Carrier Status Of Foot And Mouth Disease In Ruminants Through Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It is caused by genus Aphthovirus of Picornaviradae family. FMDV is RNA virus having seven serotypes A, O, C, Asia 1, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3.
Serotypes A, O, C and Asia1 are endemic in Pakistan and causes high economic losses to livestock industry .So priority is to apply quick and efficient methods for detection of FMDV infection and to limit the spread of outbreaks of the disease. Although CFT, VNT and ELISA are already being used for the diagnosis of FMDV in Pakistan but these diagnostic techniques are time consuming and their specificity and sensitivity is low. RT-PCR for the identification of FMDV is very much sensitive and specific, can be done within three hours after receiving of samples to the laboratory.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep and goats is frequently mild or unapparent, but can cause high mortality in young animals. The outbreaks of FMD in 1999 in Morocco, in 2001 in the United Kingdom & in 2007 in Cyprus has highlighted the importance of sheep in the epidemiology of the disease, although there have been numerous examples in the past where small ruminants have been responsible for the introduction of FMD into previously disease-free countries. The difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis should encourage the development of more rapid screening tests to assist in future control programs.
In Pakistan, no study has been conducted to depict the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology and transmission of FMD virus to the large ruminants. Keeping in view this neglected area of research, present study is planned to apply the sensitive and economical RT-PCR technique for the rapid detection of carrier status of FMD virus in ruminants; and to highlight the importance and need of vaccination to small ruminants against FMD virus in order to control outbreaks of the disease and transmission to the large ruminants population.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1577,T] (1).
Descrptive Epidemiology Of Canine Parvovirus Disease In Dogs At Pet Enter Uvas In Lahore And Interventional Trial
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Pakistan has been bestowed with a huge population of livestock encompassing buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat, camel and other domestic animals such as cats, dogs, rabbits, etc. Out of these, dogs occupy a special attention due to many peculiarities they possess like sniffing, hunting, retrieving and many more. These specialties of dogs are utilized by military, rangers, police, anti-narcotic forces, other agencies, etc. There are three million dogs in Pakistan. A dog encounters many infectious and non-infectious diseases during the course of its life cycle. Some of the viral infectious diseases, and considered more important for a dog are, rabies, canine parvovirus infection, canine distemper, and infectious canine hepatitis. As a pathogen, canine parvovirus emerged in 1970s but later it evolved into two new antigenic strains, type 2a and type 2b which are distributed all over the world. Mostly, protection against CPV is gained from maternally derived antibodies in puppies but simultaneously they may interfere with CPV vaccination. Severe gastrointestinal signs are associated with CPV and this infection is transmitted through contact with infected feces via oro-fecal route or exposure with fomites and also via placental transmission. The virus is very stable in the environment and is susceptible to some cleaning agents like bleach.
The current study was conducted to study the descriptive epidemiology of canine parvovirus disease in dogs at Pet Center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) in Lahore and to compare two types of hyper immune sera i.e. Canglob (Ghazi Brothers) and UVAS hyper immune serum for parvovirus through interventional trial, for treating the clinically diseased pups. The study included puppies aged between six weeks and six months. Puppies aged between six weeks and six months, found clinically suspected to be affected with canine parvovirus and showing the signs and symptoms like vomiting, bloody mucoid diarrhea, emaciation and anorexia and found positive for hemagglutination test were included in the study. Hemagglutination test was used as a diagnostic and a screening test to confirm canine parvovirus in the clinically suspected puppies.
The disease was more observed in the puppies aged between 7 to 12 weeks. There were 28 females and 32 males observed in the study. The disease was more frequently observed in Labradors. The disease was observed to be more common in the dogs that weighed 4-6 kgs. Canine parvovirus HA titers were more observed in the dogs that had been ill due to CPV for the past 5-6 days. Only 16 puppies out of 60 were vaccinated. Also, it was observed that canine parvovirus geometric mean titer was higher in the non-vaccinated puppies. The disease was more observed in the pups vaccinated with a polyvalent vaccine and less observed in the pups that were inoculated with a monovalent vaccine. Most of the dogs were aged between 31-60 days when they got vaccinated. Sixty percent (60%) of the dog owners knew that if vaccination is done then the dog may be protected against the disease. The disease was more observed in the pups that were owned by more educated and economically stabled persons.
The result of the statistical analysis using Pearson Chi-Square Test suggests that the difference between Group A and Group B regarding the outcome of the interventional trial is not statistically significant. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted that the UVAS produced hyper immune serum against canine parvovirus is equally good as compared with Canglob for the treatment of CPV diseased puppies.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1831,T] (1).
Status Of Awareness Among Zoo Workers About Zoonotic Diseases
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: A zoo is a place where wild animals are kept for exhibition purposes to the public.It includes: aquaria, sanctuaries, bird gardens and safari/wildlife parks. These are centers for wild animal’sconservation and for public recreation and education (Cuaron2005). Epidemiologists, wildlife biologists, veterinarians and conservationists used these for research purpose.According to an estimate Pakistan is maintainingapproximately 27 zoos, deer parks, etc.(Walker 2014).
Zoonotic diseases are those which are naturally transmitted from animals to human beings and vice versa. The word Zoonosis is derived from the Greek word zoon (animal) and nosos (disease). The diseases which are transferred from human beings to animals are known as Zooanthroponotic (Greek “Zoon” = animal, “anthrópos” = man, “nosos” = disease) diseases e.g. tuberculosis, measles, giardiasis and amoebiasis. On the other hand the diseases which are transmitted from animals to human beings are known as anthropozoonotic diseases e.g. anthrax, AIDS, psittacosis and rabies (Epstein and Price 2009).
Zoonosis can be classified according to their circulation in the ecosystem. These are either classified as synanthropic zoonosis, with an urban (domestic) cycle in which the source of infection are domestic and synanthropic animals (e.g. cat scratch disease, urban rabies and zoonotic ringworm) or exoanthropic zoonosis, with a sylvatic (feral and wild) cycle in natural foci outside human habitats (e.g. wildlife rabies, arbovirus, lyme disease and tularemia). Some zoonotic diseases can circulate in both urban and natural cycles (e.g. chagas disease and yellow fever).
A review study identified that 1415 species of infectious organism are pathogenic to human beings. This includes 217 viruses and prions, 538 bacteria and rickettsia, 307 fungi, 66 protozoa and 287 helminthes. Out of these, 868 (61%) are zoonotic in nature (Taylor et al. 2001). More than 60% of the emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and 70% of their reservoirs are wild animals (Cutler et al. 2010).
The reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases are wild animals whose causative agents are viral, rickettsial, chlamydial, bacterial, parasitic and mycotic(Bengis et al. 2004). Zoonotic diseases like tuberculosis, plague and rabies have badly affected the mankind since ancient times and the reservoirs of all of these are wild animals (Stone et al. 2009). Some zoonotic diseases in human beings are self-limiting whose signs range from few days to a long term illness e.g. gastroenteritis caused byGiardia, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella species.Some zoonotic diseases may cause abortions (Toxoplasmosis) and fatal encephalitis (Japanese encephalitis). Whereas some zoonotic diseases may causes high mortality e.g. Marburg hemorrhagic fever(MacNeil and Rollin 2012). Zoonotic diseases cause death not only in their natural hosts but also in endangered wild animal species near to extinctione.g. Ebola virus cause high mortality in monkeys (Nunn et al. 2008). It is clear from various studies in different zoos that both anthropozoonotic and zooanthroponotic transmission can occur (Adejinmi and Ayinmode 2008).
Zoonotic agents have potential to be used for bioterrorism. The bioterrorism attack is aimed to cause fear, destabilization, stress, illness and death in people, animals and plants. (Lin 2014). Air, water and food may be the warfare biological vehicles for its spread. During World War 1, anthrax was used as a biological warfare in animal populations. Glanders and typhoid were also used for bioterrorism attack in 1910 and 1970, respectively. Several cases of bioterrorism also occurred in the United States due to anthrax in September and October 2001 (Spencer 2007).
A Zoo worker should haveknowledge of the transmission of the disease to avoid its transmission. The common ways of the transmission are direct mode (ingestion, animal bites, inhalation, needle prick injuries and skin contact) and indirect mode (vector borne, fomite, long distanceand airborne transmission). In zoo management, the role of veterinarians is extremely useful. Their job exposes them to several health-related threats during routine operations. e.g. animal bites, needle prick injuries, back injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases and even mortality in certain cases (Hill et al. 1998; Kabuusu et al. 2010).
The personal protective equipment’s are not used during restraining, treatment, necropsy and cleaning the animal enclosures. It may increases the chances of zoonotic diseases to zoo workers and veterinarians. The disposal of wild animal carcasses, organs, unused food, feces and urine by unscientific methodsenhances the process of pathogens transmission(McLaughlin 2002). Laboratory personnel can also be infected with zoonotic diseases due to lack of good laboratory practices in wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories(Rietschel 1998).
Therefore, prevention and control of zoonosis must be an important part of zoo occupational health and safety measures. Preventive measures can be either general or specifically designed for a particular disease. It is possible to prevent many of the zoonotic diseases by following basic hygiene and sanitation procedures.The present study was conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, practice and experience levels about zoonosis among zoo workers of district Lahore(Lahore Zoo, Jallo Wildlife Park and Lahore Safari Zoo).
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2229-T] (1).
An Epidemiological Investigation For The Selection Of Suitable Vaccine Virus Candidate Of Newcastle Disease
Material type: Book Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: The current study was designed to investigate the risk factors associated with Newcastle disease and characterization and confirmation of Newcastle disease on microbiological and molecular basis. Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important viral diseases. It is an acute infectious viral disease of domestic poultry and other species of birds regardless of variation in sex and age. Etiological agents of ND are virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae and order mononegavirales. The data collection was done on predesigned questionnaire. Newcastle disease virus isolation was done by using the embryonated eggs. Amnion allantoic fluid was harvested and checked for hemaglutinating activity by spot hemaglutinition test and results were recorded. For confirmation of NDV hemaglutinition assay and hemaglutinition inhibition test were used. Further confirmation was done by RT PCR using predesigned primers. Results showed that vaccine used at the most of farms were live attenuated. Most of the farms have no written biosecurity plan. A total of 264 samples were examined 17 samples were the best suspected positive for ND, 10 samples were confirmed on the basis of postmortem lesion, HI and PCR.
The study concludes the farm type, dead bird disposal, biosecurity, farm history and vehicles for feed transportation are the risk factors for the outbreak of Newcastle disease. Whereas water quality, farm mangers, litter disposal, vaccine schedule and vaccine type given at farm show no significant association with the spread of disease. The study characterized field isolates on microbiological and molecular basis, submitted to the principle investigator for use in development of multiepitop vaccine.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2462-T] (1).
Association Of Dietary Habits With Anthropometric Measurement And Academic Performance Of Children Enrolled In Grade Iv And V In Selected Schools Of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: More than 30% of Pakistan’s population lives below the poverty line. The poorest 20% of the population earn 6.2% of the country’s total income and most households in Pakistan spend almost half of their income on food. School age period is nutritionally important because this is the prime time to build up body stores of nutrients in preparation for rapid growth. Healthy children learn better. Dietary habits are associated with the anthropometric measurement and academic performance. Different schools in three categories (i.e., high, moderate and low fee structured) were surveyed and 50 children of grade IV and V (total 900 samples) from each school of each category in the district Lahore.
Questionnaire was filled to get the information regarding the 24 hour dietary recall of the children and its effect on the anthropometric measurements and academic performance will be noted. Parameters included were age, gender, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), dietary habits and academic performance was assessed and the association of dietary recall with anthropometric measurements and academic performance were assessed. The collected data was analyzed by association SPSS. Analyzed data were represented in percentage, frequencies and charts to assess the association of dietary habits with anthropometric measurements and academic performance of children. The proposed study is expected to determine the role of dietary habits with anthropometric measurements and the academic performance of children.
Mother’s education depends on the admission of students in better school. In High Fee structured schools, mainly the children of Private employees get admitted. Whereas, in Middle Fee structured schools, the children of government employees get admitted. Whereas, in Low Fee structured schools, the children of Government and Private Employees get admission. In class IV, 9 years old children get admitted. Whereas, in Low Fee structured Category, the students of 9 and 10 years age get admitted. It can be stated that in High Fee structured early aged children are admitted. In Class V, the children of 10 and 11 years has almost equal proportion of admission in different category of schools. In Class IV, female’s ratio was more as compared to male in each category of schools. Whereas, in Class V, equal proportion of male and female children got enrolled.
The ratio of Obese children was more in High Fee Structured Category Schools, whereas, less in Moderate and Low Fee Structured Schools. The ratio of Under Weight was also more in students of each category of schools. The ratio of Obese, Overweight and Normal children of Class IV, was more in male children as compared to female, in High and Moderate Fee Structured Category Schools. Whereas in Low Fee Structured Schools, female children were Normal regarding BMI. In class V children, Normal BMI ratio was more in Girls, as compared to Boys, and Vice versa in other two categories of schools.
In class IV students, Main number of students scored 70-79% and 80-89% in high fee structured schools marks and in Moderate Fee structured schools, mainly students scored 60-69%
marks. In Low fee structured schools, score was 70-79% marks in last school examination. On the other hand, in class V students, Main number of students scored 80-89% in high fee structured schools marks and in Moderate Fee structured schools, mainly students scored 60-69% marks. In Low fee structured schools, average score of children was 60-69% marks in last school examination. Overall consumption was less than recommended by US Department of Health and Human Services and the American Heart Association (AHA).
Association of Dietary Habits with anthropometric measurements was significant. There was a direct relationship between Dietary Habits with anthropometric measurements. Main proportion of children were under weight. Less children were normal and only a few 8% children were Overweight. The data has a direct relationship between dietary habits and Anthropometric measurements. There was also an indirect relationship between dietary habits and Academic performance. If we improve the Dietary habits of children then the score of children will not be high. On the average 67.85% children got above 90% marks in last school examination. The 52.81% children scored 81-90% marks in last school examination. Similarly, 62.35% children scored 71-80% marks. Hence it can be computed from the data that Dietary habits has a reverse relationship with academic performance of children.
In view of the data discussed, it is concluded that dietary habits and life style plays and important role in the maintenance and promotion of the good health. The children who were taking adequate diet from all food groups have normal BMI and adequate muscle protein indicated by MUAC values. Underweight children eat less frequently than normal. Data analysis revealed that
over all consumption of food was inadequate and nutritional status was also affected by meal frequency, meal timings, eating pattern and physical activity.
There was no significant difference among normal and obese regarding meal frequency but unstructured eating pattern was observed. Through the children taking adequate calories the type of food taken was not proper. The food prohibition was more common in children. The prohibition of these food items.in children existed due to the absence of knowledge regarding nutritional value of the food items, personal likings and disliking.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2731-T] (1).
Active Surveillance Of Avian Influenza In Sentinel Live Bird Markets Of District Rawalpindi
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live bird markets. The outbreak can be subsided by applying biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movement, using inactivated vaccines and initiating an Avian Influenza surveillance network throughout the country.
Avian influenza virus is prevalent in live birds markets of poultry in district Rawalpindi.A survey was conducted for a period of 6 months in order to determine prevalence and trends of Avian Influenza H9 in the live birds markets of district Rawalpindi. A total of 355 samples were required to estimate retail shop level prevalence of avian influenza. Using systematic sampling method 14 butchers will be enrolled from 2 sentinel live bird market and they were visited weekly to collect samples for a period of 6 months. In each week 14 pooled samples from 70 birds (a pool of 5 swab samples and 2 serum samples from each shop was collected) was collected from both sentinel sites. Tracheal/oropharyngeal swabs will be collected from live and apparently healthy poultry birds then stored properly at 4°C (24-48hours) until processed. Data was collected from the shopkeeper in a face to face interview. A detail predesigned questionnaires were filled after taking written consent from the owner. The sample collected during the survey live birds markets of Rawalpindi district were processed for laboratory analysis. Real time RT-PCR and HA and HI tests for avian Influenza virus were conducted to diagnose sample for AIV.
The proportion estimate with 95% C.I (confidence intervals) of the overall prevalence was computed by using R software. Pattern of influenza infection in live bird markets were estimated with reference to space and time. Descriptive analysis was conducted (i.e. mean, proportion) to answer four epidemiological W’s i.e. what, who, when and where.
In present study, sero-positivity against H9 AIV was determined in district Rawalpindi. Haemagglutination (HA) assay was performed and HA titer of 1:256 was calculated, the dilutions of 8HAU was 1:32.Serum samples (n=784) were tested by HI. Out of these 784, 306 sera samples were positive (HI titer>1:8) from 2 preselected sentinel markets and 14 poultry shops, while 478 were negative (HI titer <1:8) for AI. The highest antibody titer was 1:64.
The period sero-prevalence was 39.03% (95% CI: 35.41- 42.44).Results showed thatnumber of positive was high in the month ofOctober and November then slight decreased in the month of December, January and February after that it again increased in the month of March, April and May.During the study a week with one positive result was considered positive and a week was declared negative when all samples were negative. Results showed that minimum 4 and maximum 22 weeks remained positive sample results.Fourteen shops were followed up for 28 weeks and from each shop the study 56 sera samples were collected throughout the study. In 14 shops, highest prevalence was 48.21% and lowest was 28. 57%
It is concluded that avian influenza is circulating in Live Bird Markets in district Rawalpindi. This process shared that this market could perpetuate and transmit avian Influenza to Human. So these markets are the hot spot of avian influenza infection.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2798-T] (1).