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1. Pillars of Epidemiology

by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: UVAS LAHORE; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 614.4 Athar 30073 1st 2013 Epidemiology] (3).

2. Privatization Management : Trends and Prospects

by Prof. Dr. Mushtaq A. Sajid.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Lahore: Al-Madina Publications; 1998Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 338.925 Mushtaq 22220 1st 1998 Statistics] (1).

3. Cultural Heritage of the Mughals

by Prof. Dr. Massarrat Abid | Qalb-i-Abid, S.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Lahore: Pakistan Study Centre, PU; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 954.025 Massarrat 22358 1st 2005 History] (1).

4. Comparative Efficacy Of Casoni Skin Test, Indirect Haemagglutination And Double Diffusion Tests For The Detection Of Hydatidosis In Goats

by Azam Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Tufail Muhammad Khan | Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Basraa | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0149,T] (1).

5. Morphological Abnormalities Of Spermatozoa In Pure Bred Friesian, Sahiwal Bulls And Friesian X Sahiwal

by Ahsan Rashad, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Ch | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr. M. Akram | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Of the 15 normal semen producing breeding bulls, five bulls from each of pure bred Sahiwal, Friesian and the cross-breds (Friesian X Sahiwal) of the same age group were selected. These bulls were maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad (Sahiwal) under similar conditions of housing, feeding and management. Two consecutive ejaculates once a week were collected. A total of 395 ejaculates were evaluated for various seminal characteristics, extended, processed and frozen during August, September and October, 1990. During these three months semen parameters like ejaculate volume, mass motility, percent motility and the doses produced per ejaculate declined with increase of ambient temperature and humidity. The second ejaculate (195) at each collection and for each bull was always taken for studying the sperm morphology. Two slides from each semen sample were prepared in 10% solution of Nigrosin stain. A total of 200 sperm cells were counted in each slide and average values for various morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa in each breed were studied. The sperm cell abnormalities were accounted for head (abnormal, detached), neck (poor attachment, abaxial attachment and fractured neck), thickened mid-piece, protoplasmic droplet (proximal, distal droplet) and tail (detached, coiled- tail-droplet-enclosed, coiled tail). The mean values of different breeds so obtained for different abnormalities during various months were analysed. The average values for head abnormalities for three breeds were 9.69 ± 1.88, 5.12 ± 060 and 1.56 ± 0.14% in Friesian, cross-bred and Sahiwal, respectively. These abnormalities were highest during August and September in Friesian bulls and lowest in Sahiwal bulls during October. The neck abnormalities were highest in cross-breds (4.44 ± 0.57%) and lowest in Sahiwal (1.67 ± 0.14%). However, the neck abnormalities were statistically similar during the months of August, September and October. Similar trend of mid-piece abnormality was observed between various breeds and months. Likewise the values of protoplasmic droplets were highest in cross breds (14.12 ± 1.19%) and lowest in Sahiwal (2.36 ± 0.30%). The tail abnormalities were the highest in cross-breds (3.47 ± 0.45%) and lowest in Sahiwal (0.87 ± 0.12%). Among various months the tail abnormalities, were statistically similar (P> 0.05). The total values of different sperm abnormalities wçre highest in cross-breds during August (30.93 ± 3.11%) and comparatively lower during September and October (28.66 ± 2.28 and 26.11 ± 2.63%), respectively. Except head abnormalities, all the other abnormalities of spermatozoa were statistically significant among breeds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0206,T] (1).

6. Study On Various Seminal Characteristics Affected With Aging Phenomenon In Male Nili-Ravi Buffalo

by Mohsin Raza Naqvi, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Dr. Nisar | Dr. Tayyab Rahil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The main aim of the present study was to observe the reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows, imported from USA, being maintained under the sub-tropical environmental conditions of the Punjab, and then to compare it with their respective local-born progenies. The influence of environmental factors on some parameters of reproductive performance had been studied in order to estimate the level of their adoptability towards local climatic conditions. The reproductive records of the normal breeding local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows were studied during 1985-1991. The outcome of the present study in respect of the following parameters of reproductive performance are summarized as below. 1) Local-born Holstein-Friesian and local-born Jersey heifers conceived for the first time at the age of 502.93±11.71 and 496.37±6.64 days. This shows that Holstein-Friesian heifers took 7 days more for their first conception, but this difference was found to be non-significant. 2) The average age at first calving for local-born Holstein- Friesian and Jersey heifers was 787.38±13.61 and 771.48±7.88 days respectively, while their respective dams calved in USA for the first time at the age of 822.46±10.63 and 800.51±8.43 days correspondingly. The data indicate that local-born Holstein-Friesian and Jersey heifers calved for the first time 35 and 29 days earlier than their dams. 3) The average number of services required per conception for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local- born Jersey and imported Jersey were 1.76±0.100, 1.87±0.089, 1.83±0.069 and 1.88±0.072 respectively, whereas the difference among the groups was found to be non-significant. Although the number of services required per conception increased with increasing parity but the difference was non-significant. 4) The service period for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey averaged 161.48±14.45, 132.92±511, 100.99±4.63 and 107.03±2.77 days respectively. The local-born and imported Jersey cows conceived 60 and 26 days earlier after calving than their contemporary local-born and imported Holstein cows. Effect of season of calving on subsequent service period was not significant. 5) The average gestation periods of 278.65±0.78, 279.92±0.63, 279.26±0.51 and 277.49±0.36 days were found in local-born Hol- stein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows respectively. The data shows that imported Jersey cows carried their calves 1.16, 2.43 and 1.77 days less than the local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian and local-born Jersey correspondingly. Moreover in all the genetic groups except local-born Holstein-Friesian, cows carrying male calves had longer gestation length than those carrying female calves. 6) The calving interval for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey averaged 443.77±18.67, 415.66±5.09, 380.93±6.36 and 387.18±3.0 days respectively. The Jerseys showed significantly (P < 0.01) shorter calving interval than the Holsteins. The shortet calving interval in all the groups was seen after Winter calvings. Minimum calvings in each group occurred during Summer. The maximum calvings in local-born Holstein-Friesian and imported Holstein- Friesian cows were during winter; whereas in local-born Jersey and imported Jersey these were observed during Spring and winter in order of merit. 7) The 305-day milk production averaged 3643.29±121.26, 4114.40±115.96, 2194.52±57.25 and 3150.48±46.16 litres for local- born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows respectively. The results indicate that imported Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows produced -significantly more milk than their respective local-born progenies. 8) The average dry period for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows was 192.71±16.14, 191.07±13.11, 157.91±9.70 and 133.30±5.77 days respectively. The dry period in the local-born Holstein- Friesian and imported Holstein-Friesian was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the local-born and imported Jersey cows. The findings of this study regarding most of reproductive traits indicate that both local-born and imported Jersey performed better than Holstein-Friesian cows under sub-tropical climatic conditions of Punjab. However local-born groups produced less 305 days milk than their imported dams. The production potential in the exotic herd can be increased by breeding the cows with semen of genetically superior sires, through intensive management and with more effective disease control programme. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0314,T] (1).

7. Studies On Uterine Involution And Ovarian Activity In Postpartum Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Given Prostaglandin F2 Alpha Analogue

by Farrukh Nazir | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Dr. Mian Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Tayyab | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0324,T] (1).

8. Antiseperim Antibodies: A Plausible Cause Of Repeat Breeding In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Amir Saeed, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The present study was designed with the assumption that high titres of antisperm antibodies in repeat breeders might be a contributing factor for conception failure in such animals. For this purpose, 32 buffaloes/buffalo heifers were divided into four equal groups. From the normal cyclic and repeat breeder buffaloes, 48 serum samples were collected at 0, 1, and 24 hours after insemination, respectively. Oestrus mucus was also collected from these animals. A total of 16 serum samples were collected from virgin heifers and pregnant buffaloes. The serum and mucus samples were subjected to simple agglutination test, sperm quantitative penetration test and sperm cervical mucus contact test. High antibody titres were recorded in the serum and oestrus mucus of repeat breeders. Moreover, it was observed that lesser number of spermatozoa penetrated through a definite distance in cervical mucus of repeat breeder buffaloes as compared to cervical mucus of normal cyclic animals. Similarly higher number of spermatozoa exhibited shaking movement over a period of time in cervical mucus of repeat breeders, which indicates the presence of spermagglutinins. Thus, it can be concluded that antisperm antibodies may be responsible for conception failure in repeat breeder buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0383,T] (1).

9. A Study On The Chemotherapy And Taxonomy Of Mange Mites In Ovine And Its Effect On Different Blood Parameters

by Rafique Rana, M | Dr. Muhammad Afzal | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Prof. Dr. SAghir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: A study was carried out to find out the taxonomy, chemotherapy of mange mites in sheep and its effect on different blood parameters. A total of 30 flocks comprising of fifteen hundred sheep of different age and sexes were examined in the city and villages around Lahore. Out of above mentioned animals 200 suspected sheep were thoroughly examined and 30 (15%) were found positive for mange mites infestation. Species of three genera namely Sarcoptes, Psoroptes and Chorioptes were found infesting these animals. The average number of mites recovered from the species of each genera were recorded as 851, 825 and 815 for Psoroptes, Sarcoptes and Chorioptes respectively. For the identification of different species of mange mites microscopic examination was carried out and mites were first seen under low power and then high power of magnification. The slides were mounted with mites and then examined to study their morphological characteristics. The three genera identified were Sarcoptes, Psoroptes and Chorioptes in sheep. Chemotherapeutic trials were carried out in suspected sheep by using two concentrations of neguvon solution i.e. 0.10% and 0.15% at ten days intervals. For this purpose sheep were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with 0.10% solution of neguvon, group B with 0.15% solution of neguvon and group C was kept as untreated control group. The data obtained on reduction of mites due to acaricide application were subjected to statistical analysis by applying completely randomized design and results were recorded. It was noticed that 0.15% neguvon was highly effective against mange mites infestation when it was replied twice after ten days interval. The effect of mange mites on different blood parameters was also recorded. For this purpose sheep were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of clinically infested sheep, group II subclinically infested sheep and group C included healthy sheep which was kept as control for the comparison. The effect of mange mites on different blood parameters of two infested groups of sheep i.e. I and II was recorded before and after two applications of 0.10% and 0.15% neguvon solution at ten days interval and results were compared with group C for comparison. The findings of this study indicated that the infestation of mange mites is a quite common problem in sheep population of this area. The sheep suffering from mange mites exhibit poor feed intake, severe irritation, scratching, bleeding, loss of wool, low body growth, reduced production and damaged skin. Such infested sheep are also susceptible to various viral and bacterial diseases which makes sheep production uneconomical and put extra burden on the sheep breeders. Keeping all this in view suitable and prompt measures should be taken for early diagnosis and treatment of the infested animals. This will result not only for the control of the disease, but also help to improve the economical condition of the owners. It will also increase the gross national product of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0386,T] (1).

10. Bioavailability Of Gentamicin In Male Buffalo Calves

by Hasan Raza, S | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Saghir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin sulphate were investigated in the same 20-male buffalo calves heal thy after intravenous administration and after intramuscular administration. The blood samples were collected at various time intervals following administration of single dose of 4 mg/kg. The concentrations of Gentamicin in serum samples were determined according to the microbiological assay described by Arret (1971). The plasma concentrations of gentarnicin at different time intervals after injections were plotted on semi-logarithmic graph paper. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated according to the method described by Gibaldi (1984). Results were expressed as mean ± SD. The peak concentration of 11.273 ± 0.4976 µg/ml reached in 31.092 ± 1.217 minutes after intramuscular injection. Keeping intravenous as standard the relative bioavailability after injection was 82.5%. The half-life was 97.29 ± 5.259 minutes after I/v injection mean ± SD, volume of distribution was 202.36 ± 8.486 ml/kg/ The volume of distribution at steady stage (Vdss ) was 214.67 ± 20.99 ml/mm. The total body clearance of gentamicin was 1.7382 ± 0.0738 ml/kg. Pharmacokinetics parameters of gentamicin were seemed to be independent of rout of administration at the dosage level applied. The pharmacokinetics evaluation by compartmental method and non-compartmental method was not found significantly different. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0390,T] (1).

11. Effects Of Substitution Of Soyabean Oil Meal With Dried Brewer'S Yeast On The Performance Of Japanese Quails

by Zafar Iqbal Chauhan | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Dr. Jaweeed Ahmed Qureshi | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Dried brewer's yeast (DBY) (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a byproduct of the brewing industry and is a valuable food for animals. DBY contains 45% CP and 35% soluble carbohydrate. The amino acid profile of DBY is comparable to other vegetable protein supplement (VPS) like SBM. The present study was designed to study the effect of substitution of SBM with DBY on the performance of Japanese quails.. For the purpose quails were fed with five rations in which SBM was replaced with DBY at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for 42 days. Weekly weight gain and daily feed consumption was recorded. Maximum weight gain (144.61g), feed efficiency (4.01) carcass weight (104.72g) and dressing percentage (69.53%) was observed in quails fed ration in which 100% SBM was replaced with DBY. Minimum weight gain (137.67 g) poor feed efficiency (4.21) lower carcass weight (78.28g) and poor dressing percentage (54.48%) was recorded in quails fed ration in which 100% DBY was replaced with SBM. No adverse effect on internal organs liver, heart and carcass was seen. From the foregoing study it was concluded that DBY could be successfully incorporated in quails rations upto 10% without any undesirable effect on the performance of quails. It has been demonstrated from the results that DBY improves body weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage which ultimately decreases the cost of quality meat production. The study also indicated that rations containing DBY were comparatively cheaper and cost per kg of live weight was decreased and net profit per quail was greater. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0409,T] (1).

12. Comparative Evaluation Of Maize, Wheat And Brokern Rice As A Source Of Energy In Broiler Diets

by Shabbir Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Jaweeed Ahmad Qureshi | Prof. Dr. Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Maize, broken rice and wheat are the major energy source being used in poultry diets. The energy contents in these grains are acertained according to the NRC (USA) or ARC (UK) recommendations. It was noticed by the nutritionists of poultry feed industry of the country that these assumptions does not coincide with our indigenous grains. The present study was designed to evaluate the energy contents of these main cereals through a biological trials. For the study 240 day old chicks were perchased and randomely divided into six groups of 40 birds each and further subdivided into 4 replicate of 10 birds each. Six starter rations containing a conventional ration A (Maize+Rice+Wheat), Ration B (yellow maize), Ration C (broken rice), Ration D (wheat), Ration E (yellow maize+broken rice) and Ration F (wheat+broken rice) were formulated and fed from 0-28 days. All the diets were isonitrogenous (CP 220%) and isocaloric (ME 3000 kcal/kg). Similarly 6 finisher diets containing, a conventional finisher dietA1 (maize+rice+wheat) Ration B1 (maize), Ration C1 (broken rice), D1 (wheat), Ration E1 (rnaize+broken rice) and Ration F1 (wheat+broken rice) were formulated. Finisher diet was fed from 29- 40th days of age. Finisher diets were also isonitrogenous (CR 19.00) and isocaloric (ME 3100 kcallkg). In the experiment it was assumed that ME value of wheat and broker rice is equal to that of yellow maize, i.e. 3400 kcal/kg. At the end of experiment (40 days) for rations AA1 (conventional), RB1 (maize), CC, (rice), DD, (wheat), EE1 (maize+rice) and FF, (wheat+rice) average liveweight gain were 1651, 1708, 1900, 1723, 1844 and 1757 gms and feed efficiency ratio was 1.828, 1.845, 1723, 2.028, 1.67 and 1.862, respectively. The results indicated signilicant difference (P<0.01) among the groups in feed consumption weight gain (P<0.05) and feed efficiency (P<0.01). Rice containing ration (CC) was 6.6% more efficient than maize (BB1) whereas, wheat containing (DD1) was 9.9% less efficient that of maize (BB1) based ration. These variation may be due to difference in availability of metabolizable energy (ME) contents of these cereals. The results revealed that if the ME value of maize is 3400 kcal/kg in comparison of it ME value of rice and wheat may be 3624 kcal/kg and 3064 kcal/kg, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that ration CC, (Rice) was the most efficient than other rations. The production of one kg liveweight for ration CC1(rice) is Rs.2.02 less, as compared to ration BB1 (maize based) and Rs.2.73 less as compared to ration DD1 (wheat) However the dressing percentage of the chicks was not different (P>0.50) among different groups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0414,T] (1).

13. Comparative Study On The Incidence And Pathology Of Morbid Conditions Of Uterus And Cervix Of Teddy And Local Non Descriptive Goats

by Yousaf Hassan Khera | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Ahmad Raza | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmed Ch | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The project was designed to study incidence and pathology of uterine and cervical maladies in two breeds (Teddy and Local non- descriptive) of goats. Three hundred uteri and cervices (150 from each breed) of goats of three age groups, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and above three years (50 in each group) were collected from Lahore slaughter house and then thoroughly examined for any gross pathological change. The organs exhibiting macropathological lesions were subjected to morphometric, histopathological and histochemical examinations. Of the 300 uteri and cervices, 35 (11.66%) showed morbid conditions. In 150 Teddy goats, pathological conditions were observed in, 1-2 years age group 4 (8%), 2-3 years age group 7 (14%) and in above 3 years age group 8 (16%). In 150 local non-descriptive goats, gross pathological conditions were present in, 1-2 years age group 3 (6%), 2-3 years age group 6 (12%) and in above 3 years age group 7 (14%). These results showed that incidence of pathological conditions increased with the age of the goats in both the breeds and incidence was slightly higher in Teddy goats than Local non descriptive goats in the same age groups. The following eight pathological conditions namely metritis, pyometra, pigmentation, endometrial cysts, adhesions, fibrosis, hemorrhages and aplasia of uterus were found. The morphometric, gross and histopathological changes of each disease condition of uterine horns, uterine body and cervices were studied. The histochemical evidence of tissue exhibited PAS and alcian blue reactions revealing presence of carbohydrates were also studied. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0440,T] (1).

14. Comparative Efficiency Of Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks And Urea Treated Wheat Straw In Fattening

by Farrokh Saeed | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Jaweed Ahmed Qureshi | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline in the per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animals origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem of meat shortage is to increase the production of meat by fattening the male buffalo calves. These calves could be fattened by using the cheaper sources of agriculture by-products available in our country. Wheat straw is being fed to ruminants with supplemental green fodder. It is also fed as a sole roughage during the lean periodof the year. It is however deficient in fermentable nitrogen and has poor digestibility due to more lignification. Urea impregnation of straws has been shown to improve the intake as well as digestibility. It has been concluded that urea treatment with 4% urea solution at 40 to 50 percent moisture level could be advantageous to improve crude protein content of straw and its digestibility. Molasses, a by-product of sugar industry, is an excellent and a cheap source of digestible energy as compared to all other similar energy feeds. Urea provides nitrogen needed for adequate development of animal flora and thus enhances the utilization of fibrous feed.Preparation of urea molasses blocks appears to be an appropriate technology to fulfill the requirements of animals. A fattening trial was conducted on two groups of buffalo calves with 8 calves per group, to study the comparative efficiency of urea molasses mineral block and urea treated wheat straw. The experiment was conducted for 90 days. Feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency, concentration of urea in serum, concentration of total protein in serum and digestibility of different nutrients in the animals were recorded. Economics of fattening rations was also determined. The results of the study revealed non significant differences in weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, concentration of urea in serum and concentration of total protein in serum of buffalo calves. Digestibility trial revealed that there was non significant difference in digestibility of dry matter, ether extract but significant difference in digestibility of crude fibre and crude protein. The findings of this study revealed the benefits of utilizing urea ammonia treated wheat straw in the fattening ration upto 38% level. It was also ascertained that urea molasses blocks are equally effective in enhancing the growth rate of buffalo calves. Moreover, urea molasses blocks are a useful tool of supplementation of forage diet because of ease of transportation and balance nutrient profile. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0453,T] (1).

15. Induction Of Oestrus In Non Cycling Nili Ravi Buffalo Heifers

by Hafeez Khan, A | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Twenty one non-cycling Nili-Ravi buffalo hcifers with mean (± S.E) age of 31.71 ± 1.32 months and body weight of 417.61 ± 11.26 Kg were randomly divided into three equal groups. Animals in group A were injected 700 IU PMSG intramuscularly. Whereas, animals in group B (n=7) were treated with 1400 IU of PMSG. Animals in group C (n7) were administered 2 CC normal saline, which served as controls. Animals in oestrus were naturally bred with progeny tested bulls. Blood samples were collected before treatment, at oestrus and 10 days after oestrus for plasma progesterone estimation. Rectal palpations were done before treatment, at oestrus, 10 days after oestrus for ovarian structures and on day 60 post breeding for pregnancy diagnosis. All the buffalo heifers in group A and B exhibited oestrus following treatment with 700 and 1400 IU of PMSG. Three animals from group C (42.85%) showed oestrus. The time from treatment to the onset of oestrus differed non significantly and was 6.14 ± 0.56, 6.00 ± 0.45 and 6.66 ± 0.47 days for groups A, B and C, respectively. No difference was observed towards expression of oestrus symptoms with varying doses of PMSG. The behavioural symptoms and physical changes i.e. frequent urination, acceptance to male, vulvalar sniffing of other females or allowing others to sniff, mucus discharge, vulvalar swelling and uterine tone were found indicative of oestrus in experimental heifers. The duration of oestrus also differed non significantly among the groups. This duration was 22.00 ± 2.01; 27.71 ± 1 .67 and 19.66 ± 0.98 hours for groups A, B and C, respectively. Three animals from group A (n=7) conceived at induced oestrus. Whereas, no heifer from group B setteled at induced oestrus. Four animals showed next oestrus and two of them conceived. Three animals from group C exhibited oestrus and one of them conceived, rest of the animals remained non cyclic. The overall conception rates were 42.85, 28.57 and 14.28 percent for groups A, B and C, respectively. Progesterone levels were found representative of ovarian activity in all the groups. Basal levels (> 0.5 ng/ml) of plasma progesterone were observed with smooth ovaries. Higher values for plasma progesterone ranging between 0.95 ± 0.02 to 5.68 ± 0.22 ng/ml were observed in cycling and pregnant animals reprsenting functional corpus lutuem. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0461,T] (1).

16. Comparison Of Two Methods Of Estrus Synchronization In Sahiwal Cows

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 24 Sahiwal cows were selected for this study and randomly divided into two groups viz A and B. Group A cows were injected two injections of prostaglandin F2 intramuscularly without palpation 11 days apart, while the other group involved the veterinarian skill for detection of palpable corpus luteum and only single injection of prostaglandin was given in all the cows. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Estrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. 91.66% and 83.33% cows from A and B groups respectively responded to the treatment. This response was slightly greater in cows of group A than group B. Interval to the onset of estrus after treatment was found non-significant (P>O.05) in both group cows. The length of estrus in group A was 21.54±1.65 hours whereas it was 19±0.88 hours in group B. The difference in the length of estrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The conception rate of both groups was found to be 54.54% and 50% respectively, which was slightly higher than the second group. The mucus characteristics of both the groups were noted and 81.81% and 70% cows were found having typical fern like pattern and discharged clear (Transparent) mucus. No one cow having atypical fern pattern and cloudy discharge of mucus conceived. The behavioural signs and the physical changes were recorded. There was little difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group B the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group A. The cost per animal for group A and B was 303 rupees and 276.50 rupees, economically group B technique seems to be profitable to the farmers, and by adopting this technique one can save money. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0462,T] (1).

17. A Comparative Study On Reproductive Performance Of Friesian Cows, Due To Variable Environmental Influences,

by Rafique Tareen, M | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmed Chaudhary | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The breeding records of 200 Friesian cows collected during 1977 to 1995 at Govt. Dairy Farm Quetta and 1983 to 1995 at Pishin, Balochistan were analysed. The parameters of reproductive performance like age at puberty, age at first calving, conception rate, service period, gestation period, calving interval, dry period and reproductive efficiency were determined. An effort was made to study the influence of the environmental factors on the reproductive traits. The overall average age at puberty for 200 cows (150 heifer at Quetta and 50 heifers at Pishin) was 684.21±11.91 days at Quetta and 662.51±3.90 days at Pishin. Season of birth had highly significant effect on the maturity age. Winter born heifers matured earlier as compared to those born in other seasons. The data indicated that cows at Pishin matured earlier than that heifers at Quetta. The age at first calving averaged 978.01 ± 17.39 days at Quetta and 958.90±16.311 clays at Pishin with range from 501-1100 days. The overall average conception rate was 48.93% at Quetta and 50.33% at Pishin. The service period of cows at Pishin averaged 88.90±4.30 days and at Quetta, 81.30±3.3 days. Minimum service period was observed after Winter and maximum after Summer calving at Quetta. At Pishin minimum service period after Spring and maximum service period after Winter. The overall average length of calving interval was 464.20±4.9 days at Quetta and 361.11±38.00 days at Pishin. Highly significant (P <0.05) difference in calving interval were recorded between Farms. Longest calving interval 374.50 days after Summer to Autumn calving and shorter calving interval 351.90 days after Spring calving were observed at Govt. dairy farm Quetta, but at Pishin longest calving interval 365.00 days after Autumn calving and shorter calving interval 356.10 were found days after Spring calving respectively. The dry period of Holstein Friesian averaged 69.7 ±2.9 days at Quetta and 65 ±3.50 days at Pishin. The result was highly significantly due to Farm difference. The overall reproductive efficiency of Holstein Friesian cows maintained at Govt. Dairy Farm, Quetta and Pishin, was 81±1.00% and 83±1.25%, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0479,T] (1).

18. Comparative Study On The Performance Of Male And Female Parent Meat Lines With Commercial Broilers Of Hubbard

by Javed Hassan Hashmi | Dr.Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Prof. Dr. Muhammed Aslam Chaudry.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The present study was planned to compare male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent meat line breeders of Hubbard strains with commercial broiler chicks of the same strain. The objective of the study was to ascertain the genetic potential for the growth of these three different lines and their use as a commercial broilers. The following observations were recorded for the each strain: 1. Mean feed consumption. 2. Mean weekly body weight. 3. Mean feed efficiency. 4. Mean dressing percentage 5. Mortality (if any) 6. Economics of meat production. All the three groups i.e. A, B and C were reared in the brooder batteries under optimal environmental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to all the groups. The statistical analysis of data revealed that feed consumption and body weight were higher in group B having female chicks of the male (sire) line of Hubbard strain, and non significant differences were observed in feed efficiency and dressing percentage among the groups. The economic evaluation of all the three groups for meat production showed that the birds of group B having female chicks of male grand parent line proved to be the most economical. Recommendations: Male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent lines can be used as commercial broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0484,T] (1).

19. Comparative Efficacy Of Cloprostenol, Estradial And Gentamycine For The Treatment Of Endometritis In Buffaloes

by Chaudhry, Shafiq, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of Cloprostenol, EstradioJ and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis in buffaloes. Eighty buffaloes suffering from endometritis were selected amongst the animals brought for A.J. on repeat breeding at different A.I. Center/Sub-Centres in Lahore and Gujranwala city. After detailed gyanaecological examination animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups. Twenty buffaloes in group A were injected 500 ig of Cloprostenol (Estrumate). On day 8 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group B were given 3 intrauterine infusion of stilbestrol. On day 3, 5 and 7 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group C were given single dose of gentamycine (intrauterine infusion) on the day of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group D served as control and were inseminated without giving any treatment. After two months all the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. Seventy animals were tested for pregnancy diagnosis. While others were later transferred to untraceable places. The percent curative and conception rate observed in Cloprostenol treated group 'A' were 65% and 58.33% respectively similarly in group B Stilboestrol treated animals the curative rate was 75% and conception rate was 64.28%. In group 'C', the animals treated with Gentamycine, the curative and conception rate were observed 45% and 42.85%. In control group 'D' only 35.71% animals were conceived after insemination. On the basis of curative and conception rates Stilboestrol was found better than Cloprostenol and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis buffaloes. The cost of treatment with stilboestrol is lower compared with Cloprostenol and Gentamycine. On the other hand a certain degree of invonvience remains with Stilboestrol therapy as intrauterine infusion demands special skill. It is concluded that Stilbestrol and Cloprostenol results were signficanly higher as compared to treated with Gentamycine and control group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0505,T] (1).

20. Progesterone And Lh Profile Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Low Breeding Season

by Rizwan Nasr Cheema | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the main objective was to determine the oestrus activity of buffaloes during low breeding season. Out of six buffaloes 3 showed oestrus and out of these 2 repeated oestrus cycle. Both the primary and secondary symptoms of oestrus were clearly visible at oestrus. Length of the oestrus cycle was observed as 21.5 days with the average oestrus period 30.8 hours. The mean progesterone concentration in cyclic buffaloes on the day of the oestrus cycle (d=0)was 0.09 ng/ml and the highest serum progesterone concentration were observed on 16th day of oestrus cycle. In the non cyclic buffaloes the progesterone concentration remained around 1 ng/ml throughout the study. At the onset and the end of the oestrus the concentration of luteiningzing hormone was 3.9 ng/ml. Whereas at the beginning of standing heat average luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration 3.8 ng/ml. The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) was 14.4 ng/ml observed. The average time of LH surge was 17.6 hours after the onset of the oestrus. End of oestrus time of following LH surge was 17.2 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0512,T] (1).

21. Study On Various Mineral Levels And Pathology Of Visceral Organs Of Broiler Chickens Affected With Leg Deformities

by Asim Aslam | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Ahmad Raza | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: This project was designed to determine the incidence of various leg disorders in commercial broiler chickens and to elucidate the effects of leg deformity on the metabolism of broiler chickens in terms of serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride and also on the morphology of liver, kidneys and pancreas. Fifty leg deformed broiler chickens were collected from 38 different commercial poultry farms in and around Lahore, kasur, Sialkot and Gujranwala Districts. Out of the observed cases of leg deformity, 18 cases of valgus, 13 cases of slipped gastrocnemius tendon, 9 cases of curly toe, 5 cases of femoral head necrosis, 3 cases of varus and only 2 cases of synovitis were reported. This data of incidence of various leg deformaties were analysed on the basis of age, sex, strain of bird and also on the basis of location of deformity. It was noted that the most frequently encountered leg deformity was valgus. The maximum incidence of valgus occurred at 5th week of age. The males have greater incidence of valgus as compared to females. Hubbard strain had greater incidence of valgus in comparison to other strains of birds. Unilateral cases of valgus were more common than bilateral. The levels of all minerals were decreased in experimental birds as compared to control ones. The mineral levels of birds affected with valgus deformity showed that there was a highly significant difference in the levels of calcium phosphorus and sodium between the experimental and control groups. But there was a non-significant difference in the levels of potassium and chloride in both the groups. The slipped gastrocnemius tendon was noted frequently at 7th week of age, slightly more in females and all the reported cases were unilateral. Hubbard strain was found to be most liable to slipped tendon. The mineral levels of birds affected with slipped tendon showed a highly significant difference in the levels of calcium, phosphorus and potassium between the experimental and control groups. A significant difference was also noted between the experimental and control groups in terms of levels of chloride, but a non-significant difference was recorded between the experimental and control groups in case of serum sodium level. Curly toe was again recorded to its peak in birds of 7 week age, more in males and mostly bilateral. Hubbard strain was found to be the most affected one. The mineral levels of birds affected with curly toe showed a highly significant difference in the levels of calcium and phosphorus between the experimental and control groups. But a non-significant difference was noted between the two groups in cases of serum levels of sodium, chloride, and potassium. Femoral head necrosis was recorded at its highest incidence at 9th week of age, more in males, and all the recorded cases were unilateral. The strain most liable to femoral head necrosis was Indian river. The mineral levels of birds affected with femoral head necrosis showed a highly significant difference in the levels of phosphorus and potassium between experimental and control groups. A significant difference was also recorded between the experimental and control groups in terms of levels of calcium. But in the serum levels of sodium and chloride a non-significant difference was obtained between the two groups. Varus was recorded more frequently at 6 and 7 week of age, more in females, and mostly unilaterally although bilateral cases were also noted. Hubbard, Arboracres, and Lohmann strains showed more susceptible behaviour. The mineral levels of birds affected with varus showed a highly significant difference in the level of calcium. A significant difference was also recorded between the experimental and control groups in terms of levels of phosphorus and potassium, but a non-significant difference was noted in the sodium level between the two groups. Synovitis was noted mostly between 3 and 6 week of age, more or less equally between males and females. Both unilateral and bilateral cases were seen, and Hubbard and Arboracres strains were found to be more prone to synovitis. The mineral levels of birds affected with synovitis showed a significant difference in the levels of calcium and sodium in the experimental and control groups. But a non-significant difference lies between the two groups. In all these various types of leg deformities, the macroscopic lesions like, slight enlargement of liver along with discolorization and necrotic areas and in some cases congested livers showing the lesions of perihepatitis were also noticed. The kidneys showed inflammatory signs alongwith urates deposits. A pale fibrosed pancreas showed atrophic changes. The pancreas was the most severely affected organ. In majority of the birds it was severely atrophied presenting a shrunken fibrous band like structure in the convoluted duodenal loop. The colour of these pancreases was white or off-white to pink and were firm in consistency. Microscopically cloudy swellings and severe necrosis were seen in the affected livers. Mononuclear and plasma cell infiltration were also quite evident. Leukocytic infiltration in the interstitial spaces and glomerular region were quite evident. The dilated blood vessels and haemorrhages in tissue spaces were observed. In some of the severely affected cases the glomeruli were enlarged and were less in number as compared to that of normal birds.Lesions of necrosis were also noted in some of the affected kidneys. Pancreas was observed that the acinar cells were atrophied and underwent vacuolation, degeneration and necrosis. The Zymogen granules were almost absent from acinar cells. Heterophil, leukocytic and lymphocytic infiltration were frequently encountered in affected cases. A characteristic change was an inflammatory reaction in one or more pancreatic ducts where the epithelium and fibrous tissues occluded the lumen of the ducts and led to obstruction in pancreatic drainage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0513,T] (1).

22. Physicochemical Factors Effecting The Survival Of Newcastle Disease Virus

by Rizwan Qayyum | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. asif Rabbani | Prof. Dr. S.A.R. Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: For this research project, about 305 fresh fertile hen eggs were obtained from Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore. These eggs after cleaning were incubated at 37°C in automatic incubator for 11 days. At the 11th day, candling was done to confirm the fertility of eggs, either they are embryonated or not,. Eggs found dead at the time of candling were discarded. Fertile eggs 305 in number were inoculated with physically and chemically treated mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus which had already been treated and stored in plastic vials at -20°C. Each egg was inoculated with about 0.lnil of the treated viral sample. Four eggs were set for each of the factor for each time period. Four eggs were kept control in each factor in which viral suspension without physical or chemical treatment was inoculated. The project was designed to study the effect of physical and chemical factors on the survival of Newcastle disease virus. The physical factors were temperature, p11 and UV light and chemical factors included five disinfectants like Formaline, Iosan, Phenol Aldekol and Bromosept (QAC). It was noted that at 56°C temperature virus lost its haemagglutinating activity after 45 minutes, but survived this temperature at 15 and 30 minutes exposure. It was observed that virus survived at pH 4 and 9 for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hrs but was killed at pH 1 and 13 for all the said time periods. After exposing virus to UV light, it was examined that Newcastle disease virus survived at UV light exposure for 45 minutes. As far as the chemical factors were concerned, the results showed that 0.48% concentration of formalin inactivated virus in 30 minutes but not in 15 minutes. Other two concentrations i.e. 0.12% and 0.24% could not inactivate the virus. Phenol and Bromosept showed good antiviral activity against ND virus. 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations of Phenol inactivated the virus within 15 minutes but virus retained its HA activity at 0.2% phenol concentrations for 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The virus survived at 0.1% Bromosept concentration for 45 minutes and at 0.5% concentration for 15 minutes time but its haemagglutinating property was lost at 0.5% concentration in 30 minutes and at 1% concentration, the virus was killed within 15 minutes time. 0.1% concentration of Aldekol could not inactivate the virus in 15, 30 or 45 minutes. At its 0.5% concentration virus was inactivated after 45 minutes exposure but not at 15 and 30 minutes. However 1% Aldekol inactivated virus after 30 minutes but not within 15 minutes time. losan with 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations killed the mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus in 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively. So the results of this study show that losan shows excellent antiviral activity against ND virus and is the best for disinfection of this virus at the farm. Bromosept (QAC) and Phenol should be the other two options for farmers to disinfect their sheds and hatcheries to minimize the chances of infection from Newcastle disease virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0519,T] (1).

23. A Study On The Effect Of Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticide Talstar (Bifenthrim) On Immune Response In Broiler Chicken

by Fida Hussain | Prof. Dr. A.R. Rizvi | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Prof. Dr. Rashid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0520,T] (1).

24. Study On The Effect Of Different Methods Of Minimizing Heat Stress On The Performance Of Broilers

by Mansoor Ahmed Cheema | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Shaudhary | Prof. Dr. M. Aslam Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present study was planned to compare desert cooler, water sprinkling and false ceiling and to investigate their effects on performance of broilers during heat stress. Two hundred and forty, one day-old broiler chicks were procured from local market. They were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D. Each group was Further subdivided into three replicates. Each group was reared sepnrnJv in di ITorent, pens. Feed and wiLer were provided Rd 1ibitun. The duration of experimental period was 6 weeks. rFreatn1(it.Is viz desert cooler, water sprinkling, false ceiling and control were allotted to groups B, C, D and A respectively. The treatments were used from 3rd week of age to onward in the respective groups. Data regarding temperature, humidity, weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were recorded and daily average was calculated each week. The data obtained showed that all the treatments (desert cooler, water sprinkling, and False ceiling) had a effect (P < 0.05) on temperature, with highest cooling efficiency in the birds kept in desert cooler, followed by water sprinkling treatment and false ceiling Only desert cooler and water sprinkling treatments caused higher(P <0.05) relative humidity than either false ceiling treatment or control group. Although all the treatments showed a difference (P<0.05), group B (desert cooler) had the highest weight gain with maximum feed consumption i.e. 2047.78 g and 4740.74 g followed by group C (water sprinkling) 1857.36 g and 4261.26 g and D (false ceiling) 1443.97 g and 3248.37 g. The poorest weight gain and feed consumption was observed in control group i.e. 1154.35 g and 2487.28 g. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control group was better (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups, while no significant difference was observed among the experimental groups. No significant difference was also observed in the dressing percentages of all the groups. There was no mortality in any group throughout the duration of this project. Economics studies suggested that water sprinkling treatment was most. economical, followed by desert cooler treatment, while false ceiling treatment was the most expensive treatment, which cost even more than the control group. On the basis of results obtained it could be suggested that desert cooler was the best method for minimizing the heal stress Followed by water sprinkling and false ceiling. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0522,T] (1).

25. Detoxification Effects Of Aflatoxin Contamination In The Poultry Feed By Using Different Chemical Techniques

by Awan, Naeem Nazir | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Mr. Anjum Khalique | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Aflatoxins, the toxic fungi metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are potent natural contaminants of feed stuffs. Aflatoxin effects all species of animals and poultry resulting, depressed growth, production and immunity against diseases. The importance of aflatoxin in the poultry industry lies in economics loss due to the effect of reduced adsorption, utilization and metabolism of fat and protein, by decreasing bone strength, lameness, lethargy and weakness of wings ataxia, refulled or curled feather, reduced amino acid and vitamin (riboflavin) absorption, impaired immunity resulting in increased susceptibility towards infectious diseases, poor feed conversion ratio, less weight gain and feed consumption and moderate to high mortality. In addition to these effects there may be reduced ability to produce antibodies in response to vaccination. Such immune related problems are extremely difficult to diagnose. An investigation was undertaken to study the comparative value of various adsorbents to minimize the effect of aflatoxin on the performance of broiler chicks. Six experimental rations viz, A, B, C, D, E and F were prepared for the said purpose. Ration A served as negative control, Ration B, served as positive control having 100 ppb level of AFB 1. Ration C, AFB 1 @ 100 ppb and Sodium Bentonite @ 2% of the ration. Ration D, AFB 1 100 ppb and Myco-fix plus 1.0 kg/ton of feed. Ration E, AFB 1 @ 100 ppb and Myco-fix plus 2.50 kg/ton of feed. Ration F, AFB 1 @ 100 ppb and Myco-ad @ 2.0 kg/ton of feed (Commercial Adsorbents). Two hundred and forty, day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six groups having forty birds in each and which were further sub-divided into four replicates comprising of ten birds in each. The body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. The drooping feather percentage, leg deformities percentage, mortality percentage, postmortem lesions, bursal body weight ratio and dressing percentage were recorded at the end of experiment. However, the antibody titre for Newcastle disease vaccine was analyzed at 2lth, 28th, 35th, and 42nd day of the experiment. The experiment lasts for six weeks. The results indicated highly significant differences (P < 0.05) of weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio among all the groups, there was also significant differences (P<0.05) was observed among the values of dropping feather and dressing percentage, however there was no difference in leg deformities of different control and experimental groups. There was highest percentages of mortality and postmortem lesion in the experimental group F (Myco-ad) and positive control group B, (AFB 1, @100 ppb), than the groups, A, C, D and E. There was significant difference in the geometric mean titres among the groups while there was no difference in bursal body weight ration among the groups (P <0.05). From the data of present study it can be concluded that group A (Negative control) showed the best performance among the experimental groups in all above mentioned parameters: In experimental group C (Sodium bentonite) gave a better affect on the performance of birds, rather than other groups placed on the commercial adsorbents (Myco-fix plus and Myco-ad). The commercial adsorbent Myco-ad @ 2.0 kg/ton of feed had highly drastic effect on the health status and growing abilities of the birds. However, the use of Myco-fix plus (Commercial adsorbent) had some beneficial effect on experimental birds. It is recommended that more research work should be conducted to investigate more suitable measures to minimize the effect of aflatoxin Bi, before final conclusion are drawn. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0523,T] (1).

26. Effect Of Different Antioxidants In Rice Polishing On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Aziz, M | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The oxidation of rice polishing and complete feed, can significantly decrease nutritional value. The end result is a loss in nutrient quality, impairmeI of health of birds, reduction in performance and increased production cost. The detrimental effects of oxidation can be minimized by adding antioxidants to rice polishing. Quality antioxidants interrupt the reaction and control subsequent losses in nutrient value. Antioxidant protect the quality of rice polishing and feed as formulated by the nutritionist to achieve maximum growth and feed efficiency. An investigation was undertaken to study the comparative value of various antioxidants to minimize (Peroxide value, free fatty acid number) the effect of oxidation in rice polishing on the performance of broiler chicks. Six experimental rations viz, A, B, C, D, E and F were prepared for the said purpose. Ration A served as negative control (Fresh rice polishing without antioxidant), Ration B served as positive control (Rancid rice polishing without antioxidant). Ration C (Feedox) 125 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration D Santoquin 500 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration E Oxistat 125 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration F Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) @ 500 gm/ton of rice polishing. One hundred and eighty, day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six groups having thirty birds in each group and which were further subdivided into three replicates comprising of ten birds in each. The body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. Pancreas weight, dressing percentage, mortality percentage and comparative study of antioxidants were determined at the end of experiment. However, the peroxide value of rice polishing at fresh, rancid and on weekly basis was analyzed. The experiment lasts for six weeks. The weight gain of the birds fed on various experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 5-6 weeks of age were 645.0, 538.33, 655.33,709.17,663.33 and 643.0 gms respectively. Significantly more weight gain (709.17gm) was observed in the birds fed on ration D containing santoquin. Overall total weight gain of birds fed on experimental rations A to F were 1628.8, 1343.7, 1484.2, 1608.8, 1508.1 and 1471.1 gms respectively. However, the results revealed non-significant differences among weight gain of birds. The results of feed consumption indicated that birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 3063.77, 3082.0, 3277.2, 3247.13, 3360.0 and 3223.33 gms respectively. However, apparently the birds fed on ration E containing Oxistat antixodant consumed more feed as compared to other rations. The data on feed efficiency showed that birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 5-6 weeks of age were 2.558, 2.756, 2.473, 2.334, 2.590 and 2.540 respectively. Significantly (P< 0.05) better feed utilization was observed in birds fed on ration D containing Santoquin as compared to chicks fed on ration E containing Oxistat and B containing rancid rice polishing, but there was no difference in the birds fed on ration E, A, F and C. However, the feed efficiency of birds from 0-6 weeks of age fed on experimental rations A to F were 1.969, 2.209, 2.122, 1.943, 2.133 and 2.191 respectively which revealed non-significant difference among the rations. Present results revealed that weight of pancreas of birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 2.692, 3.735, 3.064, 2.89, 3.232 and 2.839 gms respectively. Significantly more weight of pancreas was observed in the birds fed o ration B containing rancid rice polishing. However, non-significant difference were noticed in the birds fed on other experimental rations. The peroxide value in rice polishing at first and the end of 6th week of experiment of rations A, B, C, D, E and F 0.8, 61.2, 2.1, 1.4, 2.4 and 2.5, at 6th week 10.3, 80.7, 6.3, 3.3, 5.9 and 7.6 respectively. It was concluded that Santoquin was the best antioxidant in controlling the oxidation process in rice polishing as compared to other antioxidants, i.e., Oxistat, Feedox and BHT used in the present experiment. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. For further study various antioxidants with various levels and various sources of fat containing ingredients (rice polishing) at various levels of inclusion should be tested. 2. This type of study should be performed with fresh ingredients. 3. Different methods i.e. control of air, moisture, temp. Of storage period, light etc. should adopted to minimize the development of rancidity. 4. Storage duration of rice polishing should be at least six weeks. 5. Storage of feed should be at controlled environment. 6. Processing of rice polishing should be in such a way that lipase enzyme not become active. 7. Santoquin (Ethoxyquin) antoxidant proved to be best in controlling oxidation process in rice polishing i.e. peroxides formation than Feedox, Oxistat and BHT antioxidants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0524,T] (1).

27. Comparative Study On The Performance Of Ross-1 And Avian Male And Female Parent Meat Lines With Commercial Broiler

by Mahmood Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This experiment was designed to compare different male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent meat line breeders of ROSS-I and AVIAN strains with commercial broiler chicks of the same strains. The objective of the experiment was to ascertain the genetic potential for the growth of these different lines of strains and their use as a commercial broiler. The following observations were recorded on; Average feed consumption, Average weekly body weight gain, Average feed efficiency, Average dressing percentage, Mortality (if any) and Economics of meat production. A total of 180 one -day old chicks purchased from local market were divided into six groups i.e. A having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Ross-I strain, B having female chicks of male grand parent meat line of Ross strain, C having commercial broiler chicks of Ross strain, D having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Avian strain, E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain and F having commercial broiler chicks of Avian strain. Chicks were reared for a period of 42 days (6 weeks) under identical managemental conditions. Same rations (Starter and Finisher) were fed to all the groups. The results indicated that there was difference (P<0.01) in feed consumption among various groups. Group E containing female chicks of the male grand parent line of Avian strain consumed highest feed (3997 gms) during 0-42 days. It was also noted that weight gain amongst all the groups from 0 to 42 days was different (P<0.01). Highest weight gain was recorded in group E having female chicks of the male grand parent meat line of Avian strain. The FCR of groups A, B, C, D, E and F during starter and during finisher phase was difference (P<0.05). However, the efficiency of feed utilization was highest in group E. Dressing percentage of different groups was not different (P> 0.05). The economic evaluation of all the six groups for meat production showed that the birds of group E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain proved to be the most economical whereas birds of groups B having females of male grand parent line of Ross strain proved 2nd during grading. RECOMMENDATIONS The overall picture of the trail reveals that male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent lines can be used as commercial broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0525,T] (1).

28. Effect Of Water Restriction On The Conmsistency Of Droppings And On Subsequesnt Performance Of Broilers

by Afzal Sher, M | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Spoilage of water and watery droppings are major factors responsible for the accumulation of excessive moisture in the poultry houses. This moisture will be deposited into the litter. Resultantly the litter becomes too wet, which in turn creates managemental problems and economic losses to the industry. Watery droppings are produced, when birds consume water beyond their metabolic requirements, because excretion of water with the faeces is almost directly proportional to the intake of water. The present study was designed to overcome this problem by restricting the water to the birds and to investigate its effects on the consistency of droppings, weight, gain, feed consumption, FCR, water intake, water: feed ratio, mortality and haematologi cal parameters. The experiment was carried out at Poultry Experimental Station, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore for a period of 6 weeks i.e. from 30-10-1996 to 10-12-1996. One hundred and eighty, one day old "Hubbard" broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 30 chicks in each. Each group was further sub-divided into 3 replicates. These groups were given water in such a way that group NA" was offered full water and the rest of the groups were given 95, 90, 85, 80 and 75% respectively of the requirement. All the groups were reared in battery brooders under optimum environmental and managemental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to them. The source of water was also the same throughout the trial. They were vaccinated according to the recommended standard schedule. From second week, onwards, moisture contents of the faeces were estimated on weekly basis. It was examined that each increment of water deprivation resulted in drier faeces and lower Water: feed ratio than the control. Statistically differences (P<0.01) of weight gain, moisture contents of the excreta, FCR, water: feed ratio and blood values were recorded among the groups. The best performance was evaluated in group C and the poorest in group F. Waler stresses did not affect mortality, only 3 birds died during the whole study. Feed consumptions was found to be non-significant. Commercially these results will be helpful in controlling watery dropping, without lowering meat production, saving of water, labour and sewerage cost in poultry operations. CONCLUSION Excreta moisture can be minimized from 1.6 to 5.2% without affecting production and economics. RECOMMENDATIONS It is recornmenj, that water consumption can be reduced from 5% to 10% in a relatively cooler environment during starter and finisher phase. Reducting the water intake 15% or more had deleterious effect on the performance of broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0530,T] (1).

29. Effect Of Mating Ratio And Age On Fertility And Hatchability In Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)

by Col.Shabbir Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present project was planed to study the effect of mating ratio and age on fertility and hatchability in Japanese quails. The production of fertile eggs was found to relate to the number of males present in a flock. Fertility and hatchability of eggs was directly influenced by sex ratio and age of birds. However, very little information in this regard is available. One hundred and seventy four males and four hundred twenty six females quails of 4 weeks age were purchased from the local market. They were divided into five equal mating groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E comprising 120 quails in each group. Each group was further divided into 2 sub groups i.e. Al, A2, Bi, B2, Cl, C2, Dl, D2 and El, E2. The mating ratio of males and females in the respective groups was 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. Birds were reared for a period of two weeks i.e. 5-6 weeks of age under similar environments on floor, then they were transferred to battery cages and were kept there upto the age of 16 weeks. To assess the ideal parental age for optimal fertility and hatchability, hatching eggs from a single hatch breeding flock between 7 and 16 weeks of age were set twice in a week The mean hatching performance of the eggs set during 7 to 8, 9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 weeks of age were recorded separately. The unhatched eggs were opened on the day 18 and examined macroscopically to identify the infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs set were calculated. Identical environmental and managemental conditions were provided to all the experimental birds. They were fed on commerca1 ration -libitum. Clean and fresh water was made available at all times. Light was provided 24 h during rearing time and 16 h during breeding period. Standard rearing, breeding and hatching management procedures were followed throughout the study period. The following data was recorded: Weight of birds at the start of experiment, Feed consumption, Average body weightlbirds on weekly basis, Feed conversion ratio, Mortality if any, Fertility percentage and Hatchability percentage. The data collected was statistically analysed using 5 x 5 Factorial design. The quail chicks at 4 weeks age weighed on an average 98 gm/bird and within a period of two weeks rearing gained on an average a body weight of 134.1 gm/bird. The weight gradually increased with age. The final body weight at the age week 16, under ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 was 130.5, 186.5, 188.0, 189.5, 191.5 and 193.5 gm respectively, the overall mean value being 189.8 gm/bird. The difference in average weight/bird in various groups has been due to the difference in the number of females. The females weighed heavier than the males consequently the groups having smaller number of females were lighter in weight than the groups having higher number of females. The percentage weekly increase in body weight was 37.6, 12.76 and 8.27% at age weeks 7, 8 and 9 respectively. Further increase in body weight from age week 10 to 16, ranged between 0.9 and 4.7. The rearing of Japanese quail beyond age weeks 8 or 9 for meat purposes will not be economical. The egg fertility was the highest at age weeks 13-14 (80.73%) followed by 15-16 (72.34%) 11-12 (7 1.12%), 9-10 (63.57%) and 7-8 weeks (56-20%), all being statistically different from one another. The mating ratio (1:1 to 1:5) showed statistically significant effect on egg fertility, which ranged between 58.16 to 8 1.12%, the maximum being at mating ratio of 1:2 and the minimum at 1:5. The mating ratio and age have been found to have significant effect on egg hatchability, it was maximum at age weeks 13-14 (67.46%) and the minimum at age weeks 7-8 (41-23%). Similarly mating ratio 1:2 resulted in the maximum (66.08) and mating ratio 1:5 showed the minimum (48.73%) egg hatchability. The results of present study have led to the conclusion that egg fertility and hatchability were highest at age week 13-14 and at mating ratio 1:2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0537,T] (1).

30. Influence Of Various Treatments Of Rice Polishings On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Abdul Majid | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmed Mian | Dr. Javaid Ahmed Qureshi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Increasing cost of feed ingredients and use of cereal grains in poultry feed which are also used for the human feeding, makes it imperative to look for alternative sources for feeding poultry to save grains for human consumption and reduce the cost of feed as well. Ingredients which are cheap, not utilized for human feeding and are readily available, merits consideration for poultry feeding. Rice polishing is one of such ingredient. Rice polishings is an important by-product of rice milling industry. It is a finely powdered material obtained in polishing the rice kernels after removal of hulls and bran. It furnishes almost equivalent energy as other cereal grains and is a good source of protein and water soluble vitamins specially thiamin and niacin. It however contains certain antinutritional factors which, could be eliminated by various treatments yielding it into a useful feed ingredient for poultry feed. Present experiment was conducted to observe the influence of rice polishings on the performance of broiler chicks after subjecting it to various treatments. Full fat rice polishings was subjected to extrusion cooking and then divided into 4 equal parts. One part was used in ration as such, second treated with 1 percent acetic acid, third treated with 1 percent calcium hydroxide and fourth treated first with acetic aid and then with calcium hydroxide. Five starter and finisher experimental rations designated as A, B, C, D, and E respectively were prepared. Ration A contained no rice polishings and was kept as control. In rations B, C, D and B treated rice polishings at 15 percent level was used substituting wheat. Starter rations were fed for 35 days and Finisher rations for 21 days to 150 Hubbard broiler chicks divided into 15 experimental units of 10 chicks each reared on floor on deep litter system. Each experimental ration was randomly allotted to 3 experimental units of chicks. Results indicated that maximum weight gain was recorded in birds fed on ration C which contained extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent acetic acid. Lowest weight gain was recorded in birds fed on ration A (control). Second best result in weight gain was observed in birds fed on ration D which contained extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent calcium hydroxide. Best feed utilization per unit of gain was observed in birds fed on ration C where as poor feed conversion ratio was noted in birds fed on ration E which contained rice polishings first treated with acetic acid and then with calcium hydroxide. Results indicated that different treatments improved the nutritional quality of rice polishings and resulted into better weight gain. Use of treated rice polishings did not show any detrimental effect on the performance of birds. Difference in feed consumed and conversion ratio towards higher side might have been due to some managemental errors or weather conditions. Extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent acetic acid showed significantly improved growth rate and feed utilization in birds per unit of gain as compared to control and other rations containing rice polishings given other treatments. It was concluded that various treatments improved the nutritional quality of rice polishings and it proved to be a beneficial feed ingredient for poultry feeding substituting wheat without any deleterious effect. Treatment with 1 percent acetic acid or 1 percent calcium hydroxide were equally good and potent methods to overcome the problem of antinutritional factors present in rice polishings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0542,T] (1).

31. Induction Of Parturition In Buffaloes Using Dexamethasone In Conjunction With Prostglandin (Pgf2 Alpha)

by Arif Majeed | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present study was intended to study the effect of prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha) and dexarnethasone on reproduction and production of Nili-Ravi buffaloes after parturition. For this purpose eighteen pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes were selected on the basis of their breeding history, with good health status, their lactation phases were 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 9th and 10th respectively. These animals were divided into three equal groups viz group A, B and C, each comprising 6 animals. These animals were kept under uniform managemental and feedings conditions. Each buffalo in groups A and B were injected with 20mg dexamethasone and 526ig cloprostenol sodium (PGF2 alpha) intramuscularly on day 10 and 15 respectively before their expected term, while the buffaloes, in group C served as a control. From the present study it was concluded that parturition can be induced at day 10 and 15 prior to their expected term successfully did not affect the production and reproductive efficiency of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The use of PGF2 alpha and dexamethasone before parturition in buffaloes did not affect the milk yield of each buffaloes as compared with control group, and also the calve birth weight compared with control group. The only complication we found was the retention of foetal membrane, in all the treated buffaloes. No retention of foetal membrane was found in the control group. So the calving interval could be reduced by reducing the duration of pregnancy. It was also concluded that by induction the lactation period could be increased. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0546,T] (1).

32. Morphological Abnormalities In The Spermatozoa Of Cross Bred Cow Bulls During Summer Season

by Afzal, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Imriaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In this study twelve normally producing breeding bulls three of each Sahiwal and Friesian breeds and six bulls of 50% Cross-bred were selected. The mean volume of ejaculates were 4.87, 4.22 and 5.95m1 in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred, respectively. There is no significant difference among the volume of breeds during the months May, June and July. The semen concentration were 637.369, 606.554 and 312.806 million per ml in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred. However, the concentration of spermatozoa in Cross-bred were significantly lower (P<0.01) as compared to Sahiwal and Friesian bulls. The overall average values for head abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P <0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Crossbred (2.65 vs 7.20 and 8.90%) respectively during summer season. The neck abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P<0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Cross-bred 1.13 vs 3.52 and 5.59% respectively during summer season. Similarly the values of mid piece abnormalities percentage were significant higher in Cross bred vs Sahiwal and Friesian (2.04 vs 0.60 and 1.83%) respectively during summer season. The same results pertaining to protoplasmic droplets and tail abnormalities were obtained. The overall average abnormalities percentage in spermatozoa of Sahiwal breed were significantly lower vs Friesian and Cross-bred (8.64 vs 21.32 and 27.67%) respectively during summer season. These results indicated that Exotic breed (Friesian) as well as Cross-bred have poor adaptability against the stress of the high temperature during summer season, so they produce lower quality semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0549,T] (1).

33. Role Of Single Injection Of Prostaglandin F2 Alpha On Breeding Efficiency Of Buffaloes

by Sajid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In the present study, a total of twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups. In group A ten buffaloes were administered with prostagladin F2 alpha (Lutalyse, Upjohn), 2 hours after calving. In group B, ten buffaloes were not given any treatment and designated as control. The reproductive organs of each experimental buffalo were rectally palpated on day 14 and day 21 postpartum. After that twice a week rectal palpation was carried out until the first postpartum oestrus. The results of present study revealed that cervical and uterine involution was completed significantly (P < 0.05) earlier in group A as compared to group B (28.90± 1.79 and 35.40±3.95 days). There was no significant difference in the diameter of cervix, gravid and nongravid uterine horn at day 14 postpartum. A significant difference between the groups was obtained on days 21, 25 and 28 postpartum in the diameter of cervix and gravid horn. The corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy regressed very rapidly following calving. The overall period required for complete regression of corpus luteum of pregnancy was (19.20±4.87 days) in treated group and (18.40±6.07 days) in control groups. The difference was significant. Follicular activity resumed independently of uterine involution. It was, however, delayed slightly by the retained corpus luteum of pregnancy. The mean postpartum interval of initial follicular development was 21.20±5.71 days in treated and 28.20±8.75 days in control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Postpartum oestrus interval was shortened in treated group (79.50±19.83 days) as compared to control group (103.0± 17.45 days) and the difference was significant (P<0.05). So it seems beneficial to administer prostaglandin F2 alpha in postpartum buffaloes to reduce the period for uterine involution and enhance the subsequent reproductive performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0585,T] (1).

34. Use Of Prostaglandin (Pgf2 Alpha) To Induce Oestrus In Postpartum Non Cyclic Sahiwal Cows

by Amjad, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The incidence of ovarian cysts in dairy cows in variously reported as ranging from 10-12 percent. Various factors are reported to influence the incidence of ovarian cysts. Factors that have been suggested are age, level of. milk production, nutrition, heredity, length of postpartum interval, frequency of examination of the reproductive tract and stress around the time of parturition. Ovarian cysts are a significant cause of reproductive failure because of prolongation of the interval from parturition to the first oestrus. Twenty four postpartum anoestrus Sahiwal cows at 85 days postpartum were selected and randomly divided into the groups viz group A and B. Group A (n=12) cows were injected 2m1 (5mg) prostaglandin F2 alpha (Prostavet, Virbac, France) intramuscularly (i/rn) at day 85 postpartum without palpation. A second injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha was given 11 days apart to those cows who had not responded to first injection. Rectal palpation was performed at 105 days postpartum to confirm the presence of corpus luteum on the ovary. A third injection was given at 118 days postpartum to those cows that had not responded to 1st and 2nd injection of PGF2c. The cows in group B were not given any treatment and served as control. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Oestrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. In group A and B the oestrus response was 66.66% and 25% respectively. This response was greater in cows of group A than group B. There was difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group A the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group B. Interval to onset of oestrus in group A was 96±15.08 hours whereas it was 25.0±1.0 days in group B. The length of oestrus in group A was 23.25±1.99 hours whereas it was 20.33± 1.45 hours in group B. The difference in the length of oestrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Group A animals exhibited oestrus during 89±0.62 days of postpartum. In group B animal exhibited oestrus at 110±0.19 days of postpartum and the difference was ignificant (P < 0.05). From the present study it is concluded that PGF2 treatment at 85 days postpartum leutolysed the luteal cyst and brings the cows in oestrus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0607,T] (1).

35. Study Of Combined Effect Of Probiotic And Antibiotic As A Feed Additive On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Major Akhtar, M | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Jaweed Ahmad Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Fermacto and Flavomycin-80 singly and in combination on the performance of broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty day-old broiler chicks were purchased from Big Bird Hatchary and randomly divided into 4 groups designated as A, B, C and D consisting of 60 birds each. Each group was further sub-divided into 6 replicates of 10 chicks each. Group A was kept as control, group B was fed on ration containing Fermacto at the rate of 2kg/ton feed, group C was given Flavomycin80 at the rate of 0.113 kg/ton of feed whereas group D was given combination of Fermacto and Flavomycin-80 at the same levels. The parameters studied were growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and mortality. Weekly feed intake and body weight gain were recorded. At the end of the experiment 10 birds from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered to determine the dressing percentage. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the difference between the means was revealed by using least significant different (LSD) test. It was concluded that the supplementation of Fermacto, Flavomycin-80 and their combination gave significant (P <0.05) improvement in the broiler chicks in terms of weight gain and feed efficiency. However, single use of Fermacto was the most economical as compared to the remaining two treatments. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0709,T] (1).

36. Effect Of Various Growth Promoting Antibiotics On The Immune And Digestive Systems Of Broiler Chickens

by Shahan Azeem | prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effects of growth promoting antibiotics on immune and digestive systems of broiler chickens. This study indicated that un-medicated un-vaccinated chickens had the higher body weights than the vaccinated un-medicated or medicated chickens. Flavomycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not adversely affect the mean weights of spleen, thymus and livers of experimental chickens. However, the use of lincomycin, adversely affected the weight of bursa of' Fabricius. Furthermore, the use of Flavoinycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not have any adverse effects on the development of antibody titers against NDV and AIV. The total viable microflora counts of different treatment groups were not different from each other. Evaluation of the economics of flocks at the end of the experiment indicated that un-medicated, un-vaccinated groups had higher profit returns and the Lincomycin medicated, vaccinated groups demonstrated lowest profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0738,T] (1).

37. Effects Of Phytase On The Performance Of Broilers Fed On Sorghum Based Diets

by Manzoor Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Mr. Anjum Khalique | Mr. Athar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: In Pakistan, sorghum (jawar) occupies 4th place with a production of 218.6 thousand tons (Economic survey of Pakistan 2000-200 1) after wheat, maize and rice. Its use is limited in poultry feed because it contains antinutritional factor i.e. tannin, phytic acid (68% of Total phosphorus). The low tannin sorghum varieties can replace maize up to 50%, and sorghum high in tannin can replace maize up to 25% in poultry diet. While considering different nutrients for broiler feed formulation minerals are also very important. Among minerals phosphorus plays an important role for poultry production. Balancing the phosphorus in compound feed is difficult task because less than one third of the phosphorus in the feedstuffs of plant origin is biologically available to monogastric animals (NRC, 1994). The organic phosphorus exists in the bran of grain, consisting mainly of phytic phosphorus, Phytase is an enzyme that liberates P from vegetable materials, destroys the antinutritional properties of phytate. Phytase was one of the first enzyme to be described in the literature. As early as 1907 the release of phosphorus from an organic phosphorus containing substrate was described by Suzuki and others (Maga 1982). The enzyme "phytase" is now known to cause the release of phosphate from phytic acid by catalyzing a series of hydrolysis reactions. Keeping in view the above facts an experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytase on the performance of broiler fed on sorghum- based diets. Two hundred broiler chicks were purchased from Big Bird Poultry Breeders and divided in to five groups. These groups were further subdivided in four replicates, having ten chicks in each. The chicks were kept in starter batteries for the first four weeks and then shifted to grower batteries till the end of experiment (six week). Five starter and five finisher rations (sorghum based) A, B, C, D, and E were prepared. "A" was control having 0.45 and 0.35% AP in starter and finisher rations respectively. While B, C, D and E supplemented with phytase enzyme (600 FTU/kg of feed) having 0.40, 0.35, 0.30 and 0.25% AP in starter and 0.30, 0.25, 0.20 and 0.15% AP in finisher rations respectively. Light, feed and fresh clean water was provided round the clock. The parameters studied were weight gain, feed consumed, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, mortality, phosphorus availability and economic. The data thus collected was subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that the weight gain of chicks fed on rations B and C were comparable to ration A (control). The chicks fed on rations D & E significantly (P<O.05) showed poor perfonnance as compared to those fed on rations A, B and C. Significantly (P<O.05) more feed was consumed by chicks fed on ration B as compared to those fed on D and E. However, nonsignificant difference was observed between feed consumption of chicks fed on rations A, B and C. Non-significant differences were observed in feed conversion ratio of chicks fed on different experimental rations (Starter & Finisher). However, the feed conversion ratio of chicks fed on ration "C" was comparable to the chicks fed on ration "A"(Control). The dressing percentage of the chicks showed improvement with supplementation of phytase enzyme but the difference were non-significant between chicks fed on different experimental rations. Phytase supplementation significantly (P<O.05) improved the availability of P in chicks fed on rations B, C, D, & E as compare to those fed on ration A (control). The total cost incurred on one kg live weight for chicks fed on rations A, B, C, D and E were Rs. 31.98, 30.58, 31.86, 33.18 and 33.76, respectively. While net profits per one-kg live weights were Rs. 16.02, 17.41, 16.14, 14.82 and 14.24 respectively. Maximum profit was observed in birds fed on ration "B" supplemented with phytase enzyme. Overall it was found that by using phytase enzyme in broiler ration more profit could be earned. RECOMMENDATION 1. By the use of phytase in poultry feed phosphorus availability could be increased. 2. Use of phytase enzyme is economical. 3. By the use of phytase enzyme 0.1% available phosphorus can be decreased in the broiler ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0741,T] (1).

38. Effect Of Enzyme (Kemzyme Hf) Supplementation Of Sunflower Meal On The Performance Of Japanese Quails

by Hammad-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The quail has gamed an important place in the poultry farming due to its better growth rate, less space requirement that is 8 or 10 quails occupy the same space on which a broiler can be reared. They mature at an early age and the female birds are usually in full production by about 50 days of age, moreover quail meat has more protein than chicken meat. Its meat is very tasty and tender. It is fortified with nutrients required for human health and has a very low percentage of cholesterol More over quail meat has comparatively more protein percentage as compared to chicken meat and is a good source of certain B. vitamins. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil meal is a by-product obtained after the extraction of oil from the decorticated sunflower seed. Being good source of vegetable protein (34% CP) the sunflower meal can be developed as a good vegetable protein supplement for different poultry rations. Sunflower meal is cheaper than soybean meal. It possesses high fiber content and chiorogenic acid an anti-nutritional factor, which can be reduce with the inclusion of enzymes. Kemzyme is stabilized multi-enzyme product from Kemin Europa NV, Belgium. It contains alpha - amylase beta - glucanase, lipase, protease, cellulase and hemicellulase complex including pentosanase, xylanase, pectinase and cellubiase. The enzyme mixture is claimed to break down the non-starch polysacchardies (NSP), reduces the viscosity of gut content and improves the utilization of feed nutrients,mainly cellulase and hemicellulase complex of Kemzyme by degrading high amounts of crude fiber in the sunflower meal. The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation on the nutritive value of diets containing different levels of sunflower meal on the performance of Japanese quails. Two hundred and seventy (270) day old quail chicks of mixed sexes were purchased from local hatchery and randomly divided into six groups of 45 quails each. Then each group was further subdivided into three replicates of 15 quails each and were kept in battery cages. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous rations were prepared using three levels of sunflower meal viz., 5, 10, 15% without enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation designated as A, B & C and with enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation (500 g/ton) designated as D, E & F. The data on the weekly feed consumption and body weight recorded during the experiment. The total weight gain and feed consumption were used to calculate feed conversion ration and economics. At the end of the experiment three birds from each replicate were slaughtered to determine the dressing percentage. Proximate analysis of experimental rations were done according to AOAC (1984). The data collected was analyzed by applying analysis of variance technique using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test to detect the difference among the treatments and means, were compared by using least significant difference test. The results showed that the maximum weight gain (190 gm) feed consumption (515 gm), feed conversion efficiency (2.71) and dressing percentage (69%) were observed in the quails fed on ration E, containing 10% sunflower meal with enzyme supplementation. While the minimum weight gain (125 gm), lowest feed consumption (427 gm) poor feed conversion efficiency (3.41) and lowest dressing percentage (60%) were observed by the chicks fed on ration C containing 15% sunflower meal without enzyme supplementation. Economics of different experimental rations fed to birds with and without enzyme supplementation revealed that enzyme supplementation sunflower meal based diets increased the profit margin by the reduction in feed cost per unit gain. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the results of present study the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The optimum inclusion level of sunflower meal, without dietary modification in quail rations may be below 10 percent. 2. Enzyme (Kemzyme HF) supplementation can improve the weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage and was the economical. 3. Enzyme (Kernzyme HF) supplementation of quail diets can only be feasible when sunflower meal used at 10 percent level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0763,T] (1).

39. Effect Of Suplementation Of Different Levels Of Vitamins On The Production Performance Of Broilers

by Mateen Ahmad | Mr. Anjum Khalique | Dr. Muhamad | prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Vitamin means vital amines. They are organic regulators of metabolism that are required in the daily diet of bird for normal growth and maintenance of the body. They are mediators of synthetic and degenerative processes and exercise catalytic functions in the body because many of them function as co-enzymes. The present study was conducted in 200 day-old Hubbard broiler chicks to knew the effect of supplementation of different levels of vitamins in broiler starter and broiler finisher ration. The supplemented ration tested were ration A (NRC), ration B (NRC+l0%) ration C (NRC+20%), and ration D (NRC+30%). The experiment had a completely randomized design. The chicks were randomly divided into 4 major groups comprising 50 chicks each. Each major group was further sub-divided into 5 replicates containing 10 chicks each. The supplemental rations were prepared according to NRC (Nutrient Requirement of domestic animals, 1994) requirement and with the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% vitamin. The four treatments were allotted to different groups of birds at random. The chicks were housed in a room compartment provided with battery cages-Experimental room temperature was 95F(35C) in the first week and then it was reduced SF each week. The birds were offered experimental rations and fresh clean water at ad libitum. The overall results showed that weight gain, FCR, weight gain per unit protein intake, liver and gizzard showed significant difference among the treatments. However feed consumption, protein intake and heart weight showed non-significant difference. The incidence of deficiency diseases was observed to be 8, 2, 0 and 0 percent fed on ration A, B, C and D respectively. However there was no mortality in any group. Net profit gain was higher for ration "D". These results might be on account that supplementation improved the digestibility of dietary organic matter, protein fed and nitrogen free extract, thereby resulting in better utilization of these nutrients that ended to better performance. So in conclusion dietary vitamin inadequacy suppressed broiler performance and impaired the cellular mediated immunity. The recommendations for vitamin requirements and vitamins supplementation practices vary considerably throughout the world. So the updates of vitamin requirements extensively used in NRC journals are not always based on recent experiments. There is therefore a danger, that requirements stated for some vitamins might not reflect the need of modern poultry. CONCLUSION 1. Experimental diet consistently showed better performance so vitamins in control diet are not optimal. 2. Normal needs of the birds and the recommended levels of the vitamins vary considerably. 3. The Official recommendations of the NRC cover only the lowerst possible needs so we will have to add substantional safety margins in the ration. 4. Improved performance in this experiment enable us to consider that further research is required to discover more efficient modalities of vitamin supplementation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0772,T] (1).

40. Ovulation Induction And Synchronization In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes With Prolonged Post-Partum Period

by Mohammad Atif ikram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Estrus detection and correct tine insemination have been considered one of the important factors affecting the calving interval in 1)11 flab population. This study was undertaken to induce and synchronize ovu1a(on rather than esirtis in buffaloes. Ovsynch program ( ovulation synclronization) enables all fertile buffaloes to be bred at a fixed time by A.l. Sixteen buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed with a mean postpartum interval of 250±31.6 days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (ii=8). On day zero, Dalmeraline (25mcg/ml lecirilin; a GnRH analogue) was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. On day 7, 2cc Dalmazine (0.075mg/mi Cloprostenol) was injected intramuscularly. One day 9, second injection of Daimeraline (Lecirilin) was given intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. Insemination was carried out 1 6 hours after second injection of GnRH analogue, Dalmeraline. Buffaloes of group B were kept as control group. They were observed for naturally occurring estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried Out primarily on standing heat basis. Buffaloes of group A responded to hormonal therapy and five out of 8 animals (62.5%) showed estrus behaviour and signs. All animals of group A were inseminated twice, once early in the morning and then in the evening with an interval of 12 hours. Three animals (37.5%) from group A were conceived at induced and synchronized ovulation at first service, while one animal (12.5%) was conceived from group B. It is concluded that the Ovsynch protocol is a useful regime in inducing and synchronizing ovulation with reasonably good conception rates. It is however, found that ovsynch protocol is also effective enough in buflaloes with longer postpartum intervals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0783,T] (1).

41. Effect Of Collection Frequency On The Semen Quality Of Broiler Breeder

by Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Talat | Mr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: In future, artificial insemination (AI) in poultry industry has a considerable importance because of the excellent results in fertility and hatchability. Increasing male utilisation in artificial insemination depends upon the optimum use of bids by increasing semen collection. The project was designed to scrutinise the effects of collection interval, testes weight and body weight on semen yield. A total of ten broiler breeder males (35 weeks of age) were randomly selected. After providing ten-day sexual rest these were trained for semen collection by abdominal message technique. In study I the effects of various frequencies of semen collection on semen characteristics were investigated. All birds being collected at 48hours, 24 hours and 12 hours intervals. In each interval five consecutive collections were examined for motility percentage, semen volume and sperm concentration. Out of ten one cock gave no semen through out the study and 2 birds did not yielded semen at 12 hours interval and were excluded from the study. No significant difference in collection intervals was established for percentage motility (P> 0.05), but semen collected at 12 hours interval was significantly lower than 24 hours interval in respect of semen volume and lower than 48 hours interval in respect of sperm concentration. Thus at 48 hours and 24 hours intervals we get significantly higher values of number of sperms per collection, number of motile sperms per collection and number of doses per collection than the values collected at 12 hours interval (P < 0.05). But difference for theses values at 48 and 24 hours collections intervals was non significant (P > 0.05). The total number of semen doses over a six-day period increased linearly and significantly as the frequency of collection increased from once every two day to twice daily. Daily semen collection was found to be more suitable for Al programme at broiler breeder farm. In study II daily semen output, paired testes weight and body weight were correlated. The semen output was found to be significantly correlated with testis weight (r =0.82) and body weight (r = 0.79), but no significant correlation was found between testis weight and body weight (r = 0.56). In biometrical examination the weight of left testis was found significantly heavier than right testis but in respect of testicular volume no significant difference was observed between the two sides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0785] (1).

42. Bacteriological Examination Of Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Milk With Particular Reference To Public Health

by Muhammad Ishaq | Dr. masood Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. M. Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present research was envisaged to study the bacteriological profile of raw camel's milk. A total of 50 milk samples were collected directly from the udders of healthy she-camels from various areas of Punjab and were examined for total viable counts (TVC), coliform counts (CC), effect of storage period on total viable counts and coliform counts, using milk ring test (MRT) for brucellosis and In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity tests for the isolates. All the samples were found negative for milk ring test (MRT) and hence for Brucella abortus. Standard plate count was in the range of 1 .39x 10 to 2. 13x107 c.f.u./ml. The mean standard plate count remained 2. 1x106 C. f. u. /ml. The coliform count was in the range of 3 . 2x iO to 5 . 9x104 c . f.u.Iml. The overall mean for coliforms count remained 3 . 9x104 c . f.u . /ml. The effect of storage period on standard plate count upto 12 hours was zero. At 24 hours, increase was not very high and it remained in the range of 0.008 % to 1.72% organisms per ml of milk. At 36 hours increase was in the range of 0.008% to 4.95%. Similarly the effect of storage period on coliform count was studied and it showed no increase in the number of organisms per ml upto 12 hours of storage. At 24 hours coliform count increase was in the range of 1.75% to 6.06% organisms/mi. At 36 hours, increase was in the range of 2.38 % to 9.09% organisms/mi. It showed that the storage period had no serious effect on the standard plate count and coliform count. Standard plate count (SPC) showed that 48 % samples gave between 1 .01x105 - 9.5x105 organisms per ml. which was not according to international standard of good quality raw milk. Of the total samples, 42 % gave the coliform count between 3 .2x103 - 6.2x103 organisms per ml which fulfilled the international standard of good quality raw milk. Different types of colonies on milk agar, nutrient agar and MacConkey's agar were purified and identified. The species isolated from all the milk samples included; Staphylococcus aureus (14 strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 strains), Escherichia coli (16 strains), Lactobacillusfermentum (4 strains) , Lactobacillus casei (12 strains), Bacillus cereus (10 strains), Bacillus subtilis (6 strains), Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains) and Neisseria mucosa (4-strains). In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity of different antibiotics with known concentrations was studied. Results showed that all of the isolated organisms were resistant to oxytetracycline, ampicillin and followed by penicillin while most of the organisms were sensitive to gentamycin, followed by chioramphenicol, kanamycin and streptomycin. Escherichia coli was resistant to all the antibiotics used while gave intermediate results by gentamycin and penicillin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0789,T] (1).

43. Effect Of Various Extenders On Semen Characteristics Of Beetal Buck (Capra Hircus)

by Aoun Raza | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ashfaq Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The artificial use of germ cells of genetcally superior bucks can enhance the growth potential of goat population to meet the shortage of mutton meat in Pakistan for daily slaughtering, sacrificial events, skin, hair and goat milk too. Beneficial use of superior germ cells can be made only when there is extension of life of germ cells for long periods, maintenance of motility of spermatozoa and increase in number of doses of ejaculate, for which an extender of choice has to be developed. Semen characteristics of forty ejaculates of bucks were evaluated. Pooled samples of ejaculates having motility estimates of at least 60% were used for evaluation. After washing of seminal plasma with physiological normal saline (20% ringer solution) and centrifugation at l000xg for 10 minutes to remove the sperm toxic factor Lecithinase-A. Pooled semen samples were extended in Tris yolk fructose citric acid (TYFCA), milk yolk (MY) and egg yolk citrate (EYC) extenders. Samples were extended using one step extension at a ratio of 1:60 in such a way that each milliliter of semen contained 30x106 progressively motile spermatozoa. Finally extended semen samples were placed at 5°C and 37°C for evaluation of motility percentage after every 24 hours interval and livability (hours) and absolute index of livability o spermatozoa, respectively. Mean±S.E. values of ejaculates of bucks for volume, pH, mass motility, individual motility percentage, sperm cell concentration, live and dead percentage, sperm abnormalities was recorded and post-extension motility percentage at 5oC, livability (hours) and absolute index of livability of of' spermatozoa of pooled semen at 37°C was recorded. Significant differences were observed (P<0.01) in post extension motility percentage at 5°C, at all intervals except at 120 hours interval where deference vas non-significant (P>0.05) between milk yolk and egg yolk citrate extenders. Post extension motility percentage at 5°C was highest in TYFCA than MY and EYC e\tenders. Post extension livability (hours) at 37°C was significantly different among three extenders at a level of probability (P<0.05) but non-significantly different among three extenders at a level of' probability (P>0.01). Absolute index of' livability at 37°C shows significant differences (P<0.01) for all extenders under statistical analysis. Livability (hours) and absolute index of' livability was higher in TYFCA than MY and EYC extenders. Based on these results and effect of extenders on semen characteristics of Beetal Buck, Tris- Yolk-Fructose-Citric Acid was developed as an extender of choice for short term preservation of' semen of' Beetal Buck. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0798,T] (1).

44. Use Of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone For Estrus Synchronization In Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Abdul Majeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Sixteen Nih Ravi buffaloes having postpartum period of 197±27.48 (Mean ±SE) days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (n=8). Estrus was induced and synchronized in buffaloes of group A by administering 75 mcg GnRH analogue (25 mcg/ml) intramuscularly on day 0 (first day of experiment). The buffaloes, showing estrus during day 0 to 7 were inseminated and were not given PGF2 alpha injection. The animals those did not exhibit signs of estrus till day 7, were injected with 0.150 mg Cloprostenol (0.075 mg/mi) intramuscularly. Buffaloes of group B served as control group and were not given any hormonal treatment. Animals in group A were observed for estrus from day 0 to 16 of the experiment, whereas the buffaloes of group B were bserved for natural estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried out mainly on the basis of standing heat. In group A, 4 buffaloes responded to the treatment and exhibited the estrus. One buffalo exhibited the estrus on day 5 following the injection of GnRH whereas three buffaloes exhibited the estrus on day 2, 4 and day 5 following the injection of PGF2 alpha. In group B, 2 buffaloes exhibited natural estrus, one on day 3 and the second on day 11 of the experiment. Variation in the interval to estrus may be because of huge difference in the postpartum days of animals. The duration of estrus in group A (24.62±O.96h) was significantly different (P>O.05) as compared to group B (20.25±O.33h). No difference was observed between group A and B towards the expression of estrus symptoms. Two animals from group A, conceived at induced and synchronized estrus at first service, whereas one animal conceived from group B. It is concluded that the select synch protocol is useful for synchronization of estrus in buffaloes with promising conception results. It is indicated that select synch protocol is also applicable for induction of estrus in buffaloes of variable postpartum intervals, it seems that select synch protocol will be an effective tool if used in cycling buffaloes during early postpartum days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0832,T] (1).

45. Effect Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) On The Growth Performance And Immune Styatus Of Broiler Chicks

by Anwar-ul-Haq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present research work was undertaken to assess the immuno-modulatory effect of Garlic on different concentrations and Zinc Bacitracin on the antibody titers against ND in NDV vaccinated broiler chicks. For this purpose 150 day-old broiler chicks were purchased from the local market and divided into 5 equal groups i.e. A (vaccinated, non medicated control), B (administered with ND vaccine and Zinc bacitracin), C (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and 1 g/kg Garlic), D (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic 5 g/kg), E (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic (10 g/kg). Each group comprised of 30 chicks. Group E was fed on a ration containing Garlic at the dose rate 10 g/kg of feed and given throughout he study period i.e. upto 42 days of age. The comparative immuno-modulatory effects of Garlic and Zinc Bacitracin were worked out on the basis of GMT levels in ND vaccinated unmedicated birds alongwith the ND vaccinated, medicated birds. These titers were evaluated by using HA and HI tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, weight gain, FCR, postmortem findings, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus, bursae and liver were also assessed in drawing the final conclusion. Data was analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) to find out the means of the experimental groups. The birds that were, NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds NDV vaccinated and Garlic 5 g/kg medicated secured second position regarding weight gain and FCR among the three experimental groups (A, B and C). The birds from group B (Z.B. and NDV) had the higher body weight than group (A and C). Feed conversion ratio of group B was also found to be better than group A (NDV vaccinated, unrnedicated) and group C (NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated). None of the three treatments (Garlic, Z.B. and control) had any adverse effects on the weight size, and texture of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver). The birds belonging to group E (NDV vaccinated, Garlic 10 g/kg medicated) had shown the highest antibody titers on day 42. While the birds of group A (NDV vaccinated, unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titers. Among the three experimental groups (B, C and D), the birds from group D had higher antibody titers as compared to other treatment groups. Whereas the group B had the higher antibody titers than the group C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0842,T] (1).

46. Efficacy Of Gentamicin And Enrofloxacin In Endometritis In Postpartum Buffalo

by Muhammad Assad Javaid | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This study was carried out on 40 postpartum buffaloes suffering from endometritis with the objective that if gentamicin (@ 4mg/kg body weight, I/M) or enrofloxacin (@ 5mg/kg body weight, I/M) for 3 consecutive days is effective against the endometritis. Twenty postpartum, untreated, healthy buffaloes were kept as control (group C). The uterine characteristics and blood samples for haematological studies were examined before (day 0) and after treatment (day 4). Mucus samples were examined for fern pattern at first estrus before treatment and after treatment. Both the treatment did not differ significantly (P> 0.05) among them; however, they had significantly (P< 0.05) beneficial effect on cervical diameter, location of uterus, texture of uterine wall and symmetry of uterine horns. Intensity of uterine infection was cured sigtnificantly. The haematological values revealed a significant improvement (P<0.05 in EST, Hb and TLC in endometritic animals (group A and B) but the difference was non significant in control group. Whereas value of TEC was non significant in group A and C and significant improvement was observed in group B after treatment. Moreover, when we compare the 3 groups (A,B and C) to each other, non significant difference was observed among the Hb concentration in three groups. Whereas, ESr was not significant between group A,B and C, but was significant between groups B and C (P<0.05). in TEC, the values were significant difference in group A with C group B with group C. but no significant difference in group A with group B. and in TLC, there was significant difference in group A with group B and group ?A with group C, but no significant difference in group B with group C. similarly in DLC the values of eosinophils were significant in group A. but no significant difference in group B and group C in before and after treatment. In neutrophils, there were significant differences in values of group B but no significant difference in group A and group C. also in lymphocytes, significant difference was found in group B, but was not no significant difference in group A and C in before and after treatment. As in basophils, monocytes, there was no significant difference in before treatment and after treatment. Furthermore, when these DLC value were compare with each other after treatment, there was significant difference in neutrophils and lymphocytes within group A with B, A with C and B with C. in monocytes, significant difference was found in A with C group and group B with C, but no significant difference in A with B. In eosinophils, no significant difference was found in all three groups. And in basophils, significant difference was found in group A with C and B with C. but no significant difference in A group with B group. The physical signs (uterine tone, vulvular swelling, hyperemia, and wetness in vagina, switching of tail, mucus discharge) and behavioural signs (Micruration, rising of tail, bellowing, mounting and restlessness of estrus were studied. After treatment estrus was observed in 45% of group A and 55% of group B buffaloes. The pregnancy rate was 60% in group A and 50% in group B buffaloes. This was comparable to the pregnancy rate in group C buffaloes (62%). And there were no significant difference in the conception rates. It is concluded that both gentamicin and enrofloxacin are equally effective for the treatment of postpartum endometritic buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0847,T] (1).

47. Prevalence And Treatment Trials Against Gastrodiscus Infestation And Its Effect On Various Blood Components In Horses

by Muhammad Ali | Prof. Dr. khalid pervez | Dr. kamran ashraf | Dr. muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was conducted to work out the prevalence of gastrodiscus infection in Lahore area and to check the comparative efficacy of one patent (Albandazole) and two Herbal Drugs i.e. Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Nigella Sativa (Kalonji) against Gastrodiscus infection in Horses and its effect on various blood components including Hb, TLC, and DLC the purpose of this experiment was tomention extensive Pharmacological Experimentation on indigenous drug which result in the discovery of some potent Anthelmintic Drugs which would be a break through in limiting Gastrodiscus infection in horses. Furthermore, it could contribute to the improvement of our economy by making an industrial use of these resources and by saving foreign exchange via exporting these medicines abroad. In addition to these, studies were expected to contribute to the rationalization of Eastern / Unani system of Medicine, practiced by HKIMS and SIANAS. To accomplish the study six hundred faecal samples of horses were collected and coprologically examined by fresh smear method to determine 40 naturally infected horses by Gastrodiscus infection. The 40 infected animals were divided into four groups i.e. group A, group B, group C, and group D comprising 10 animals. Each groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Kalonji, respectively were as group D was control and remain untreated. The prevalence of Gastrodiscus infection at Lahore areas was found to be 6.6%. The Egg per gram (EPG) counts was estimated by using Macmaster technique at zero day (pre-medication), 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day (post-medication). Groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Neem and Kalonji seeds dose rate of 10ml/10kg body weight, 500 mg/kg body weight and 1gm/kg body weight, respectively. After medication at 3rd, 7th and 10th day EPG count was measured. It was observed that at 3rd day, Albandazole Neem and Kalonji showed the efficacy 50%, 4769% and 9.09% respectively. At 7th day, the efficacy of albandazole neem and kalonji was found to be 66.66%, 53.84%, 20% respectively. At 10th day, the efficacy of albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 95%, 60% and 27.27, respectively. The average efficacy of Albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 70.5%, 53.6% and 18.78%, respectively. Hence, Albandazole, and Neem showed better results as compared to Kalonji. It was concluded that Albandazole and Neem were safe against Gastrodiscus in Horses. HAEMATOLOGY In the present study forty blood samples from naturally infected horses with different intensities of infection were examined for haematological studies to know the changes in the blood picture due to Gastrodiscus. The blood samples were collected premedication i.e. on Zero day and then on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post-medication. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected animals on Zero day. The normal haemoglobin value was 10.5 to 15.5 g/dl. This value became near to normal on 7th day post-medication and went on increasing upto 10th day as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The study regarding the total leukocytic count concluded a mild increase values of TLC, but after treatment these values decrease to normal level as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The haematological finding of the present study are in complete accordance with the results of Chaudhry et al., (1991) and Peal et al. (1989). The reported that there was decrease in hemoglobin values of infected animals as compared to healthy animals. It is tempting to speculate that the decrease in haematological values may be due to the blood sucking habit of the parasite. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0851,T] (1).

48. Effect Of Locally Produced Phytase Enzyme On Growth Of Layer Chicks

by Farhan Ahmad | Dr. Anjum Khalique | Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The objectives of this study were, to produce phytase on large scale and to make sure its effectiveness in utilization of phytate P in diet of growing pullets. The fungal species Aspergilus niger was used as fermentation organism, for the production of extra cellular high active phytase enzyme on defatted rice bran through solid state fermentation (SSF). Cultivation conditions for phytase production including substrate; water ratio, temperature, were optimized. Phytase production was found maximum after 96 hrs of incubation, at 40% moisture level. The developed conditions were then utilized for production of phytase on large scale basis. After production, the activity of enzyme was measured. Then this phytase was supplemented to layer grower negative control diet (NPP 0.3 1%) in different proportions i.e., 0, 1000, 1500 and 2000 tg/kg of diet to increase the bioavailability of phosphorus. Rice polishing was used as a major ingredient, as it contains high phytate contents. During experiment, feed intake, weight gain and FCR of birds were measured on weekly basis. Excreta were collected at the end of experiment to determine the effect of phytase on P availability. Also samples of toes were collected and percentage toe ash was measured. The total feed consumption from 9-18 wk of pullets fed on diet A, B, C and D was 2919.7, 2861.9, 2913.6 and 2930.9g respectively. Weigh gain was 743.15, 718.37, 749.70 and 768.OOg respectively and FCR was 3.93, 3.99, 3.89 and 3.81 respectively. The results showed that when low P diet (0.31% NPP) was supplemented with different levels of phytase, there was slight improvement in the performance of birds with the addition of phytase in respect of feed consumption, weight gain and FCR. Group "D", fed with diet containing 0.31% non phytate phosphorus (NPP) plus phytase (2000 igfKg of diet) showed best performance than all other groups. Group "B", fed with diet containing 0.3 1% NPP plus phytase (1000 j.tg/Kg of diet), showed poorest performance. While the performance of group "C", fed with diet containing 0.3% NPP plus phytase (l500.ig/Kg of diet) was almost similar to control group (A) fed with diet containing 0.4% NPP without phytase. The data was subjected to statistical analysis, using completely randomized design (CRD). The statistical analysis revealed non-significant difference (P> 0.05) among all treatments in respect of feed consumption, weight gain and FCR. The results were non-significant; it indicates that even lowest level of phytase (1OO0tg/Kg of diet) with 50% DCP was sufficient to maintain optimum performance of pullets. It also indicates that further investigations are required to decrease the DCP level below 50% with addition of different levels of phytase. Phosphorus availability percentage of groups A, B, C and D was 42.67, 50.00, 54.68 and 60.67% respectively. While percentage of toe ash was 11.9, 11.2, 12.1 and 12.7% respectively. The results of P availability measured from the P intake through feed and P voided through feces showed that there was significant linear increase (P < 0.05) in percentage of P availability with increase in level of phytase. In group D (2000ig phytase 1Kg of diet) there was highest availability of P while in control group there was lowest availability of P. In respect of toe ash there was significant difference (P < 0.05) among different experimental pullet groups. Highest toe ash percentage was in D (2000.tg phytase /Kg of diet) group while lowest in group B (l000.tg phytase /Kg of diet). Toe ash percentage of group C (1 500.tg phytase 1Kg of diet) was slightly better than group A (control). Statistically groups A and C were better then group B, but non-significant among each other. Toe ash was higher (P < 0.05) in group D than all other groups except group C. Conclusion - We can reduce 50% of inorganic source of phosphorus i.e. DCP with the addition of phytase, in the diet of growing pullets, with out any adverse effect on the performance of pullets. - Other benefit of phytase supplementation is that we can improve availability of P and ultimately can reduce P in feces of birds and thus can reduce the environmental pollution. - Further investigations are required to reduce DCP level more than 50% or even up to 0 levels with the addition of phytase. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0853,T] (1).

49. Effect Of Autoclaving And Extrausion Of Rice Polishing On Apparent And True Metabolizable Energy In Cockerels

by Muhammad Fayyaz Ahmad | Dr. Anjum Kahliq | Dr. Ishfaq | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: The project was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizabole energy (TME) of untreated, autoclaved and extended rice polishing in cockerels by force-feeding method. Three feedstuffs commonly used in poultry rations were assayed. Forty birds of uniform weight and size were selected out of 60 birds for experimental purpose. Each rice polishing sample was force fed to 10 cockerels for estimation of AME and TME. Ten birds were kept as control for the estimation of endogenous energy losses. The pre feeding fasting period was 24 hours and excreta were collected over a period of 24 hours. Proximate analysis for Moisture, Crude Protein, Ash, Fiber and Nitrogen free extract were carried out. The gross energy of the ingredients and the excreta were measured by using adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter. AME and TME were worked out; the AME values of untreated and autoclavedrice rice polishing were statistically non significant (P>0.05). There was no affect of autoclaving on metabolizable energy contents in rice polishing. It might be due to the fact that water soluble nutrient lost during autoclaving. The values of extruded rice polishing were statistically high than untreated and autoclaved rice polishing (3255 kcal/kg). This was due to provision of heat during treatment. This high temperature may be cause of denaturing of complex carbohydrates and thus increase of soluble carbohydrates. The treatments also improve the nutritional value of rp in terms of protein, energy vitamin, minerals etc., it was noted that there was direct relationship between the crude fiber content and AME of feed stuffs. As crude fiber content of feed stuffs increased the AME values decreased and vice versa. True metabolizable energy values were obtained by the addition of metabolic faecal and endogenous urinary energy (Fe + UE) to AME. True metabolizable energy of untreated rice polishing, autoclaved and extruded were 3532, 3516 and 3650 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0855,T] (1).

50. Comparative Studies On The Sensitivity Of Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Microscopic Examination For The Detection of Trypanosoma Evansi in Horses

by Muhammad Asif Muieed | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Mr. Asim Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was standardized and its efficacy was evaluated against microscopic examination i.e. Giemsa stained smear method ['or the diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection (Surra) in horses. l3lood samples were collected from 100 suspected horses from different localities in Lahore. Under aseptic precautions blood smears were prepared, after drying and fixing with methanol, slides were stained by Giemsa stain method of staining. By stained blood smear method 5 out of 100 horses were found positive For T. evansi infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on the blood of' the same suspected horses to evaluate its efficacy in the diagnosis of' T. evansi infection and to compare its diagnostic value against the microscopic examination method currently in use. For this purpose total genomic DNA was extracted from suspected blood samples. The PCR reaction was performed in a 50tl reaction mixture containing I X Taq BuFfer, 0.2 mM dNTP Mixture. I .5 mM MgCIl2 2.5 U/1i1 Taq Polymerase. 4uM of' each primer, 2 ul of DNA extracted and 31.5 p1 of DNase - free deionised water. The tubes containing the mixture were subjected to 30 cycles of amplification in a thermocycler. During each cycle the sample of' DNA was denatured at 93° C' For 30 seconds, annealed at 45° C For 30 seconds and extended at 720 C For I minute. Prior to the cycling and at the end of' cycling the mixture was subjected to incubation at 93° C for a period of 3 minutes and final extension at 72° C for a period of 5 minutes, respectively. PCR product was then characterized by 2.5% of agarose gel electrophoresis. To confirm the presence of DNA and to estimate its size it was compared with a DNA ladder and was photographed with a Polaroid camera. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed 16 positive cases out of 100 above mentioned suspected cases. These 16 positive cases diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also included animals, which were diagnosed by stained blood smear method. It can be concluded that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a superior and sensitive (16%) in comparison with the microscopic examination i.e. Giemsa stained smear method (5%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more effective in cases where the parasitemia is low and this test could be used in other species of animals especially camels where the disease is more chronic and difficult to confirm by. other routine methods. PCR would not only ensure early diagnosis and treatment in individual animals but can detect animal reservoirs of infection and would help to eliminate threat to equine and camel herds which are grazed and housed together and where blood sucking mechanical fly vectors are ever present. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0860,T] (1).



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