 and 50.60 percent respectively and there was hon-significant difference among difference groups. Similarly the weight of internal organs of the chicks per 100 grams of dressed weight i.e. Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Heart and Gizzard showed non-significant difference among different groups. The economics of incorporation of Brewer's dried yeast revealed that the replacement of sesame meal with Brewer's dried yeast was economically viable. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0417,T] (1).

10. Effect Of Various Dietary Antibiotics On The Performance On Broiler Chicks

by Ishaque, M | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Ashfaq | Mr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A research study was conducted to find out the effect of virginiamycin, oxytetracycline and Furazolidone as a growth promoter in broiler rations. Two hundred and forty day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups of 60 chicks each. Each group was further subdivided into three replicates of 20 chicks each. Two experimental rations (starter and finisher) were prepared and fed to experimental chicks upto 50 days of age. Virginiamycine, oxytetracycline and Furazolidone were mixed to experimental rations at the level of 10 mg/kg feed. The effects of these additives on weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, mortality, weights of internal organs and residual effect on meat were recorded. Feed and water were given libitum. Continuous light was provided for 24 hours. The results revealed non-significant differences among weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks fed on starter ration. However the results obtained from 29-50 days showed significant difference (P <0.05) in weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency. The best weight gain was obtained with oxytetracycline supplementation followed by virginiamycine, furazolidone and the controlled group. Maximum feed was consumed by the birds fed on control ration. The best feed efficiency was noticed with birds fed on ration supplemented with oxytetracycline. The results obtained from 0-50 days showed highly significant difference (P < 0.01) in weight gaiu of the birds. Feed consumption and feed efficiency also showed significant difference (P<0.05). The maximum weight gain was noticed with birds fed on oxytetracycline supplementation followed by virginiamycine and furazolidone supplementation, while the least weight gain was shown by the birds fed on control ration. Maximum feed was consumed by the birds fed on control ration and the least feed consumption was observed with birds fed on oxytetracycline supplementation followed by virginiamycine and furazolidone. The poor feed efficiency was observed with the birds fed on control ration. Dressing percentage and weight of internal organs showed statistically non-significant. The residual effect of antibiotics was not found in the chicken meat. From the present study it was concluded that the addition of antibiotics in the broiler rations proved economical as compared to control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0456,T] (1).

11. Comparative Study Of Growth Rate And Feed Efficiency Of Buffalo And Sahiwal Cattle On Concentrate Ratios

by Ehsan Mohsin | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Mr. Shahid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline fn per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animals origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem of meat shortage is to increase the production of meat by fattening the male buffalo calves which are available in the country. These are sold at lower rate when they are weaned. These calves can be fattened by using the rations containing wheat-straw and concentrate mixture available in the country. There is an increased competition between animal and human being for consumption of cereal grains and at the same time there is scarcity of green fodder in different areas of the country. Moreover, there are high prices of conventional energy sources in the country which limits there use in animal feeding. The present experiment was planned to determine the growth rate and feed efficiency of Sahiwal and buffalo male calves fed on different fiber (wheat straw) and concentrate ratios. A fattening trial was conducted on four groups of 20 Sahiwal and 20 Nih Ravi buffalo male calves, having 10 calves in each group of buffalo and Sahiwal calves, fed on two different rations (A and B). The experiment was continued for 90 days. Feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency and economic evaluation of the rations and effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on the performance of the calves were the parameters under study. The results of the study revealed significant difference in weight gain and non-significant differences in feed consumption and feed efficiency. The non-significant difference for factor A and interaction but significant difference for factor B was observed during economic evaluation of the rations. The ration (with 40% wheat-straw and 60% concentrate mixture) was most economical as compare to ration A (with 20% wheat-straw and 80% concentrate mixture) in fattening, of Sahiwal and buffalo male calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0481,T] (1).

12. Effect Of Different Levels And Sources Of Fish Meal On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Shahid Raza | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr. Javed Ahmed Qureshi | Dr. M. Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different levels and sources of fish meals on the performance of broiler chicks. One hundred and eighty day-old hubbard chicks were randomly divided into 18 experimental groups of 10 chicks each. The chicks of two commercially available fish meals with three levels of Gwadar and Sindh fish meals were compared in this study. The chicks were assigned to 6 experimental rations in such a way that there were three groups of 10 birds each under each ration. Th starter rations were fed upto 0-28 days of age while the finisher rations from 29-42 days of age. At the end of experiment three birds from each replicate were taken at random and slaughtered to find out the dressing percentage. The average weight gain of chicks fed on Rations A, B, and C (containing Gwadar fish neal) were 1879.2, 1770.65 and 1712.82 gms respectively. The maximum weight (1879.52 gms) was observed in ration A (containing 8 percent fish meal). The average weight gain of chicks fed on rations D, E and F (containing Sindh fish meal) were 1697.78, 1644.5 and 1677.9 gms respectively. The maximum weight gain (1697.78 gms) was observed in ration D (containing 8 percent fish meal). The average weight gain by chicks fed on two different sources of fish meals; i.e. Gwadar and Sindh were 1787.844 and 1673.411 gms respectively. Results revealed significant differences between the two sources and non-significant difference among the various levels of fish meals for weight gain data which showed that Gwadar fish meal was better as compared to Sindh fish meal and apparently 8 percent level was better than 11 and 14 percent levels of fish meals. The average feed consumption of chicks fed on rations A, B, and C (containing Gwadar fish meal) were 3560.1, 3540.16 and 3373.49 gms respectively. The maximum feed consumption (356b.1)was observed in ration A (containing 8 percent fish meal). The average feed consumption of chicks fed on rations D, E and F (containing Sindh fish meal) were 3535.6, 3374.3 and 3462.73 gms respectively. The maximum feed consumption (3535.56 gms) was observed in ration D (containing 8 percent fish meal). The average feed consumption by chicks fed on two different sources of fish meals i.e. Gwadar and Sindh were 1929.74 and 18&6.777 gms respectively. Feed consumption of chicks fed on rations containing two sources of fish meal were non-significant. On the other hand there was significant differences in feed consumption of chicks fed on rations containing various levels of fish meals. Apparently better feed consumption was observed in Gwadar fish meal as compared to Sindh fish meal. Statically non-significant difference was observed in the feed efficiency value for both different sources and various levels of fish meals. Apparently Gwadar fish meal had better feed efficiency than Sindh fish meal while in case of levels 8 percent had better feed efficiency as compared to 14 and 11 percent respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0501,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Different Antioxidants In Rice Polishing On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Aziz, M | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The oxidation of rice polishing and complete feed, can significantly decrease nutritional value. The end result is a loss in nutrient quality, impairmeI of health of birds, reduction in performance and increased production cost. The detrimental effects of oxidation can be minimized by adding antioxidants to rice polishing. Quality antioxidants interrupt the reaction and control subsequent losses in nutrient value. Antioxidant protect the quality of rice polishing and feed as formulated by the nutritionist to achieve maximum growth and feed efficiency. An investigation was undertaken to study the comparative value of various antioxidants to minimize (Peroxide value, free fatty acid number) the effect of oxidation in rice polishing on the performance of broiler chicks. Six experimental rations viz, A, B, C, D, E and F were prepared for the said purpose. Ration A served as negative control (Fresh rice polishing without antioxidant), Ration B served as positive control (Rancid rice polishing without antioxidant). Ration C (Feedox) 125 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration D Santoquin 500 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration E Oxistat 125 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration F Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) @ 500 gm/ton of rice polishing. One hundred and eighty, day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six groups having thirty birds in each group and which were further subdivided into three replicates comprising of ten birds in each. The body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. Pancreas weight, dressing percentage, mortality percentage and comparative study of antioxidants were determined at the end of experiment. However, the peroxide value of rice polishing at fresh, rancid and on weekly basis was analyzed. The experiment lasts for six weeks. The weight gain of the birds fed on various experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 5-6 weeks of age were 645.0, 538.33, 655.33,709.17,663.33 and 643.0 gms respectively. Significantly more weight gain (709.17gm) was observed in the birds fed on ration D containing santoquin. Overall total weight gain of birds fed on experimental rations A to F were 1628.8, 1343.7, 1484.2, 1608.8, 1508.1 and 1471.1 gms respectively. However, the results revealed non-significant differences among weight gain of birds. The results of feed consumption indicated that birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 3063.77, 3082.0, 3277.2, 3247.13, 3360.0 and 3223.33 gms respectively. However, apparently the birds fed on ration E containing Oxistat antixodant consumed more feed as compared to other rations. The data on feed efficiency showed that birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 5-6 weeks of age were 2.558, 2.756, 2.473, 2.334, 2.590 and 2.540 respectively. Significantly (P< 0.05) better feed utilization was observed in birds fed on ration D containing Santoquin as compared to chicks fed on ration E containing Oxistat and B containing rancid rice polishing, but there was no difference in the birds fed on ration E, A, F and C. However, the feed efficiency of birds from 0-6 weeks of age fed on experimental rations A to F were 1.969, 2.209, 2.122, 1.943, 2.133 and 2.191 respectively which revealed non-significant difference among the rations. Present results revealed that weight of pancreas of birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 2.692, 3.735, 3.064, 2.89, 3.232 and 2.839 gms respectively. Significantly more weight of pancreas was observed in the birds fed o ration B containing rancid rice polishing. However, non-significant difference were noticed in the birds fed on other experimental rations. The peroxide value in rice polishing at first and the end of 6th week of experiment of rations A, B, C, D, E and F 0.8, 61.2, 2.1, 1.4, 2.4 and 2.5, at 6th week 10.3, 80.7, 6.3, 3.3, 5.9 and 7.6 respectively. It was concluded that Santoquin was the best antioxidant in controlling the oxidation process in rice polishing as compared to other antioxidants, i.e., Oxistat, Feedox and BHT used in the present experiment. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. For further study various antioxidants with various levels and various sources of fat containing ingredients (rice polishing) at various levels of inclusion should be tested. 2. This type of study should be performed with fresh ingredients. 3. Different methods i.e. control of air, moisture, temp. Of storage period, light etc. should adopted to minimize the development of rancidity. 4. Storage duration of rice polishing should be at least six weeks. 5. Storage of feed should be at controlled environment. 6. Processing of rice polishing should be in such a way that lipase enzyme not become active. 7. Santoquin (Ethoxyquin) antoxidant proved to be best in controlling oxidation process in rice polishing i.e. peroxides formation than Feedox, Oxistat and BHT antioxidants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0524,T] (1).

14. Biological Availability Of Betafin For Methionine Sparing In Broiler Chickens

by Majid Rafique | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Athar | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Methionine is one of the dietary essential amino acid. In formulating poultry rations methionine is generally deficient and thus supplemented to fulfill the requirement. The level of melhioiiine, recommended by NRC for maximum growth and feed effIciency, estimated as 0.5% in starter and 0.42% finisher rations, respectively. in the body niethionine can also be synthesized from homocysteine through transmcthylation reaction. For methionine to be synthesized, methyl groups are required. Cholinels known as a methyl group donor in the body. But it has to be activated and converted to betaine before methyl groups are liberated. Betafin (Betain Anhydron), a commercial product is available, used to spare choline and methionine in poultry rations. The experiment was designed to evaluate biological availability of Belafin for methioiiine sparing in broiler chickens. For this purpose 250 day 01(1 chicks were taken, divided into five groups, i.e. (A, B, C, I) and E), then these were further subdivided into five replicates each. Five starter and finisher rations (A) Adequate methionine (B) low methionine LM (C) LM + choline (D) LM + Betafin 1:1 and (E) LM -I- I3etafin 1:2; formulated and fed to their respective groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days in two phases i.e. (Starter and Finisher). The parameter studied were (1) Feed intake (2) Weight gain (3) Feed conversion ration FCR (4) Mortality (5) Dressing percentage (6) Economics. Average feed intake per bird was 3942±63.08, 3609±44.75, 3439.21±28.28, 3763.36±58.04 and 3775.46±48.35 (P <0.05), weight gain 2127.59±23.59, 1732.78±4 1.32, 1720.00±34.96, 1911.02±47.16 and 1890.76±39.75 grams (P <0.05), FCR 1.84 ±0.0322, 2.08±0.032, 1.99±0.026, 1.99±0.024 and 1.99±0.025, (1'<0.05), Dressing percentages were observed non-significant (P>0.05), for groups i.e. (A, B, C, D and E) respectively. The adequate methionine (A) feed had higher price per unit, but had significantly higher weight gains and better feed efficiency. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0555,T] (1).

15. Effect Of Different Levels Of Formaldehyde And Heat Treatment On In Situ Degradation Of Different Vegetable

by Faran Hameed | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Mr. Shahid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Protein is one of the most expensive constituents of the ruminant's diet. Under many feeding regimes most of the dietary protein fed to ruminants undergoes extensive modification due to microbial activity in the rumen and the nitrogen used in the synthesis of microbial protein. Consequently, nitrogenous compound with low biological values are upgraded. Conversely a protein having a high availability and biological value in the non-ruminant may be altered in the rumen to lower availability and biological value, or both. (Peter et al. 1971). The rumen micro-organisms cannot synthesize enough protein to support high level of milk production in lactating cow. Good quality dietary proteins, therefore, should be protected from rumen degradation to improve its bypass value. Different methods have been used to overcome the degradation of protein in the rumen. Of which the two methods i.e. treatment of protein with "Heat" and "Aldehydes" are widely used. The present study was conducted to determine the bypass values of different vegetable protein meals for ruminants using nylon bag technique on fistulated male buffalo calf. The protein sources were subjected to heating through autoclaving and treated with formaldehyde at various levels. To evaluate their effects, the in situ protein degradation was determined. It was found that 24 hours incubation in the rumen was the optimum time for digestion of all vegetable protein meals. The data was subjected to statistical analysis only at 24 hours incubation time. Both autoclaving and formaldehyde had significant effect in protecting proteins from rumen degradation of all vegetable protein meals. Maximum bypass protein value i.e. 97.09 percent of maize gluten meal (60%) was achieved at 1 percent fonnaldehyde treatment as compared with control i.e. 66.82 percent. It was concluded that formaldehyde treatment at 0.5 percent level was better and economical for maximum protein protection of maize gluten meal (60%).The autoclaving treatment of maize gluten meal (60%) for 30 minutes may be considered to be optimum for protein protection. By comparing two treatments it was also concluded that formaldehyde treatment is more effective and economical as compared to autoclaving in case of maize gluten meal (60%). The bypass protein value of rapeseed meal was observed to be 19.62 percent. The maximum protein protection was observed i.e. 78.0 percent unit increase in bypass protein value at 1.5 percent formalin treatment and this level was found to be the best. Sixty minutes autoclaving of rapeseed meal could be considered the best. While comparing both treatments, formaldehyde treatment was found better than autoclaving. Maximum rumen undegradable protein (RUP) value of sunflower meal i.e. 79.25 percent was observed at 1.5 percent formalin treatment as compared to control i.e. 7.15 percent. It was recommended that formaldehyde treatment at 0.5 percent level was better and economical for achieving higher RUP value. It could be concluded that autoclaving treatment of sunflower meal for 45 minutes was effective and economical for protein protection. While formalin treatment was noted to be better than autoclaving. Maximum protected protein value of cottonseed meal was noted to be 50.59 percent at 1 percent formalin treatment as compared to untreated i.e. 20.60 percent. It may be advised that formalin treatment at 0.5 percent of cottonseed meal was optimum and economical to achieve maximum protected protein value. Autoclaving treatment for 60 minutes of cottonseed meal was the best in protecting protein from rumen degradation. It was evident that autoclaving treatment was better than formalin treatment in case of cottonseed meal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0562,T] (1).

16. Upgrdation Of Nutritional Value Of Deoiled Rice Polishing By Different Chemical Treatments For Its Use In Poultry

by Saeed Ahmed | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr. Shakil.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Two hundred and forty (240) day old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F. Each group comprised of 45 chicks except group A which was control and fed commercial ration comprised of 15 chicks with 3 replicates of 5 chicks each. Groups B, C, D, E and F were fed on raw, HC1, NaOH, 11202 and Kemzyme treated deoiled rice polishing, respectively. Each group was sub-divided into 3 sub-groups with 10%, 20% and 30% deoiled rice polishing. Each sub-group was comprised of 15 chicks 3 replicates of 5 chicks each. The present study was conducted to improve the nutritional value of the deoiled rice polishing by treating it with various chemicals such as HC1, NaOH, H202 and Kemzyme. One group was control i.e. without any treatment of deoiled rice polishing. Overall results showed that feed efficiency at 10% level was better with HC1 and H202 treatments of deoiled rice polishing. At level feed efficiency was better with HC1, NaOH, 11202 and Kemzyme treatments of deoiled rice polishing. At 30% level feed efficiency was better with 11202 and Kemzyme treatments. The findings of present study suggest that deoiled rice polishing can effectively be used in broiler diet at 20% level by treating it with 0.4N HC1. Whereas at 30% level the rations become uneconomical due to use of oil to compensate energy value. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0566,T] (1).

17. Effect Of Replacement Of Maize With The Varying Levels Of Stabilized Extruded Rice Polishing On The Performance Of Broilers

by Aqif Mukhtar, Syed | Prof.Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr.Anjum Khalique | Dr.Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: As the poultry industry flourished rapidly during the last thirty years, it has now become a major contributor in providing low cost protein of animal origin to our population. But unfortunately poultry industry is continuously suffering loses for the past few years mainly due the fact that the conventional feed stuffs are becoming costly day by day. The serious food shortage and increasing competition between human beings and poultry regarding the consumption of cereal grains demanded that cereals should be now spared for human consumption and exploration of non conventional feed sources should be carried out in order to keep the business of poultry industry running well. Rice polishing is a by-product of rice milling so it is abundantly available in Pakistan because rice is the third largest crop produced in the country. Rice polishing compares well with the cereal grains in chemical composition. So it contains more fat and protein as compared to maize but high in fiber contents. Due to high fat contents rancidity of Rice polishing can pose some problems if it is fed after prolonged storage, specially in hot weather. Extrusion cooking is a new technique which stabilizes the high fat diets and make them fit for use in the animal rations. For this reason full fat rice polishing was subjected to Extrusion Cooking which was done at National Feed Mill. Present Experiment was conducted to replace maize with extruded rice polishing and to see the effects on the performance of broiler chicks. Six starter and six finisher rations were prepared and designated as A, B, C, D, E and F . All rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Starter ration and finisher ration A. were kept as a control containing 35 % Maize and 0% extruded Rice polishing, which was replaced by extruded rice polishing in ration B, C, D, E and F. on protein equivalent basis at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35% level In this way a complete 100% replacement of maize with extruded Rice polishing was made One hundred and eighty day old chicks were randomly divided into eighteen experimental units of 10 chicks each. Each experimental unit was placed individually. The starter rations were fed up to 28th day of age while the Finisher rations from 29th to 42nd day of age. Results of the present study indicated that the weight gain up to 25% extruded rice polishing level was promisingly good. Maximum weight gain was recorded in Ration B (15% extruded rice polishing). Second best results were noted in the control ration but the performance of the chicks fed on 20% extruded rice polishing was almost equal to that of control ration. It was noted that the weight gain started to decrease gradually as the level was raised up to 35% of the total with each increasing increment. Best feed utilization was observed in the chicks fed on ration B, whereas poor utilization of feed was noted in higher levels of extruded rice polishing in the diet having more feed consumption compared to weight gain. Better performance up to 25% level indicated that Extrusion improved the nutritional quality of rice polishing by stabilizing it and inactivating Lipases. The extrusion also made starch more available for the birds and reduced the anti-nutritional elements of rice polishing. This is evident from the fact that the level of rice polishing effected the health of the chicks. It was therefore concluded from the present study that extrusion is an excellent technique for converting low quality feed stuffs into feeds with higher nutritional quality. Specially extrusion of low priced feed ingredients such as rice polishing and it replacement with a costly feed ingredient such as wheat or maize holds good economic prospects for feed millers. As extrusion is done on a very limited scale therefore after the present study it was strongly recommended that the use of extruded feed stuffs should be promoted in poultry ration Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0583,T] (1).

18. Effect Of Different Levels Of Milk And Early Weaning Diet On The Performance Of Buffalo Calves From Birth To 13 Weeks

by Sardar Alam, Maj | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. M. Aleem | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted to see the effect of different levels of whole milk and early weaning diet (calf starter) on the performance of buffalo calves from birth to 13 weeks of age. Twentyone healthy newly born female buffalo calves were randomly allotted to three different feeding regimes (A, B and C). In feeding regime 'A' whole milk was fed at the rate of 10% of live body weight up to sixth week of age. In 7th week the same quantity of milk was fed and then the quantity of whole milk was reduced every week at the rate of 1/6th of the 6th week allowance. The calves in this group were weaned at the age of 12 weeks. In feeding regime 'B' and 'C' whole milk was fed at the rate of 10% of live body weight up to 30 days then the quantity of milk was restricted to 3 litres per day in group B and 2 litres per day in group C upto the consumption of 800 gram of calf starter and to 1.5 litres per day in group B and 1 litres per day in group C till the consumption of 1.2 kg of calf starter. On the average calves of group A consumed a total of 259.44 litres of whole milk and weaned at 12 weeks of age. On the average the calves in group B and C consumed 214.15 and 167.77 litres of whole milk and were weaned at 72 and 74 days respectively. Calf starter, green fodder and wheat straw was provide ad libitum to compensate the reduced allowance of milk. Calves of group 'C' consumed the minimum quantity of whole milk and the maximum quantity of calf starter, gave satisfactory results. Thus the feeding of milk upto 90 days is not necessary if sufficient quantity of nutritionally balanced diet is provided in addition to limited quantity of whole milk. The average weight gains in the calves of group A, B and C were 48.78, 46.36, 43.71 Kg respectively. There was non-significant difference in the weight gain and general body condition. The cost of feeding for a unit ( Kg ) gain in group A, B and C was Rs.5 1.60, 48. and 42.54 respectively. The cost of feeding for a unit gain in group C was significantly (P<0.05) less than in group A and B. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0592,T] (1).

19. Effect Of Different Solvent Extraction Systems On Free Gossypol And Available Lysine Of Cottonseed Meal

by Ghulam Mustafa | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Mr. Shahid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Cottonseed not only provides fiber for domestic textile industry and export (Anonymous, 1996) but also accounts for about 60% vegetable oil (Anonymous,1990). It is also a source of protein- rich meal for poultry which is abundantly available in Pakistan. About 140 Kgs. of cottonseed meats of cotton variety "NIAB-78". were purchased from a solvent extraction plant "TransTech"(Pvt.) Ltd. Multan Road Pattoki. The meats were kept in sunlight for one day and were again cleaned. Then the cottonseed kernels were passed through hammer mill for grinding through 12 mesh size. The ground kernels were divided into five equal parts weighing 28 kgs each for individual treatment. Its inclusion level in poultry diet can be Increased by detoxifying the limiting factor with different solvents. Keeping in view the effect of mixed solvents in the extraction of oil rendering the free gossypol to its non-toxic level, five different solvents were used as a mixture. Maximum free gossypol was removed/detoxified thus enabling the lysine to be available to the birds. Each part was individually treated with respective solvents for the extraction of maximum oil so as to remove a lot of free gossypol. The rations formulated from these solvent extracted meals were biologically evaluated by feeding to the different groups of birds. At the same time free gossypol content and available lysine percentage of different meals were also determined. 180 day old broiler chicks were divided into 6 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E, and F. They were fed rations R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 respectively. Group "A" fed ration "Ri" was kept as control. The present study was designed to know the effects of solvent extraction systems on cottonseed meal and to know the effects of treated cottonseed meal (CSM) on feed consumption, weight gain, FCR, mortality and economics. The experiment was conducted upto 4 weeks of age. The data so obtained were helpful in determining gossy-pol content (free gossypol) and available lysine of solvent extracted meals. The residual free gossypol content of meal (0.01135%) was minimum in case of fourth treatment including hexane, ethanol, petrol and ferrous sulphate. Similarly maximum lysine (1.279%) was made available in last treatment including hexane, ethanol, petrol, iron sulphate and calcium hydroxide. It was easy and obvious to conclude from the present study that as the number of solvents increased in the treatment, efficient results of weight gain, feed consumption, FOR and economics were observed. Especially by using more solvents in the treatment, cost of feed was reduced as commercial hexane is more costly as compared to all of the other solvents used in the study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0624,T] (1).

20. Effect Of Replacing Dietary Levels Of Soybean Meal With Canola Meal In Japanese Quail

by Sajid Hameed | Prof.Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Javed Ahmad Qureshi | Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: Canola is the seed of "Brassica nayus or Brassica compestris species". The oil component of seed contain less than 2% erucic acid while solid component of seed contain less than 30jimol/grams of air dry oil free solid. The protein content in canola meal are 36% while energy is about 2000 Kcal/kg. The amino acid profile of canola meal is comparable with other vegetable proteins. The present study was conducted to study the effect of replacing soybean meal with canola meal in rations fed to Japanese quails. Two hundred and sixteen day old quail chicks were randomly divided into six groups of 36 quails each. Then each group was further sub-divided into three replicates of 12 quails each. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous rations A, B, C, 13, E and F containing 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of canola meal respectively were fed for 42 days. Weekly weight gain and daily feed consumption was recorded. Maximum weight gain (165 grams), feed efficiency (2.42), (2.47) and dressing percentage (68.6%) was observed in quail fed on ration A and C containing 0 and 15% canola meal respectively. Minimum weight gain (142 grams), poor feed efficiency (2.67 grams) and lowest dressing percentage (56.4 grams) were observed in chicks fed on ration F containing 30% canola meal. Moreover, weight of thyroid gland was not affected by the inclusion levels of canola meal in the diet. From present study it was concluded that canola meal could be successfully incorporated in quails rations upto 15% without any effect on the performance of quails. The study also indicated that rations containing canola meal were comparatively cheaper and cost per kg of live weight was decreased and net profit per quail was increased. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0647,T] (1).

21. Comparative Effect Of Raw & Stabilized Rice Polising On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Dawood Ahmad | Dr . Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr . Muhammad | Dr . Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Owing to cheap and abundant availability of rice polishing in Pakistan, researchers are attempting to enhance its inclusion level in poultry ratio. It also compares well with cereal grains in chemical composition. But the prevalence of rancidity due to high fat and other toxic factors limiting its use in poultry. Hence rice polishing was subjected to extrusion cooking for stabilizing the fat and improving its quality. The extrusion cooking of rice polishing was done at National Feed Mill, Sheikhupura. Present experiment was conducted to observe the comparative effect of Raw and stabilized rice polishing on the performance of broiler chicks. Seven experimental rations (Starter and Finisher) were prepared designated as A, B, C, D, E, F and 0. All rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Starter and Finisher ration "A" was kept as control containing no rice polishing. In rations B, C, and D raw rice polishing was used at levels 20, 25 and 30% respectively while in rations E, F and 0 stabilized rice polishing was used at the same levels. Starter rations were fed for 28 days and finisher ration from 29 days to 42 days. Two hundred and ten (210), one day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 7-groups having thirty chicks in each groups and which were further sub-divided into three replicates comprising ten chicks in each. Results of present study indicated that maximum weight gain was observed in birds fed on ration "E" whereas second best was observed in chicks fed on ration "B". The birds fad on rations E, F and 0 (extruded rice polishing) gained better weight than those fed on rations B, C and D (raw rice polishing) at same levels and of control ration. Best feed utilization per unit gain was observed in chicks fed on ration "E" and it began to decline as level of rice polishing (raw and extruded) raised to 30%. Overall feed efficiency of birds fed on rations containing (extruded rice polishing) was better than those fed on ration containing raw rice polishing and at the same levels. During the whole experimental period, 4% mortality was observed In birds fed on different rations. This was due to heat stress .e. due to high ambient temperature (June, July months). The average dressing percentage was 55.20, 56.00, 54.5, 54.40, 54.77, 56.07 and 54.34 respectively. A non-significant difference was observed regarding dressing percentage. The average pancrease weight also showed a non-significant difference among treatments. However, a slight increase in pancrease weight was observed in birds fed on rations containing raw rice polishing. This might be due to secretion of bile (Lipase Enzyme). With respect of cost per kg live weight gain, the rations containing extruded rice polishing were observed slightly economical as compared to ration containing raw rice polishing. RECOMMENDATIONS As extrusion processing holds great promise as a mean to improve efficiency of nutrient utilization, it is therefore recommended that the use of extruded feedstuff, especially for non-traditional, feed ingredients should be promoted in poultry ration. The level of extruded rice polishing can be raised safely upto 25%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0668,T] (1).

22. Effects Of Different Commercially Available Antifungal Compounds On Feed Quality & Broiler Performance

by Abdul Hamid | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr . Masood | Dr . Nisar Ahmad Mian.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the effects of different commercially available antifungal compounds on feed quality and broiler performance. Six experimental rations i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F were prepared for this trial. Ration A was positive control (containing no antifungal compounds), ration B (containing 0.5 kg Mycostat / ton), ration C (containing 0.5 kg Mycocurb\ ton), ration D (containing 15% moisture without any antifungal compounds), ration E (containing 1 .0 kg Mycostat / ton with 1 5% moisture) and ration F (containing 1 .0 kg Mycocurh/ ton with 15% moisture). These experimental rations were stored for one month. During storage period the representative feed samples were collected from all the rations and were analysed for mould growth and aflatoxins level. A total of 240 day-old-broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups having 40 birds in each group and which were further subdivided into 4 replicates comprising of 10 birds in each. The body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each two weeks. Mortality percentage and comparative economic study of antifungal compounds were determined at the end of experiment. The experiment was completed in six weeks. The results of feed consumption indicated that birds led on different cxperimen(af rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 3173, 3230, 3215, 2310, 1972 and 2243 gnis respectively. However, apparently the birds fed on ration B containing Mycostat consumed more Iced as compared to other groups. The weight gain of the birds fed on various experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 1710, 1770, 1 760, 965, 845 and 980 gms respectively. However, apparently more weight gain was observed in the birds fed on ration B containing Mycostat. The data on feed efficiency indicated that birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 1.855, 1.82, 1.83, 2.392, 2.34 and 2.283, respectively. However, better feed utilization was observed in birds fed on ration B containing Mycostat as compared to chicks fed on other rations. The feed mould count values for groups D, E and F were 4.0 10E4, 1.1 10E4 and 1.0 10E4 respectively, and the Aflatoxins levels for groups D, E and F were (G1<0.1, G2<0.1, B1-33.5 B2-2.4), (GI<0.l, G2<O.1, B1-26.5, B2-1.9) and (G1<0.1, G2<0.l, B1-35.5, B2-2.5) respectively. It is concluded that Mycostat is comparatively better antifungal compound commercially available as compared to Mycocurb in terms of improving the performance of the broiler birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0676,T] (1).

23. Study On The Comparative Efficacy Of Phenothiazine, Levamisole And Ivermetin Against Gastro Intestinal Nematodes In Horses

by Ashfaq Ullah Hashmi | Dr . Nisar Ahmad | Dr . Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The study was undertaken to find out the comparative efficacy of Phenothiazine, levamisole and Ivermectin against GIT nematodes in horses at Lahore. For the purpose one hundred horses irrespective 'of age, breed and sex were exam for the presence of various species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in horses. The coprological examination showed a positive percentage of 64% while 36 cases (36%) were found to be negative. The positive cases had mixed infestation of large and small strongyIids, Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi species. Forty naturally infested horses divided in four groups (A, B, C and D), were selected for the drug trial. The drugs used were Phenothiazine @ 55 mg/kg body weight, levamisole @ 7.5 mg/kg body weight (1 mI/2 kg b.w) Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight to the groups A, B, C and D, while the animals of group D acted as non-medicated control. The mean EPG count was carried out pre-medication and post medication of the said anthelmintics. Based upon EPG count, conducted on 3rd, 7th and 14th day for each anthelmintic; it was revealed that the mean EPG count of group A (Phenothiazine) showed 62.99, 82.67 and 95.27% reduction in ova output while the animals of group D (medicated with levamisole exhibited 53, 82 and 93% reduction in the said equines). The group C (medicated with Ivermectin showed reduction ofEPG as 79.83,95.16 and 100% on 3rd, 7th and 14th day post medication). From the results of this study it is concluded that Ivermectin was the most effective as compared to Phenothiazine and levamisole. Therefore, it is stressed that Ivermectin should be used in equines for the effective control of gastro intestinal nematodes. The drug is quite safe and without any adverse effects on these animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0682,T] (1).

24. Effect Of Different Levels Of Lysine In Vegetable Protein Based Rations On The Performance Of Japanese Qualils

by Khalid Siddique | Dr . Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr . Muhammad | Dr . Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Besides the protein levels, amino acid profile is considered to be more important at the time of ration formulation. The plant protein sources have been proved to be better source of protein because there is no danger of adulteration and also they have appropriate prices but at the same time most of the cereal are deficient in essential amino acids including lysine, methionine, therionine and tryptophane. under practical conditions these limitations may be rectified by judicious use of suitable protein rich ingredients and pure amino acids supplementation. The present study was planed to check the effect of different levels of lysine in vegetable protein based diets on the performance of Japanese quails (courtnix courtnix Japonica). Three hundred quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups of 60 quails each and each group was further subdivided into 20 quails each. five experimental rations A, B, C, D, and E having lysine levels 1.10%, 1.20%, 1.30%, 1.40% and 1.50% were prepared. The average total weight gain of chicks fed on rations A, B, C, D and E was 154.53, 148.13, 148.37, 145.73 and 139.86 gms respectively. The chicks fed on ration A having lysine level 1.10% gained more weight than all the other groups. The total feed consumption per chick on experimental rations A, B, C, D and E was 486.23, 503.66, 519.33, 521.00 and 502.60 gms respectively. The total feed consumed by chicks fed on ration D with lysine leveLi.40%was highest. When the data was subjected to statistical analysis, a non-significant difference was observed among the chicks fed on various experimental rations. The average commutative FCR of groups A, B, C, D and E was 3.26, 3.38, 3.40, 3.44 and 3.48 respectively. Best FCR was observed in chicks fed on ration A with lysine level 1.10%. The difference in FCR of ration A was also found to be more significant than all the other groups. The average values of dressing percentage of birds fed on rations A, B, C, D and E was 69.03, 69.65, 69.71, 68.29 and 68.61 gms respectively. The dressing percentage of chicks fed on ration C with lysine level 1.30% was best to all the other rations. Non- significant difference was observed in dressing percentage on five levels of lysine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0692,T] (1).

25. Effect Of Phytase On The Low Phosphorus Layer Diets Based On Canola Meal

by Shahid Nadeem, M | Dr . Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr . Muhammad | Dr . Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to asertain the effect of Phytase on the low phosphorus layer diets based on .Canola meal and egg production, egg weights, egg specific gravity, eggshell weights, eggshell thickness, feed consumption, feed efficiency, body weight gain, cost per dozen eggs and mortality were recorded. Phytase enzyme is primarily responsible for the better conversion of minerals i.e. phosphorus, calcium and zinc. Phyase in tern generally results in the reduction of nutrients excreted with the faeces. It is now known to cause the release of phosphorus from phytic acid by catalysing a series of hydrolysis reactions. Phytate has been recognized as a nutrient because it contains phosphorus. It is also considered as anti-nutritional factor, which binds certain essential metals and reduces their availability for absorption from the diet and re-absorption after their secretion in digestive juices by forming insoluble compounds in the intestine. Phytase can hydrolyse the phytic acid present in canola meal. Canola meal is widely accepted and used ingredient in poultry and is a by-product of oil industry, available after extraction of oil from the seeds by solvent extraction. Thirty weeks old 162 layers of Babcock 13300 strain were housed in cages (two birds in a cage). Birds were dived into 6 groups and offered different experimental rations having different levels of phosphorus i.e. 0.40%, 0.35%, 0.3%, 0.25%, 0.2% and 0.15% and then further each group was subdivided into 3 replicates having 9 birds in each replicate. Each replicate was reared as an experimental unit. Phytase level was used as 400 FTU/kg of feed in each group having decreasing levels of phosphorus except control group (A). Seven days preliminary period was observed to remove the effects of previous diets. All the inanagemenial conditions like Feeding, watering, lighting, ventilation and temperature were provided according to requirements of strain. The results of the study revealed that there was nonsignificant difference in egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell weights and eggshell thickness. There was a significant difference in egg production, feed efficiency, body weight gain and Feed consumption. For comparison of means of significant differed parameters, leist significant difference (LSD) test was applied. It was further revealed that there was non-significant difference between groups A (control with 0.4% Avl.P), B (with 0.3 5% Avl.P), C (with 0.3% Avl.P) in egg production and feed consumption and there was also improvement in feed efficiency and body weight gain. Economics analysis of different diets showed that phytase may be used in feeding of layers for getting eggs at low price. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0706,T] (1).

26. Study Of Combined Effect Of Probiotic And Antibiotic As A Feed Additive On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Major Akhtar, M | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Jaweed Ahmad Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Fermacto and Flavomycin-80 singly and in combination on the performance of broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty day-old broiler chicks were purchased from Big Bird Hatchary and randomly divided into 4 groups designated as A, B, C and D consisting of 60 birds each. Each group was further sub-divided into 6 replicates of 10 chicks each. Group A was kept as control, group B was fed on ration containing Fermacto at the rate of 2kg/ton feed, group C was given Flavomycin80 at the rate of 0.113 kg/ton of feed whereas group D was given combination of Fermacto and Flavomycin-80 at the same levels. The parameters studied were growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and mortality. Weekly feed intake and body weight gain were recorded. At the end of the experiment 10 birds from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered to determine the dressing percentage. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the difference between the means was revealed by using least significant different (LSD) test. It was concluded that the supplementation of Fermacto, Flavomycin-80 and their combination gave significant (P <0.05) improvement in the broiler chicks in terms of weight gain and feed efficiency. However, single use of Fermacto was the most economical as compared to the remaining two treatments. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0709,T] (1).

27. Effects Of Phytase On The Performance Of Broilers Fed On Sorghum Based Diets

by Manzoor Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Mr. Anjum Khalique | Mr. Athar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: In Pakistan, sorghum (jawar) occupies 4th place with a production of 218.6 thousand tons (Economic survey of Pakistan 2000-200 1) after wheat, maize and rice. Its use is limited in poultry feed because it contains antinutritional factor i.e. tannin, phytic acid (68% of Total phosphorus). The low tannin sorghum varieties can replace maize up to 50%, and sorghum high in tannin can replace maize up to 25% in poultry diet. While considering different nutrients for broiler feed formulation minerals are also very important. Among minerals phosphorus plays an important role for poultry production. Balancing the phosphorus in compound feed is difficult task because less than one third of the phosphorus in the feedstuffs of plant origin is biologically available to monogastric animals (NRC, 1994). The organic phosphorus exists in the bran of grain, consisting mainly of phytic phosphorus, Phytase is an enzyme that liberates P from vegetable materials, destroys the antinutritional properties of phytate. Phytase was one of the first enzyme to be described in the literature. As early as 1907 the release of phosphorus from an organic phosphorus containing substrate was described by Suzuki and others (Maga 1982). The enzyme "phytase" is now known to cause the release of phosphate from phytic acid by catalyzing a series of hydrolysis reactions. Keeping in view the above facts an experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytase on the performance of broiler fed on sorghum- based diets. Two hundred broiler chicks were purchased from Big Bird Poultry Breeders and divided in to five groups. These groups were further subdivided in four replicates, having ten chicks in each. The chicks were kept in starter batteries for the first four weeks and then shifted to grower batteries till the end of experiment (six week). Five starter and five finisher rations (sorghum based) A, B, C, D, and E were prepared. "A" was control having 0.45 and 0.35% AP in starter and finisher rations respectively. While B, C, D and E supplemented with phytase enzyme (600 FTU/kg of feed) having 0.40, 0.35, 0.30 and 0.25% AP in starter and 0.30, 0.25, 0.20 and 0.15% AP in finisher rations respectively. Light, feed and fresh clean water was provided round the clock. The parameters studied were weight gain, feed consumed, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, mortality, phosphorus availability and economic. The data thus collected was subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that the weight gain of chicks fed on rations B and C were comparable to ration A (control). The chicks fed on rations D & E significantly (P<O.05) showed poor perfonnance as compared to those fed on rations A, B and C. Significantly (P<O.05) more feed was consumed by chicks fed on ration B as compared to those fed on D and E. However, nonsignificant difference was observed between feed consumption of chicks fed on rations A, B and C. Non-significant differences were observed in feed conversion ratio of chicks fed on different experimental rations (Starter & Finisher). However, the feed conversion ratio of chicks fed on ration "C" was comparable to the chicks fed on ration "A"(Control). The dressing percentage of the chicks showed improvement with supplementation of phytase enzyme but the difference were non-significant between chicks fed on different experimental rations. Phytase supplementation significantly (P<O.05) improved the availability of P in chicks fed on rations B, C, D, & E as compare to those fed on ration A (control). The total cost incurred on one kg live weight for chicks fed on rations A, B, C, D and E were Rs. 31.98, 30.58, 31.86, 33.18 and 33.76, respectively. While net profits per one-kg live weights were Rs. 16.02, 17.41, 16.14, 14.82 and 14.24 respectively. Maximum profit was observed in birds fed on ration "B" supplemented with phytase enzyme. Overall it was found that by using phytase enzyme in broiler ration more profit could be earned. RECOMMENDATION 1. By the use of phytase in poultry feed phosphorus availability could be increased. 2. Use of phytase enzyme is economical. 3. By the use of phytase enzyme 0.1% available phosphorus can be decreased in the broiler ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0741,T] (1).

28. Influence Of Varying Levels Of Protein & Energy On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Shafiq-ur-Rehman | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Ehtisham | Dr. Jawad Ahmad Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A study was undertaken to investigate the influence of varying levels of protein and energy on the performance of broiler chicks. The performance of chicks were studied under the heading of weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, organs weight, abdominal fat and economics. Nine experimental rations containing metabolizable energy 2600, 2900 and 3200 Kcal ME/kg with 18, 20 and 22% crude protein were tried on two hundred and seventy day old broiler chicks of both sexes for the period of 50 days. The results showed that the ration containing 20% C.P. and 2600 KCa1 ME/kg were best in promoting weight gain, feed utilization and were economical as compared to other experimental rations. Different energy-protein levels did not influenced the dressing percentage and organs weight, but the diet containing high energy resulted siginificantly more deposition of the abdominal fat. It was concluded that low energy and high protein combination in poultry feed formulation improved the growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio and could be economical as compared to the high energy and high protein ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0749,T] (1).

29. Effect Of Enzyme (Kemzyme Hf) Supplementation Of Sunflower Meal On The Performance Of Japanese Quails

by Hammad-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The quail has gamed an important place in the poultry farming due to its better growth rate, less space requirement that is 8 or 10 quails occupy the same space on which a broiler can be reared. They mature at an early age and the female birds are usually in full production by about 50 days of age, moreover quail meat has more protein than chicken meat. Its meat is very tasty and tender. It is fortified with nutrients required for human health and has a very low percentage of cholesterol More over quail meat has comparatively more protein percentage as compared to chicken meat and is a good source of certain B. vitamins. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil meal is a by-product obtained after the extraction of oil from the decorticated sunflower seed. Being good source of vegetable protein (34% CP) the sunflower meal can be developed as a good vegetable protein supplement for different poultry rations. Sunflower meal is cheaper than soybean meal. It possesses high fiber content and chiorogenic acid an anti-nutritional factor, which can be reduce with the inclusion of enzymes. Kemzyme is stabilized multi-enzyme product from Kemin Europa NV, Belgium. It contains alpha - amylase beta - glucanase, lipase, protease, cellulase and hemicellulase complex including pentosanase, xylanase, pectinase and cellubiase. The enzyme mixture is claimed to break down the non-starch polysacchardies (NSP), reduces the viscosity of gut content and improves the utilization of feed nutrients,mainly cellulase and hemicellulase complex of Kemzyme by degrading high amounts of crude fiber in the sunflower meal. The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation on the nutritive value of diets containing different levels of sunflower meal on the performance of Japanese quails. Two hundred and seventy (270) day old quail chicks of mixed sexes were purchased from local hatchery and randomly divided into six groups of 45 quails each. Then each group was further subdivided into three replicates of 15 quails each and were kept in battery cages. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous rations were prepared using three levels of sunflower meal viz., 5, 10, 15% without enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation designated as A, B & C and with enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation (500 g/ton) designated as D, E & F. The data on the weekly feed consumption and body weight recorded during the experiment. The total weight gain and feed consumption were used to calculate feed conversion ration and economics. At the end of the experiment three birds from each replicate were slaughtered to determine the dressing percentage. Proximate analysis of experimental rations were done according to AOAC (1984). The data collected was analyzed by applying analysis of variance technique using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test to detect the difference among the treatments and means, were compared by using least significant difference test. The results showed that the maximum weight gain (190 gm) feed consumption (515 gm), feed conversion efficiency (2.71) and dressing percentage (69%) were observed in the quails fed on ration E, containing 10% sunflower meal with enzyme supplementation. While the minimum weight gain (125 gm), lowest feed consumption (427 gm) poor feed conversion efficiency (3.41) and lowest dressing percentage (60%) were observed by the chicks fed on ration C containing 15% sunflower meal without enzyme supplementation. Economics of different experimental rations fed to birds with and without enzyme supplementation revealed that enzyme supplementation sunflower meal based diets increased the profit margin by the reduction in feed cost per unit gain. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the results of present study the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The optimum inclusion level of sunflower meal, without dietary modification in quail rations may be below 10 percent. 2. Enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation can improve the weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage and was the economical. 3. Enzyme (Kernzyme HF) supplementation of quail diets can only be feasible when sunflower meal used at 10 percent level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0763,T] (1).

30. Nutritive Value Of Sunflower Meal For Poultry Feeding As Effected By Heat Treatment

by Zia Karim, M | Dr. Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr. Ehtisham | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the effect of heat treatment and lysIne supplementation on the nutritive value of sunflower meal (SFM) , through biological trial, on the broiler chicks. It also included the estimation of lysIne contents of sunflower meal processed at different temperatures. Two research experiments were conducted on day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the nutritive value of sunflower meal processed at different temperatures and subsequently supplemented with lysine. In the first experiment SFM was subjected to various heat treatments at 90°, 10.0°,110°, and 120° for 30 minutes. The results indicated an improvement in growth rate of the chicks fed ration H containing SFM processed at 90°C, while the chicks fed ration III to V containing SFM processed at 1000,1100 and 120°C showed a proportionate depression in weight gain, which might be due to the damage or unavailability of heat labile essential amino acid lysine. There was a non-significant difference in the feed consumption of chicks fed different experimental rations. The chicks fed ration II containing heat treated SFM at 90°C showed the best cumulative feed efficiency as the processing temperature of SFM was increased. The carcase weight of trie chicks fed different experimental rations showed almost the same trend as observed in "weight gain. However, a non-significant difference was observed in the dressing percentage and weight of internal organs of the chicks. In the second experiment, chicks fed ration I containing SFM processed at 90°C showed the maximum weight gain while chicks fed rations II, IV and VI containing SFM processed at 100°, 1100 and 120°C showed a proportionate depression in the weight gain as well as feed efficiency. It might be attributed to the damage or unavailability of heat labile essential amino acid lysine. The depression in weight gain and feed efficiency of the chicks due to feeding of heat processed SFM was alleviated when fed rations II, V and VII, containing SFM processed at 1000,1100 and 120°C and supplemented accordingly with the synthetic lysine. The carcase weight of the chicks showed almost the same trend as observed in the weight gain. However, dressing percentage and weight of Internal organs of the chicks showed a non-significant difference. The lysine estimation of sunflower meal processed at 90°, 100°, 110° and 120°C revealed that the lysine content was proportionately decreased by 10,10.9,12.15 and 14.55 percent respectively. The results were substantiated through the biological trail of feeding heat processed sunflower meal to the broiler chicks, which showed that the weight gain and fee efficiency of the chicks were significantly improved when the heat processed SFM was supplemented with the corresponding amounts of synthetic lysine. CONCLUSION Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of heat treatment at 900, 100°, 110° and 1200 and lysine supplementation of heat processed sunflower meal (SFN) on the growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of internal organs of the chicks. The weight gain and feed efficiency were proportionately reduced when processing temperature was increased from 100°C onwards. The lysine supplementation improved the depressions significantly as was reflected in better weight gain and feed efficiency of the chicks. It indicated that heat processing made the lysine unavailable, which was confirmed through the analysis of lysine content of SFM. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0765,T] (1).

31. Effect Of Suplementation Of Different Levels Of Vitamins On The Production Performance Of Broilers

by Mateen Ahmad | Mr. Anjum Khalique | Dr. Muhamad | prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Vitamin means vital amines. They are organic regulators of metabolism that are required in the daily diet of bird for normal growth and maintenance of the body. They are mediators of synthetic and degenerative processes and exercise catalytic functions in the body because many of them function as co-enzymes. The present study was conducted in 200 day-old Hubbard broiler chicks to knew the effect of supplementation of different levels of vitamins in broiler starter and broiler finisher ration. The supplemented ration tested were ration A (NRC), ration B (NRC+l0%) ration C (NRC+20%), and ration D (NRC+30%). The experiment had a completely randomized design. The chicks were randomly divided into 4 major groups comprising 50 chicks each. Each major group was further sub-divided into 5 replicates containing 10 chicks each. The supplemental rations were prepared according to NRC (Nutrient Requirement of domestic animals, 1994) requirement and with the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% vitamin. The four treatments were allotted to different groups of birds at random. The chicks were housed in a room compartment provided with battery cages-Experimental room temperature was 95F(35C) in the first week and then it was reduced SF each week. The birds were offered experimental rations and fresh clean water at ad libitum. The overall results showed that weight gain, FCR, weight gain per unit protein intake, liver and gizzard showed significant difference among the treatments. However feed consumption, protein intake and heart weight showed non-significant difference. The incidence of deficiency diseases was observed to be 8, 2, 0 and 0 percent fed on ration A, B, C and D respectively. However there was no mortality in any group. Net profit gain was higher for ration "D". These results might be on account that supplementation improved the digestibility of dietary organic matter, protein fed and nitrogen free extract, thereby resulting in better utilization of these nutrients that ended to better performance. So in conclusion dietary vitamin inadequacy suppressed broiler performance and impaired the cellular mediated immunity. The recommendations for vitamin requirements and vitamins supplementation practices vary considerably throughout the world. So the updates of vitamin requirements extensively used in NRC journals are not always based on recent experiments. There is therefore a danger, that requirements stated for some vitamins might not reflect the need of modern poultry. CONCLUSION 1. Experimental diet consistently showed better performance so vitamins in control diet are not optimal. 2. Normal needs of the birds and the recommended levels of the vitamins vary considerably. 3. The Official recommendations of the NRC cover only the lowerst possible needs so we will have to add substantional safety margins in the ration. 4. Improved performance in this experiment enable us to consider that further research is required to discover more efficient modalities of vitamin supplementation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0772,T] (1).

32. Prevalence Of Toxocariasis In Dogs And Its Treatment With Nigella Sativa Saussurea Lappa And Ivermectin

by Adnan Mushtaq | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0773,T] (1).

33. The Chick Growth Inhibition Of Soybean Meal (Sbm) As Affected By Autoclaving Under Varying Conditions

by Hafiz Anwar Ahmad | Dr Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr Nisar Ahmad | Dr Tufail Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Soybean meal (SBM) is the by-product left after extraction of oil from the seeds either by solvent extracton or mechanical expeller. After animal protein sources, SBM is the best vegetable protein supplement for feeding of poultry. It is now commercially available in the country, but its use in different poultry feeds is limited due to its growth inhibitory factor(s). The present study was planned to find, out suitable methods of heat treatments to reduce/remove the growth inhibitory factor(s) present in indigenous SBM. Effect of different levels of supplementation of methionine, the limiting amino acid was also studied. Two experiments were conducted using day old 'Hubbard" broiler chicks as experimental birds. In the first experiment effect of different levels of moisture and autociaving time on the nutritional value of SBM was studied. Growth rate, feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization of the chicks were recorded. Effect of the heat-treatments of SBM on the dressing percentage and internal organs of the chicks was also studied. Heat treatments of SBM involving different levels of moisture andautocalving time significantly (P< 0.01) improved its nutritional value as was reflected by better growth rate of the chicks. The improved quality of the treated SBM was sub stantiated by the reduced urease activity of the meal. Both moisture and autoclaving had linear effect in improving the nutritional value of SBM. Higher moisture levels with lower heating time was equally effective as lower moisture level with higher heating time in improving the nutritional value of SBM. The chicks fed rations containing SBM with 10 percent moisture and autoclaved for 45 minutes or 20 percent moisture and autoclaved for 30 minutes showed the best growth rate of the chicks; fed ration containing raw SBM might be due to the presence of growth inhibitory factor(s) which was partially/completely removed by heat treatment of the meal. The second experiment was designed to study the effect of supplementation of different levels of methionine, on the nutritive value of heat treated soybean cake (SBC). For the purpose, methionine was supplemented at 0.05, 0. 15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 percent of the rations containing heat treated SBC as the sole source of protein. Methionine supplementation of heat treated SBC significantly (P <0.01) improved the growth rate and feed efficiency of the chicks as compared to the control ration, without methionine supplementation. Best weight gain and feed efficiency was found in the chicks fed ration containing 0. 35 percent methionine supplementation. This indicated that methionine was the most limiting amino acid in SBC and 0. 35 percent supplementation of methionine was enough to compensate the deficiency of the amino acid. CONCLUSION i) Results of the experiments indicated a significant chick growth depression along with poor utilization of feed by chicks fed ration containing raw SBM. ii) Heat treatment involving additional moisture and autoclaving significantly improved the nutritive value of SBM, as indicated by better growth rate and feed utilization of the chicks. Lower moisture level (10% along with higher autoclaving time (45 minutes) was equally effective as the higher moisture (20%) along with lower autoclaving time (30 minutes) in improving the nutritive value of raw SBM. The improvement in the nutritive value of heat treated SBM was substantiated by the reduced urease activity of the meal. iii) Methionine supplementation of heat treated SBC further significantly improved its nutritive value. The best level of methionine supplementation was 0. 35% of the ration containing heat treated SBC as the sole source of protein. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0843,T] (1).

34. Effect Of Different Dietary Energy & Perfomance Of Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Azam Chaudhri | Dr Nisar Ahmad | Dr Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Mr Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: A research project was undertaken to study the effect of different dietary energy and protein ratios on the performance of broiler chicks. The performance of chicks were studied under the headings of weight gain, feed efficiency, feed consumption, dressing percentage and economics. Four starter rations containing calorie protein ratios of 167, 149, 136 and 123 and four finisher rations containing calorie protein ratios of 199, 178, 159 and 145 were tried on one hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks of both sexes for a period of 50 days. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 22 days the finisher rations were fed. The results showed that the starter rations containing calorie protein ratios of 136 and finisher ration containing calorie protein ratio of 159 were best in promoting weight gain, feed utilization and were economical as compared to other calories protein ratios. Different calorie protein ratios did not influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks. It was concluded that careful combinations of energy and protein in poultry feed formulations Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0886,T] (1).

35. Effect Of Group Size On Growth Performncl Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves During Winter Months

by Rafiuddin | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Falak Sher Khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The study was performed to investigate the effect of group size on growth performance of Nih Ravi buffalo calves during winter months. For this purpose, 39 weaned calves were reared in different group sizes. Group A having single calf, group B having four number of calves, and group C having eight number of calves, with three replicates in each group .Space was provided 16 square feet per calf, while manger length 18 inch per animal for a period of 12 weeks (24 November2006 to 15 February2007). During this period it was observed that ambient temperature ranged from 14°C to 17°C and relative humidity (RH) 59 to 64 %. Green fodder was offered adlibitum and concentrate @ 1% of body weight. During the experimental period, the following parameters were recorded i.e., daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, weekly feed efficiency, daily water consumption ,rumination, fortnightly body measurement, rectal temperature twice daily, respiration at morning, incidence of diarrhea and respiratory illness. The data indicated that calves in group C showed significantly (P<0.05) more weight gain, increased feed intake increased body measurement and the higher percentage of respiratory illness when compared with all other groups .Where as no difference in water consumption, daily rectal temperature, respiration, feed efficiency, rumination and diarrhea between the groups A, B and C was observed. This study clearly indicated that the overall performance of group C, having eight numbers of calves is better than that of others A, having single calf and B, having four numbers of calves. The calves assessed in term of increased time spend in eating of fodder / concentrates with increased dry matter consumption, full social interaction and greater access to space in group housing reflects better welfare as compared to that in individual housing and calves kept in groups of more than four calves preferable from health and growth perspective. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0971,T] (1).

36. Studies On The Use Of Cowpea As A Vegetable Protein Supplement On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Zahid | Dr. Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Ehtisham.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to find out nutritive value of cowpea (Vina sinensis) and to develop certain treatments to improve the nutritive value of cowpea. For this purpose two experiments were conducted on broiler chicks "Hubbard". In the first experiment, different levels of raw cowpea were fed to the chicks for L weeks, while in the second experiment cowpea were given with different treatments i.e. soaking, autoclaving, oil and methionine supplementation were included in the poultry ration for 6 weeks. During both experiments effect on growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of internal organs were studied. Feeding different levels of raw cowpea in ration during first experiment showed a linear decrease in weight gain and feed utilization efficiency with increasing level of raw cowpea. The decrease in dressing percentage was highly significant (P/ 0.01) when raw cowpea level was 66 per cent. It was also observed that feeding of raw cowpea significantly (PL 0.01) increased the weight of pancreas of the chicks. The same was the case with gizzard weight. The poor chick performance (weight gain and feed utilization efficiency) on account of feeding higher levels of raw cowpea might be attributed due to the higher contents of enzyme inhibitor(s), low digest- ability and deficiency of sulfur containing amino acids. To investigate these possible limiting factors, second experiment was conducted. For this purpose soaked (1:1 moisture treatment) and autoclaved (15 psi for 30 mm.) cowpea were incorporated at 51 % level in the ration, while the methionine was supplemented at the level of 0.14/-f per cent and oil at the level of 6.7 per cent. Autoclaving improved weight gain of the chicks during first 4 weeks period, however, methionine supplementation improved the weight gain after 4 weeks (total period is 6 weeks). The feed utilization efficiency was improved through autoclaving, methionine supplementation and oil supplementation in the descending order. Soaking did not improve the nutritive value of cowpea with respect to weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage. The pancreas weight did not increase when autoclaved cowpea were fed as compared to ration I (corn soya ration). However, soaking increased the gizzard weight significantly (PC0.01) CONCLUS ION The results of experiments indicated a linear depression in growth rate and feed efficiency with increasing level of raw cowpea in the rations. The weights of internal organs i.e. gizzard and pancreas were increased with increasing level of raw cowpea. Autoclaving of cowpea improved its nutritive value in terms of weight gain and feed efficiency. Methionine supplementation did improve the weight gain and feed conversion ratio to a significant level. However soaking had adverse effects with respect to pancreas and gizzard weight and no effect regarding weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1119,T] (1).

37. The Effect Of Feeding Different Vegatbale Protein Supplements As The Cause Or A Predisposing Factor Of Hydropericardium

by Muhammad Shoib Noor | Dr. Mohammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr. Ehtesham | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Since last two years broiler industry in Pakistan is facing a devastating disease named "Hydropericardium Sncirome". The disease causes 30 to 7 mortality. Many possible causes of this disease like Ascites, Oedema, Round heart disease, Fat toxicity, Excess of Sodium and also in Bacterial and Viral infections have been reported, in which nutritional cause is one of these. The present work has been conducted to study the effect of different indigenous vegetable protein supplements as the causitive or predisposing factor for "Hydropericardium" in broiler chicks. Two experiments were conducted and five experimental rations were prepared containing different indigenous vegetable protein supplements (Corn gluten meal, Rice polishing, Rape seed meal, Cotton seed meal and Sunflower meal) as a major source of protein and were fed to both the experimental chicks throughout the experimental period. In both the experiments chicks were divided into five groups. In the first experiment, at 18th day each group was further divided into three subgroups i.e. control, treatment-I and treatment-II (inocculated with 105 and 107 dilutions of freez dried Hydropericardiuin inocculum respectively). Similarly in the second experiment, at 18th day each group was further divided into two subgroups i.e. control and treatment ( some chicks were inocculated with 102dilution of the fresh Hydropericardium inocculum and rest of them were kept as incontact). During the conduct of the experiment the weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, mortality, postmortem changes, histopathological changes and immunity of the experimental chicks were studied. In the first experiment non-significant differencewith respect of weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks amongst control and treatment-I (inocculated. with 10-5 dilution of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) and treatment-II (inocculated with 10-7 dilution of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) subgroups were recorded. There was no mortality due to itllydropericardiumit in any of the five experimental groups of chicks. This indicated that 10-5and 10-7 dilutions of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum were ineffective in causing any change in weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency. As such these findings could not help in establishing any of the five egetab1e protein supplements (Corn gluten meal, Rape seed meal, Rice polishing, Cotton seed meal and Sunflower meal) as a predisposing or causitive factor for"Hydropericardium"in the chicks. Similarly in the second experiment, non-significant difference with respect of weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks between control and treatment ( some chicks were inocculated with i02 dilution of the fresh Hydropericardium inocculum and rest of them were kept as incontact) subgroups of the five experimental groups were recorded. This indicated that 1o2 dilution of fresh Hydropericardium inocculum was ineffective in causing any change in weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks. These results also could not establish the nutrition as a predisposing or causitive factor for "Hydropericardium" in the chicks. Only three mortalities of the chicks in different experimental groups after the inocculation of io_2 dilution of fresh Hydropericardium'inocculum were recorded. Postmortem examination of the dead birds showed watery fluid in pericardial sac, swollen liver and kidneys and enlarged heart. Ilistopathological study of the liver and heart collected from the dead birds revealed intranuclear inclusion bodies in the liver and degenerative changes in the heart. Although the postmortem changes were almost similar to the "Hydropericardium" but only three mortalities could not be attributed to nutrition as a predisposing or causitive factor for "Hydropericardium" in the chicks. Similarly the results of indirect haemagglutination test showed haemagglutination of erythrocytes at 1:128 serum dilution and even at very weak dilution i.e. 1:1024 serum dilution, which indicated that the chicks were alreadr immuned and the immunity of the chicks increased after the inocculation of the fresh Hyd.ropericardium inocculum. In the light of the findings of the first experiment, which were non-significant with regard to weight gain, feed. consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks amongst control, treatment-I (inocculated with 1O dilutionof freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) and treatment-Il (inocculated with 10' dilution of freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum) subgroups of each of the five experimental groups fed on five different experimental rations, it might be concluded that the freez dried Hydropericardium inocculum had lost its virulency during freezing process or during its long i.e. six months, of storage or was not the causitive agent in producing the "Hydropericardium" in the broiler chicks. Similarly in the second experiment, non-significant results of weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks between control and treatment (some chicks were inocculated. with io_2 dilution of fresh Hydropericardiun inocculum and rest of them were kept as incontact) subgroups and the results of indirect haemagglutination test, indicated that the chicks were already iinmuned. The findings of both the experiments could not help to establish the nutrition as a predisposing or causitive factor for "HydropericRrdium" in the chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1124,T] (1).

38. Effect Of Differend Leavels Of Poultry By Product Meal On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Sardar ud Din Lodhi | Nisar Ahmad | Dr. M Yqoob Malik | M. Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of poultry by-product meal (PBPI.) 0!? the performance of broiler chicks. The PBM used in the experiment contained feathers, blood, digestive tract, head and legs collected from the local slaughtering points and was procured from Quadria Feeds Ltd. o Lahore. One hundred and fifty day old (male and female) Jfubbard broiler chicks were reared on five experimental rations upto 50 days of age. The control ration contained 12% fish meal. In the experimental rations (starter and finisher) fish meal in the control ration was replaced by the poultry by-product meal at 3, 6, 9 and 12% levels. The starter rations were fed (upto 28 days of age) and remaining 22 days the finisher rations were fed. The crude protein (2') and metabolizable energy (Kcal,/kg) content of the starter rations A, B, C. B and F were 22. 16, 3076; 22. 14, 3079; 22. 10, 3080; 22. 06, 3082 and 22. 92, 3083. While for finisher rations were 20. 08, 3210; 20.04, 3211; 20.04, 3211; 20.00. 3212; 19.97, 3214 and 19.93, 3215 respectively. The results showed that growth of chicks was influenced by the level of poultry by-product used. The rations containing P.BI1 at the level of 3%, 6% and 9% were the best for growth as compared to 12Z level. The birds fed at the level of 12Z consumed highly significantly lesser feed than those fed on 3 6 and 9% levels. There was statistically non-significant difference in feed efficiency amongst different rations. The varying level of PBPI used in ration did not influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks. The results further indicated that PBN CCI? he incorporated economically in broiler rations upto 9% of the total diet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1125,T] (1).

39. Studies On The Chick Growth Inhibitory Factor In Sunflowr Oil Meal

by Muhammad Zubair | Dr. Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and total particulate matter ('1PM) of cigarette smoke is sternly toxic to health and may produce several pathologies. In our study, we have focused on the toxicological effects of CSC and '1PM on different events of angiogenesis using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). CSC and 1PM from four different commercial filtered cigarettes were applied to the CAMs on day 4 of incubation. Macroscopic vascular transformations were evidently observed among all treated CAMs. Applications of CSC disk caused sturdy obliteration of main blood vessels, while whole architecture of the secondary and tertiary vasculalure was completely destroyed. Likewise, application of '1PM from all brands of cigarette caused disproportionate thinning of all primary and secondary blood vessels. Reduction in the total area and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels were observed after treatment with CSC and TPM. 1-listological evaluations revealed loss of ectodermal and mesodermal integrity in botl'i types of treatments. Scanty capillary plexuses formation, deterioration of extracellular matrix and delayed migration of blood vessels were prominent findings among all treated groups. Results obtained from CSC treated groups were more localized, while generalized results were prominently recorded in 1PM treated groups. Special considerations of CSC and 1PM should he given while smoking during pregnancy and after surgery because it may severely affect the process of angiogenesis, which is vital in maintenance of pregnancy and wound healing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1137,T] (1).

40. The Nutritive Value Of Corn Steep Liqour (Dried) As A Substitute For Soyabean Meal In Broiler Ration

by Khurshid Mazhar | Dr. Javed Qureshi | Dr. Ihtisham | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 502,T] (1).

41. Antigenic Relatedness Of Caecal Eimeria Species In Broilers By Sds-Page

by Muhammad Tayyub | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is caused by various species of Eimeria. Avian coccidiosis is divided in two types (intestinal and caecal). Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix cause caecal eimeriosis.E.tenella is the most pathogenic species and its infection is causing huge economic losses to poultry industry world wide. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Kasur and Sheikhupura). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. The prevalence of coccidiosis was higher (65.25%) in both districts. Coccidiosis was found more prevalent in district Kasur (66.5%) as compared to Sheikhupura (63%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional methods like Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation.. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 67.5% and 12.25% respectively in 400 suspected caecal samples. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Kasur (67.5%) as compared to district Sheikhupura (63%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Kasur (13%) than district Sheikhupura (11.5%). Protein profiling of all E. tenella strains was performed to check antigenic related ness between different isolates of E.tenella. More tan ninety percent isolates were antigenically identical which showed that E.tenella isolates in both districts were antigenically related. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1239,T] (1).

42. Prevalence Of Pediculosis In Government Primary School Children Of Lahore

by Sadia Chaudhry | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Ghazala Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pediculosis capitis is endemic parasite affecting many areas of the world. The objectives of my studies was to record prevalence of head lice in school children in Lahore. A total of 500 primary school children examined for the prevalence of Pediculus capitis, aged 7-11 years and above. The child was declared as infected person if any head lice were detected either in the form of live or dead eggs, or nits. The following characteristics were recorded for each child such as the sex, age, monthly income, family size, , pet ownership, parents' education, number of siblings, frequency of hair washing and presence or absence of social security of the family were recorded for all children Pediculosis capitis was recorded in 387 (77%) children. The prevalence of head lice infestation was significantly more in girls (85%) than in boys (52%). Among school girls, the head lice infestation rates in Low, Middle and High socio-economic groups were 96%, 85% and 71% respectively. Among school boys, the prevalence of head lice rates in Low, Middle and High socio-economic groups were 60%, 50% and 36% respectively. Children of age 9-10 years and those age 11 years exhibited a significantly low prevalence than those of age 7-8 years. Some variables were found to be significantly related to head lice infestation such as sex, pet ownership, age, parent's education level and hair length. This study shows that major factor influencing the occurrence of Pediculosis is socio-economic status among school children of both sexes (male and female) in the Lahore. The results of this study was shows that the prevalence of head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is high in Lahore, and is found in all investigated schools regardless of personal hygiene and socio-economic status. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1308,T] (1).

43. Prevelance Of Intesrinal Parasitosis Among Children At Day Care Centers Of Lahors In Reation To Socio- Economic Srarus

by Amera Batool | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Some intestinal parasitosis pathogen have potential is well known, many of them not shows symptoms, due to the body immunity and climatic element (Vinayak et al. 1990). While other shows like B. hominis and C. parvum. Persistent and acute diarrhea has been linked with the Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba / dispar, a protozoa having alike character with E. histolytica which is a not involve in causing diseases but proved symbiotic association in gut, not harms the other. Children up to age of 3 years commonly found with anemia and iron deficiency due to malnutrition caused by high prevalence of parasitosis. (Kapur et al., 2001) Cryptosporidium parvum within age of 5 years children gave highest prevalence rates in a community, among different parasites (Palmer & Biffin 1990). Cryptosporidium spp have been causative agent of persistent and acute diarrhea in many research works (Lima et al. 1992). In developing countries intestinal parasitosis infection is a major health issue by promote health standards and controlling the carriers or vector, most countries have successfully reduced the rates of infestation. However, in developing countries geographic, socio-economic factors and natural calamity increase the health problems. Countries, which are geographically located in hot and humid areas along with poverty, unavailability of clean water, malnutrition, and high population density provide maximum chances for the development and high intestinal parasitic risk. Because of lack of sufficient research and attention of infectious and parasitic diseases in developing countries is the main problem hurdle to eliminating the risk of parasitic infestation.( Sayyari et al.,2005) Pakistan estimated the intestinal parasitosis as the important public health problem. In developing countries intestinal parasitosis infection is a major health issue by promote health standards and controlling the carriers or vector, most countries have successfully reduced the rates of infestation. However, in developing countries geographic, socio-economic factors and natural calamity increase the health problems. Intestinal parasitosis is most familiar in children due to lack of hygienic condition. Physiologist and medical specialists are recommended that parasitosis infections delay children's growth, malnutrition, lost the opportunities of education and development. The under study carried out to record the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis within children at day care centers of Lahore and also to relate environmental factors with socio-economic status. The basic purpose for collection of stool specimens were to examined the parasitic eggs, cysts, and larvae, by different methods like fresh smears method and Scotch tape method. Trophozoites of amoeba were examined in fresh smears. Oxyure eggs were seen in Scotch tape slides. The parasitic size was measured by ocular micrometry method. Formaline ether concentrate method was being done for finding cysts (Machado,1999 ; Lotphy 1990). Socio- economic and environmental factors were also is studied. Of 174 children 56 children studies positive for parasitosis, 96 were males and 78 females. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 40 (22.9% children) the most pravelent parasite were E. vermicularis 9.19% G. lamblia 6.89% E.histolytica 5.17% A.lumbricoides 2.87% H.nana 1.14% T. saginata1.72% T.trichiura 4.59% and E.coli 0.57% showed a low infection respectively Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1310,T] (1).

44. Study Of Livestock Health Issues And Availability Of Veterinary Services To Pastoral Herds Of Northern Pakistan

by Ahmad Wasim Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pastoralists contribute great contribution in the economy of the developing world providing food and employment to peoples. In Pakistan pastoralism is also present and the pastoralists having their livestock keeping mobile through all the year upland and lowland. The goal of this research study has been to assess the major health problems in market oriented Livestock development. Although the feed resource and grazing land are quite enough, the research that was carried out in Narran valley reveals of how widespread the diseases are the health problems of livestock. The study indicates Narran valley has a high livestock population, which plays a substantial role in the livelihood of the farmers. In general, livestock is the most important unit of the Agricultural Community in both the market and the households' level. Unfortunately, animal productivity is very low in the area there are many reasons for this, among which is the major obstacle of widespread animal health problems and veterinary services availability. The diseases reported in the herds are the CCPP, FMD, Brucellosis, Small Pox, Liver flukes, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Enterotoxaemia, GID, Tympany, and PPR. These diseases cause heavy economic losses in their herds every year. The veterinary services for the land less pastoralists were not available where their herds were settled. For this research a survey was conducted to get the perceptions of the pastoralists and the veterinary services providers. Questionnaires were made for the pastoralists and veterinary services providers. Results of this study lead to development of a policy for the landless herder's livestock. This was a useful study on the livestock health issues and veterinary services, as no other study has been carried out in Pakistan for the livestock of land less transhumant herders. Additionally this study can become the basis for further research in their livestock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1318,T] (1).

45. Effect Of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Milk Production, Composition, Body Weight And Some Biochemical Parameters of Lactating Beetal Goats

by Mahar Abdul Qudus | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr.Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan is the third largest goat producing country in the world after China and India. According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2010-2011 the population of goats stood at 61.1 million and their population is increasing at the rate of more than 3% per annum. The study was designed to investigate the effect of Bovine Somatotropin on milk production, composition, and weight gain and biochemical parameters in lactating Beetal goats at Small Ruminant Training and Research Center at Ravi campus Patoki, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences Lahore, Pakistan. Fifteen lactating Beetal goats of almost same age, body weight, and parity were included in this study. The goats were divided into three group's i.e A, B &C. Five animals in each group according to the lactation stage, parity and milk yield. Group A was used as control group, while B & C were subcutaneously injected with 50 & 100 mg /week of rbST for 8 weeks. The treatment of goats with rbST rapidly increased milk yield after the onset of treatment. Statistically there was significant difference among the treatment (p<0.05). Highest increase in milk yield (29 %) was observed in group C that was treated with 100 mg of rbST. Non significant difference was noted between 50 mg and 100 mg treatment groups. Milk samples were analyzed for, protein, lactose, ash, total solids and fat. However slight increase in milk protein, lactose, ash, total solids and fat (9.33, 10.42, 3.92, 3.22 and 8.81 %) was observed respectively. However statistically there was nn significant difference was observed among the treatments. Body weight (BW) of the does was not significantly affected by rbST treatment. Highest increase in weight was observed in group B (1.53 %). Statistically non significant differences were observed between the treatments. Blood plasma samples were analyzed for Total protein (g/dl), Albumin (g/dl), Globulin (g/dl), Glucose (mg/dl), Urea (mg/dl), Creatinine (mg/dl), Total bilirubin (mg/dl), Cholesterol (mg/dl). A slight increase in plasma protein, cholesterol, albumin, was observed during the treatment period. However statistically non significant difference was observed among them. Plasma glucose level increase significantly (P<0.05) during the experiment period. Highest increase in plasma glucose (92.14 %) was observed in treatment group B, while slight decrease in plasma creatinine, globulin, urea and total bilirubin was observed during the whole experiment period. However statistically there was non significant difference was observed among the treatments. On the basis of above mentioned facts and figure it is concluded that 50 mg/wk dose of rbSt is efficacious in increasing milk yield without any adverse effect on lactating Beetal goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1350,T] (1).

46. Correlatin Response Of Udder And Body Measurements As Affected By Age And Parity On Milk Contents And Yield In Nili- Ravi Buffaloesin Peri- Urban Areas of Lahore

by Muhammad Salman Khalid | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is diverse specie of domestic livestock and the utmost need of modern dairy farms in developing countries especially where it is indigenous animal as in Pakistan and India. To achieve and enhance the full genetic potential of the animal, first of all, one must be able to select the animal which will seems to have good genetic for the dairy production on the basis of phenotypic characters. As far as. selection of this animal. on the basis of its milk producing unit i.e. udder conformation is concerned has not yet been conducted precisely. Only animals are judged by traditional ways without scientific approach. The core purpose of this study was to select Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes on the basis of their phenotypic features for commercial purpose. A total of 200 lactating ili-Ravi animals were measured in and around peri-urban areas of Lahore. Out of 200 animals 4, 32, 63, 53, 34 and 14 were belonging to first, second, third, fourth, fifth and Sixth lactations, respectively. The animals found in different lactation stages. 47 (23.5%) were in first. 76 i.e. 38% were in second and 77(38.5%) were present in their third lactation stage. The mean and standard deviation of udder length in first to sixth lactation were 57.0 3.05cm, 62.4 1.08cm, 63.6±0.98cm, 65.9±0.95 em, 66.1±1.17 ern and 62.7±2.41 em, respectively. Whereas, measurements of udder depth in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes ranged in six lactations from 13.3±3.05 cm,10.7±0.37 ern. IO.8±0.20 em, 14.7±2.64cm. 11.11:0.22 ern andl0.5±0.40clll respectively .. Udder width of lactating buffaloes in first six parities was 23.9±0.6 cm, 28.0:1..3.2 em, 28.3 4.2 ern, 29.2±4.6 cm, 31.6± 3.2 ern and 30.7±1.3cm respectively. The size of milk vein in from parity one to six was 5.6±0.7 ern, 6.6±1.1 ern, 7.3±1.2 ern, 7.4±1.6 ern, 8.1±0.8 cm and 7.9±O.77 em respectively. The average udder length, udder depth. udder width and milk vein in all lactations were found to be 64.2±0.52cm, I 0.9±0.14 ern, 29.1 0.29cm and 7.4±0.1 ern respectively. Bowl shaped udder was found in 156 animals (78%), whereas only 39 out of 200 (19.5%) had round and only five animals got goaty shaped udders i.e.2.5%. The average teat length and teat diameter in all parities under study were 9.6±0.86 ern and 4.08±0.046 ern, respectively. Whereas, average distance between both fore teats was found 14.4±0.23cm. between rear teats 6.3±0.13cm and between fore and rear teats of right and left side were 6.4±0.13cm and 6.4±0.13cmrespectively. 89% (178/200) Nili- Ravi animals in the peri-urban areas of Lahore were found to have cylindrical shaped teats. Whereas only eight animals (4%) have bottle and fourteen animals (7%), was having funnel shaped teats. Average Heart Girth. Body Length and Body Height of lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were found to be 203.2'10.77 em, 147.3 0.71 em and 140.2± I.06cm. The mean distance between the two pin bones and hook bones of the body were 30.2±0.26 em and 56.9±0.32 em, whereas, mean body depth found in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was 83.2±1.23 ern. The average scoring given to the different parts and overall body in the study were: Tail Head: 22.5±0.02; Ribs and Sacral region: 3.1±0.018; Angularity of Bones: 3.1±0.01; and Overall BCS: 2.9±0.0 17. The average fat%, protein%, SNF%, lactose% and solids (ash) % were 5.98±l.S, 3.3±O.2, 8.67±O.5, 4.58±O.3 and O.83±0.04 respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1358,T] (1).

47. Comparative Performance Of Lohi Lambs Supplemented With Lucerne (Medicago Sativa) Hay And Pelleted Diets In Addition

by Abdul Raziq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Animal feed resources are still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons) and digestible protein (1.76 million tons). To meet the requirement of animal, there is need to properly conserve the flush season growth of Rabi fodder like berseem and alfalfa in their . different physical forms. Lucerne pallets are economical feed supplement to fulfill protein and energy requirements of grazing lambs. Feeding management study was conducted to evaluate the different physical forms of lucerne in eighteen extensive grazing male Lohi lambs having approximately same body weight. Lambs were fed on individual basis on three experimental diets designated as A, Band C having extensive grazing, chopped lucerne hay, Lucerne hay pellets respectively. Each lamb was also given concentrate ration @ 0.5% of body weight on dry matter basis. The data on daily feed intake, weekly gain, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and economics was recorded. Samples of feed were analyzed by official method of analysis. Mean daily dry matter intake of Lohi lambs kept on treatments A, B and C was 820.88 ± 13.22,905.19 ± 13.83 and1010.24 ± 15.34 g, respectively. The dry matter intake difference was highly significant (P< 0.001) between treatments and weight gain on daily bases in lambs was 82.89 ± 0.27, 91.74 ± 0.40 and 119.49 ± 0.44g in treatment A, B and C, respectively. Group C is highly efficient consuming 8.49 kg dry matter for 1 kg of weight gain following group B consuming 9.86 kg dry matter for 1kg weight gain. Group A showed lower efficiency as it consumes 9.90kg dry matter for one kg of weight gain. It was highly economical to feed Lucerne pellets with grazing with a gross margin of Rs.13.75/animal/day followed by extensive grazing with a gross margin of Rs.11.15/animal/day. Lowest gross margin of Rs.11.12/animal/day was shown by the lambs kept on extensive grazing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1364,T] (1).

48. Prasitic Contamination Of Vegetables Eaten Raw In Lahore

by Shafa-ul-Haq | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Fresh vegetables are important part of human diet. Eating raw vegetable is customary in many parts of the world including Pakistan, but these raw vegetables can be a major source of parasites. A parasitic survey on vegetables collected from major markets in Lahore was conducted for the discovery of human and animal parasites. Ten species of vegetables: beet (Beta vulgaris), cabbage (Brassica denceal), carrot (Davcus carota) chili (Capsicum frutecense), coriander (Corriandum sativum) cucumber (Cucumis sativa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Mint (Mentha viridis), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun) were evaluated in this study. Fifty samples of each vegetable were taken, comprising a total of 500 samples for the study. Hundred gram of each vegetable was washed with a cationic solution of Hyamin detergent containing glass particles for the elution of eggs. Concentration of eggs/cysts was achieved by centrifugal sedimentation technique at 5000 rpm for 5 minutes. Sediment was examined under microscope for the presence of parasite eggs, cysts and larvae. Examination of vegetables revealed twelve genera of parasites. All vegetables were highly contaminated with parasites with an overall prevalence of 31.2%. Of parasites studied, Ascaris eggs found to be the highest (37.1%), followed by Hook worm(10.8%) and Trichostrongyloides sp.(8.9%), while the least common parasite was Toxoplasma gondii (1.9%). Lettuce showed the highest contamination (48%), followed by Cabbage (44%) and Mint (podina) (42%) while chili showed the least contamination (16%). The results would seem to indicate that one of the important routes of parasitic infection is due to consumption of raw and unwashed vegetables. So, enlightenment programs for the public on necessity of food sanitation and personal hygiene should be intensified. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1419,T] (1).

49. Evaluation Of Adulticidal And Larvicidal Efficacy Of Zadirachta Indica (Neem) And Lantana Camara (Punch Phul) Extracts

by Asemah Anwar | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Pakistan is one of sub-tropical countries and its climatic conditions favor parasitic diseases along with disease vectors including mosquitoes. Mosquitoes of genus Aedes are causing Dengue fever. It has become one of infectious vector born disease of world. Annually it is striking around 100 million people with dengue fever and about 5 Lac people with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), resulting in 5 % deaths per year. Current study was conducted to evaluate efficacies of plant extracts against dengue fever mosquitoes of Aedes genus. Study target was to search some safer alternates than that of chemical pesticides. Also exhibiting characteristics like less toxic to environment, do not induce resistance in mosquitoes, do not harm non-targeted organisms, would not be toxic to human beings and will have biodegradation ability. Study has evaluated indigenous plants extracts as potent larvicidal and adulticidal materials. Mosquitoes were collected from different areas of Lahore and they were identified upto genus level only Aedes genus was identified upto species level, then Aedes aegypti was reared in laboratory to have F 1 generation, to have mosquitoes and larvae for testing the activity of plant extracts. Plant materials were collected from different areas of Lahore. Methanolic extracts of seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica and lantana camara respectively, were extracted accordingly. Stock solutions were prepared from these extracts and then out of this serial dilutions were made. Experiment was performed in four groups A, B, C & D for both adults and larvae. Each group was representing total of 25 larvae/adult out of which one was kept untreated as negative control, one with deltamethrin as positive control while two were provided with test concentrations. LC50 and LC90 was determined by Probit analysis, using SPSS version 13.0 SPSS inc. 2004. lethal concentrations of A. indica mosquitocidal assay were LC50=30.44 mg/l and LC90=62.36 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=-9.87mg/l and LC90=59.102 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was significant for 24 h while for 48 h it was not significant. Maximum mortality observed after 24 and 48 hrs is 99% at 70 ppm. DMR test shows after 24 hrs., all treatment means are significantlt different from each other, from control and from mean of insecticide's mortality, control is significantly lower while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. after 48 hrs. treatments were significantly different from each other while treatment mortality at 70 PPM is significantly higher than insecticide treated group and rest. Lethal concentrations for L. camara adulticidal assay were LC50=60.40 mg/l and LC90=113.61 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=48.20 mg/l and LC90=79.31 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was not significant at 24 h and is significant at 48 h. DMR test after 24 hrs. treatment, control and insecticide treated were significantly different from each while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. After 48 hrs 4 and 5 treatment groups were found significantly higher than rest Larvicidal assay of A. indica has shown LC50 =52.36 mg/ l and LC90=105.42 mg/ l after 24 h and LC50 =80.70 mg/l and LC90=145.73 mg/ l after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 values for both 24h and 48h were not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. insecticide treated was significantly lower than all above treatment groups. Treatment group 7 has significantly higher mortality than all other. After 48 hrs. there was not any significant difference. Lethal concentrations for L. camara LC50 =100.76 mg/100 ml and LC90=198.22 mg/100 ml at24 h and LC50 =61.27 mg/100 ml and LC90= 122.45mg/100 ml after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 value for both 24h and 48h was not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. shows insecticide treated group i.e. 8 is significantly lower than all treatment groups except 1 which is at lowest treatment. After 48 4, 5 and 6 had came to same activity level no significant difference was found and were higher than all others. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that crude plant extracts can act as potential Adulticide / Mosquitocide and Larvicides, though these are required in higher concentrations than that of synthetic insecticides and purified botanical products, but they have advantage of posssessing less resistance presentation and safe for aquatic life. It is also concluded that chemical insecticide used i.e. Deltamethrin has higher efficacy as adulticidal with drastic effects on environment and other beneficial insects. But it was found least effective as larvicidal compared to crude plants extracts. It is suggested that plant extracts can prove a better, safer and cheaper alternate these should consider as a better alternate to control most lethal disease of present time i.e. Dengue fever by eradicating its vector i.e. Aedes aegypti mosquito. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1475,T] (1).

50. Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Haematiology And Therapy Of Toxocariasi In Dogs And Humans.

by Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1505,T] (1).



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