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1. Pillars of Epidemiology

by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: UVAS LAHORE; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 614.4 Athar 30073 1st 2013 Epidemiology] (3).

2. Antiseperim Antibodies: A Plausible Cause Of Repeat Breeding In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Amir Saeed, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The present study was designed with the assumption that high titres of antisperm antibodies in repeat breeders might be a contributing factor for conception failure in such animals. For this purpose, 32 buffaloes/buffalo heifers were divided into four equal groups. From the normal cyclic and repeat breeder buffaloes, 48 serum samples were collected at 0, 1, and 24 hours after insemination, respectively. Oestrus mucus was also collected from these animals. A total of 16 serum samples were collected from virgin heifers and pregnant buffaloes. The serum and mucus samples were subjected to simple agglutination test, sperm quantitative penetration test and sperm cervical mucus contact test. High antibody titres were recorded in the serum and oestrus mucus of repeat breeders. Moreover, it was observed that lesser number of spermatozoa penetrated through a definite distance in cervical mucus of repeat breeder buffaloes as compared to cervical mucus of normal cyclic animals. Similarly higher number of spermatozoa exhibited shaking movement over a period of time in cervical mucus of repeat breeders, which indicates the presence of spermagglutinins. Thus, it can be concluded that antisperm antibodies may be responsible for conception failure in repeat breeder buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0383,T] (1).

3. Comparison Of Two Methods Of Estrus Synchronization In Sahiwal Cows

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 24 Sahiwal cows were selected for this study and randomly divided into two groups viz A and B. Group A cows were injected two injections of prostaglandin F2 intramuscularly without palpation 11 days apart, while the other group involved the veterinarian skill for detection of palpable corpus luteum and only single injection of prostaglandin was given in all the cows. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Estrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. 91.66% and 83.33% cows from A and B groups respectively responded to the treatment. This response was slightly greater in cows of group A than group B. Interval to the onset of estrus after treatment was found non-significant (P>O.05) in both group cows. The length of estrus in group A was 21.54±1.65 hours whereas it was 19±0.88 hours in group B. The difference in the length of estrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The conception rate of both groups was found to be 54.54% and 50% respectively, which was slightly higher than the second group. The mucus characteristics of both the groups were noted and 81.81% and 70% cows were found having typical fern like pattern and discharged clear (Transparent) mucus. No one cow having atypical fern pattern and cloudy discharge of mucus conceived. The behavioural signs and the physical changes were recorded. There was little difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group B the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group A. The cost per animal for group A and B was 303 rupees and 276.50 rupees, economically group B technique seems to be profitable to the farmers, and by adopting this technique one can save money. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0462,T] (1).

4. Comparative Efficacy Of Cloprostenol, Estradial And Gentamycine For The Treatment Of Endometritis In Buffaloes

by Chaudhry, Shafiq, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of Cloprostenol, EstradioJ and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis in buffaloes. Eighty buffaloes suffering from endometritis were selected amongst the animals brought for A.J. on repeat breeding at different A.I. Center/Sub-Centres in Lahore and Gujranwala city. After detailed gyanaecological examination animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups. Twenty buffaloes in group A were injected 500 ig of Cloprostenol (Estrumate). On day 8 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group B were given 3 intrauterine infusion of stilbestrol. On day 3, 5 and 7 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group C were given single dose of gentamycine (intrauterine infusion) on the day of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group D served as control and were inseminated without giving any treatment. After two months all the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. Seventy animals were tested for pregnancy diagnosis. While others were later transferred to untraceable places. The percent curative and conception rate observed in Cloprostenol treated group 'A' were 65% and 58.33% respectively similarly in group B Stilboestrol treated animals the curative rate was 75% and conception rate was 64.28%. In group 'C', the animals treated with Gentamycine, the curative and conception rate were observed 45% and 42.85%. In control group 'D' only 35.71% animals were conceived after insemination. On the basis of curative and conception rates Stilboestrol was found better than Cloprostenol and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis buffaloes. The cost of treatment with stilboestrol is lower compared with Cloprostenol and Gentamycine. On the other hand a certain degree of invonvience remains with Stilboestrol therapy as intrauterine infusion demands special skill. It is concluded that Stilbestrol and Cloprostenol results were signficanly higher as compared to treated with Gentamycine and control group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0505,T] (1).

5. Progesterone And Lh Profile Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Low Breeding Season

by Rizwan Nasr Cheema | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the main objective was to determine the oestrus activity of buffaloes during low breeding season. Out of six buffaloes 3 showed oestrus and out of these 2 repeated oestrus cycle. Both the primary and secondary symptoms of oestrus were clearly visible at oestrus. Length of the oestrus cycle was observed as 21.5 days with the average oestrus period 30.8 hours. The mean progesterone concentration in cyclic buffaloes on the day of the oestrus cycle (d=0)was 0.09 ng/ml and the highest serum progesterone concentration were observed on 16th day of oestrus cycle. In the non cyclic buffaloes the progesterone concentration remained around 1 ng/ml throughout the study. At the onset and the end of the oestrus the concentration of luteiningzing hormone was 3.9 ng/ml. Whereas at the beginning of standing heat average luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration 3.8 ng/ml. The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) was 14.4 ng/ml observed. The average time of LH surge was 17.6 hours after the onset of the oestrus. End of oestrus time of following LH surge was 17.2 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0512,T] (1).

6. Comparative Study On The Performance Of Ross-1 And Avian Male And Female Parent Meat Lines With Commercial Broiler

by Mahmood Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This experiment was designed to compare different male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent meat line breeders of ROSS-I and AVIAN strains with commercial broiler chicks of the same strains. The objective of the experiment was to ascertain the genetic potential for the growth of these different lines of strains and their use as a commercial broiler. The following observations were recorded on; Average feed consumption, Average weekly body weight gain, Average feed efficiency, Average dressing percentage, Mortality (if any) and Economics of meat production. A total of 180 one -day old chicks purchased from local market were divided into six groups i.e. A having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Ross-I strain, B having female chicks of male grand parent meat line of Ross strain, C having commercial broiler chicks of Ross strain, D having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Avian strain, E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain and F having commercial broiler chicks of Avian strain. Chicks were reared for a period of 42 days (6 weeks) under identical managemental conditions. Same rations (Starter and Finisher) were fed to all the groups. The results indicated that there was difference (P<0.01) in feed consumption among various groups. Group E containing female chicks of the male grand parent line of Avian strain consumed highest feed (3997 gms) during 0-42 days. It was also noted that weight gain amongst all the groups from 0 to 42 days was different (P<0.01). Highest weight gain was recorded in group E having female chicks of the male grand parent meat line of Avian strain. The FCR of groups A, B, C, D, E and F during starter and during finisher phase was difference (P<0.05). However, the efficiency of feed utilization was highest in group E. Dressing percentage of different groups was not different (P> 0.05). The economic evaluation of all the six groups for meat production showed that the birds of group E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain proved to be the most economical whereas birds of groups B having females of male grand parent line of Ross strain proved 2nd during grading. RECOMMENDATIONS The overall picture of the trail reveals that male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent lines can be used as commercial broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0525,T] (1).

7. Effect Of Water Restriction On The Conmsistency Of Droppings And On Subsequesnt Performance Of Broilers

by Afzal Sher, M | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Spoilage of water and watery droppings are major factors responsible for the accumulation of excessive moisture in the poultry houses. This moisture will be deposited into the litter. Resultantly the litter becomes too wet, which in turn creates managemental problems and economic losses to the industry. Watery droppings are produced, when birds consume water beyond their metabolic requirements, because excretion of water with the faeces is almost directly proportional to the intake of water. The present study was designed to overcome this problem by restricting the water to the birds and to investigate its effects on the consistency of droppings, weight, gain, feed consumption, FCR, water intake, water: feed ratio, mortality and haematologi cal parameters. The experiment was carried out at Poultry Experimental Station, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore for a period of 6 weeks i.e. from 30-10-1996 to 10-12-1996. One hundred and eighty, one day old "Hubbard" broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 30 chicks in each. Each group was further sub-divided into 3 replicates. These groups were given water in such a way that group NA" was offered full water and the rest of the groups were given 95, 90, 85, 80 and 75% respectively of the requirement. All the groups were reared in battery brooders under optimum environmental and managemental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to them. The source of water was also the same throughout the trial. They were vaccinated according to the recommended standard schedule. From second week, onwards, moisture contents of the faeces were estimated on weekly basis. It was examined that each increment of water deprivation resulted in drier faeces and lower Water: feed ratio than the control. Statistically differences (P<0.01) of weight gain, moisture contents of the excreta, FCR, water: feed ratio and blood values were recorded among the groups. The best performance was evaluated in group C and the poorest in group F. Waler stresses did not affect mortality, only 3 birds died during the whole study. Feed consumptions was found to be non-significant. Commercially these results will be helpful in controlling watery dropping, without lowering meat production, saving of water, labour and sewerage cost in poultry operations. CONCLUSION Excreta moisture can be minimized from 1.6 to 5.2% without affecting production and economics. RECOMMENDATIONS It is recornmenj, that water consumption can be reduced from 5% to 10% in a relatively cooler environment during starter and finisher phase. Reducting the water intake 15% or more had deleterious effect on the performance of broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0530,T] (1).

8. Effect Of Mating Ratio And Age On Fertility And Hatchability In Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)

by Col.Shabbir Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present project was planed to study the effect of mating ratio and age on fertility and hatchability in Japanese quails. The production of fertile eggs was found to relate to the number of males present in a flock. Fertility and hatchability of eggs was directly influenced by sex ratio and age of birds. However, very little information in this regard is available. One hundred and seventy four males and four hundred twenty six females quails of 4 weeks age were purchased from the local market. They were divided into five equal mating groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E comprising 120 quails in each group. Each group was further divided into 2 sub groups i.e. Al, A2, Bi, B2, Cl, C2, Dl, D2 and El, E2. The mating ratio of males and females in the respective groups was 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. Birds were reared for a period of two weeks i.e. 5-6 weeks of age under similar environments on floor, then they were transferred to battery cages and were kept there upto the age of 16 weeks. To assess the ideal parental age for optimal fertility and hatchability, hatching eggs from a single hatch breeding flock between 7 and 16 weeks of age were set twice in a week The mean hatching performance of the eggs set during 7 to 8, 9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 weeks of age were recorded separately. The unhatched eggs were opened on the day 18 and examined macroscopically to identify the infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs set were calculated. Identical environmental and managemental conditions were provided to all the experimental birds. They were fed on commerca1 ration -libitum. Clean and fresh water was made available at all times. Light was provided 24 h during rearing time and 16 h during breeding period. Standard rearing, breeding and hatching management procedures were followed throughout the study period. The following data was recorded: Weight of birds at the start of experiment, Feed consumption, Average body weightlbirds on weekly basis, Feed conversion ratio, Mortality if any, Fertility percentage and Hatchability percentage. The data collected was statistically analysed using 5 x 5 Factorial design. The quail chicks at 4 weeks age weighed on an average 98 gm/bird and within a period of two weeks rearing gained on an average a body weight of 134.1 gm/bird. The weight gradually increased with age. The final body weight at the age week 16, under ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 was 130.5, 186.5, 188.0, 189.5, 191.5 and 193.5 gm respectively, the overall mean value being 189.8 gm/bird. The difference in average weight/bird in various groups has been due to the difference in the number of females. The females weighed heavier than the males consequently the groups having smaller number of females were lighter in weight than the groups having higher number of females. The percentage weekly increase in body weight was 37.6, 12.76 and 8.27% at age weeks 7, 8 and 9 respectively. Further increase in body weight from age week 10 to 16, ranged between 0.9 and 4.7. The rearing of Japanese quail beyond age weeks 8 or 9 for meat purposes will not be economical. The egg fertility was the highest at age weeks 13-14 (80.73%) followed by 15-16 (72.34%) 11-12 (7 1.12%), 9-10 (63.57%) and 7-8 weeks (56-20%), all being statistically different from one another. The mating ratio (1:1 to 1:5) showed statistically significant effect on egg fertility, which ranged between 58.16 to 8 1.12%, the maximum being at mating ratio of 1:2 and the minimum at 1:5. The mating ratio and age have been found to have significant effect on egg hatchability, it was maximum at age weeks 13-14 (67.46%) and the minimum at age weeks 7-8 (41-23%). Similarly mating ratio 1:2 resulted in the maximum (66.08) and mating ratio 1:5 showed the minimum (48.73%) egg hatchability. The results of present study have led to the conclusion that egg fertility and hatchability were highest at age week 13-14 and at mating ratio 1:2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0537,T] (1).

9. Induction Of Parturition In Buffaloes Using Dexamethasone In Conjunction With Prostglandin (Pgf2 Alpha)

by Arif Majeed | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present study was intended to study the effect of prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha) and dexarnethasone on reproduction and production of Nili-Ravi buffaloes after parturition. For this purpose eighteen pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes were selected on the basis of their breeding history, with good health status, their lactation phases were 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 9th and 10th respectively. These animals were divided into three equal groups viz group A, B and C, each comprising 6 animals. These animals were kept under uniform managemental and feedings conditions. Each buffalo in groups A and B were injected with 20mg dexamethasone and 526ig cloprostenol sodium (PGF2 alpha) intramuscularly on day 10 and 15 respectively before their expected term, while the buffaloes, in group C served as a control. From the present study it was concluded that parturition can be induced at day 10 and 15 prior to their expected term successfully did not affect the production and reproductive efficiency of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The use of PGF2 alpha and dexamethasone before parturition in buffaloes did not affect the milk yield of each buffaloes as compared with control group, and also the calve birth weight compared with control group. The only complication we found was the retention of foetal membrane, in all the treated buffaloes. No retention of foetal membrane was found in the control group. So the calving interval could be reduced by reducing the duration of pregnancy. It was also concluded that by induction the lactation period could be increased. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0546,T] (1).

10. Morphological Abnormalities In The Spermatozoa Of Cross Bred Cow Bulls During Summer Season

by Afzal, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Imriaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In this study twelve normally producing breeding bulls three of each Sahiwal and Friesian breeds and six bulls of 50% Cross-bred were selected. The mean volume of ejaculates were 4.87, 4.22 and 5.95m1 in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred, respectively. There is no significant difference among the volume of breeds during the months May, June and July. The semen concentration were 637.369, 606.554 and 312.806 million per ml in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred. However, the concentration of spermatozoa in Cross-bred were significantly lower (P<0.01) as compared to Sahiwal and Friesian bulls. The overall average values for head abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P <0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Crossbred (2.65 vs 7.20 and 8.90%) respectively during summer season. The neck abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P<0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Cross-bred 1.13 vs 3.52 and 5.59% respectively during summer season. Similarly the values of mid piece abnormalities percentage were significant higher in Cross bred vs Sahiwal and Friesian (2.04 vs 0.60 and 1.83%) respectively during summer season. The same results pertaining to protoplasmic droplets and tail abnormalities were obtained. The overall average abnormalities percentage in spermatozoa of Sahiwal breed were significantly lower vs Friesian and Cross-bred (8.64 vs 21.32 and 27.67%) respectively during summer season. These results indicated that Exotic breed (Friesian) as well as Cross-bred have poor adaptability against the stress of the high temperature during summer season, so they produce lower quality semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0549,T] (1).

11. Role Of Single Injection Of Prostaglandin F2 Alpha On Breeding Efficiency Of Buffaloes

by Sajid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In the present study, a total of twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups. In group A ten buffaloes were administered with prostagladin F2 alpha (Lutalyse, Upjohn), 2 hours after calving. In group B, ten buffaloes were not given any treatment and designated as control. The reproductive organs of each experimental buffalo were rectally palpated on day 14 and day 21 postpartum. After that twice a week rectal palpation was carried out until the first postpartum oestrus. The results of present study revealed that cervical and uterine involution was completed significantly (P < 0.05) earlier in group A as compared to group B (28.90± 1.79 and 35.40±3.95 days). There was no significant difference in the diameter of cervix, gravid and nongravid uterine horn at day 14 postpartum. A significant difference between the groups was obtained on days 21, 25 and 28 postpartum in the diameter of cervix and gravid horn. The corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy regressed very rapidly following calving. The overall period required for complete regression of corpus luteum of pregnancy was (19.20±4.87 days) in treated group and (18.40±6.07 days) in control groups. The difference was significant. Follicular activity resumed independently of uterine involution. It was, however, delayed slightly by the retained corpus luteum of pregnancy. The mean postpartum interval of initial follicular development was 21.20±5.71 days in treated and 28.20±8.75 days in control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Postpartum oestrus interval was shortened in treated group (79.50±19.83 days) as compared to control group (103.0± 17.45 days) and the difference was significant (P<0.05). So it seems beneficial to administer prostaglandin F2 alpha in postpartum buffaloes to reduce the period for uterine involution and enhance the subsequent reproductive performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0585,T] (1).

12. Use Of Prostaglandin (Pgf2 Alpha) To Induce Oestrus In Postpartum Non Cyclic Sahiwal Cows

by Amjad, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The incidence of ovarian cysts in dairy cows in variously reported as ranging from 10-12 percent. Various factors are reported to influence the incidence of ovarian cysts. Factors that have been suggested are age, level of. milk production, nutrition, heredity, length of postpartum interval, frequency of examination of the reproductive tract and stress around the time of parturition. Ovarian cysts are a significant cause of reproductive failure because of prolongation of the interval from parturition to the first oestrus. Twenty four postpartum anoestrus Sahiwal cows at 85 days postpartum were selected and randomly divided into the groups viz group A and B. Group A (n=12) cows were injected 2m1 (5mg) prostaglandin F2 alpha (Prostavet, Virbac, France) intramuscularly (i/rn) at day 85 postpartum without palpation. A second injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha was given 11 days apart to those cows who had not responded to first injection. Rectal palpation was performed at 105 days postpartum to confirm the presence of corpus luteum on the ovary. A third injection was given at 118 days postpartum to those cows that had not responded to 1st and 2nd injection of PGF2c. The cows in group B were not given any treatment and served as control. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Oestrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. In group A and B the oestrus response was 66.66% and 25% respectively. This response was greater in cows of group A than group B. There was difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group A the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group B. Interval to onset of oestrus in group A was 96±15.08 hours whereas it was 25.0±1.0 days in group B. The length of oestrus in group A was 23.25±1.99 hours whereas it was 20.33± 1.45 hours in group B. The difference in the length of oestrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Group A animals exhibited oestrus during 89±0.62 days of postpartum. In group B animal exhibited oestrus at 110±0.19 days of postpartum and the difference was ignificant (P < 0.05). From the present study it is concluded that PGF2 treatment at 85 days postpartum leutolysed the luteal cyst and brings the cows in oestrus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0607,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Various Growth Promoting Antibiotics On The Immune And Digestive Systems Of Broiler Chickens

by Shahan Azeem | prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effects of growth promoting antibiotics on immune and digestive systems of broiler chickens. This study indicated that un-medicated un-vaccinated chickens had the higher body weights than the vaccinated un-medicated or medicated chickens. Flavomycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not adversely affect the mean weights of spleen, thymus and livers of experimental chickens. However, the use of lincomycin, adversely affected the weight of bursa of' Fabricius. Furthermore, the use of Flavoinycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not have any adverse effects on the development of antibody titers against NDV and AIV. The total viable microflora counts of different treatment groups were not different from each other. Evaluation of the economics of flocks at the end of the experiment indicated that un-medicated, un-vaccinated groups had higher profit returns and the Lincomycin medicated, vaccinated groups demonstrated lowest profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0738,T] (1).

14. Ovulation Induction And Synchronization In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes With Prolonged Post-Partum Period

by Mohammad Atif ikram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Estrus detection and correct tine insemination have been considered one of the important factors affecting the calving interval in 1)11 flab population. This study was undertaken to induce and synchronize ovu1a(on rather than esirtis in buffaloes. Ovsynch program ( ovulation synclronization) enables all fertile buffaloes to be bred at a fixed time by A.l. Sixteen buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed with a mean postpartum interval of 250±31.6 days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (ii=8). On day zero, Dalmeraline (25mcg/ml lecirilin; a GnRH analogue) was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. On day 7, 2cc Dalmazine (0.075mg/mi Cloprostenol) was injected intramuscularly. One day 9, second injection of Daimeraline (Lecirilin) was given intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. Insemination was carried out 1 6 hours after second injection of GnRH analogue, Dalmeraline. Buffaloes of group B were kept as control group. They were observed for naturally occurring estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried Out primarily on standing heat basis. Buffaloes of group A responded to hormonal therapy and five out of 8 animals (62.5%) showed estrus behaviour and signs. All animals of group A were inseminated twice, once early in the morning and then in the evening with an interval of 12 hours. Three animals (37.5%) from group A were conceived at induced and synchronized ovulation at first service, while one animal (12.5%) was conceived from group B. It is concluded that the Ovsynch protocol is a useful regime in inducing and synchronizing ovulation with reasonably good conception rates. It is however, found that ovsynch protocol is also effective enough in buflaloes with longer postpartum intervals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0783,T] (1).

15. Effect Of Collection Frequency On The Semen Quality Of Broiler Breeder

by Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Talat | Mr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: In future, artificial insemination (AI) in poultry industry has a considerable importance because of the excellent results in fertility and hatchability. Increasing male utilisation in artificial insemination depends upon the optimum use of bids by increasing semen collection. The project was designed to scrutinise the effects of collection interval, testes weight and body weight on semen yield. A total of ten broiler breeder males (35 weeks of age) were randomly selected. After providing ten-day sexual rest these were trained for semen collection by abdominal message technique. In study I the effects of various frequencies of semen collection on semen characteristics were investigated. All birds being collected at 48hours, 24 hours and 12 hours intervals. In each interval five consecutive collections were examined for motility percentage, semen volume and sperm concentration. Out of ten one cock gave no semen through out the study and 2 birds did not yielded semen at 12 hours interval and were excluded from the study. No significant difference in collection intervals was established for percentage motility (P> 0.05), but semen collected at 12 hours interval was significantly lower than 24 hours interval in respect of semen volume and lower than 48 hours interval in respect of sperm concentration. Thus at 48 hours and 24 hours intervals we get significantly higher values of number of sperms per collection, number of motile sperms per collection and number of doses per collection than the values collected at 12 hours interval (P < 0.05). But difference for theses values at 48 and 24 hours collections intervals was non significant (P > 0.05). The total number of semen doses over a six-day period increased linearly and significantly as the frequency of collection increased from once every two day to twice daily. Daily semen collection was found to be more suitable for Al programme at broiler breeder farm. In study II daily semen output, paired testes weight and body weight were correlated. The semen output was found to be significantly correlated with testis weight (r =0.82) and body weight (r = 0.79), but no significant correlation was found between testis weight and body weight (r = 0.56). In biometrical examination the weight of left testis was found significantly heavier than right testis but in respect of testicular volume no significant difference was observed between the two sides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0785,T] (1).

16. Effect Of Various Extenders On Semen Characteristics Of Beetal Buck (Capra Hircus)

by Aoun Raza | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ashfaq Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The artificial use of germ cells of genetcally superior bucks can enhance the growth potential of goat population to meet the shortage of mutton meat in Pakistan for daily slaughtering, sacrificial events, skin, hair and goat milk too. Beneficial use of superior germ cells can be made only when there is extension of life of germ cells for long periods, maintenance of motility of spermatozoa and increase in number of doses of ejaculate, for which an extender of choice has to be developed. Semen characteristics of forty ejaculates of bucks were evaluated. Pooled samples of ejaculates having motility estimates of at least 60% were used for evaluation. After washing of seminal plasma with physiological normal saline (20% ringer solution) and centrifugation at l000xg for 10 minutes to remove the sperm toxic factor Lecithinase-A. Pooled semen samples were extended in Tris yolk fructose citric acid (TYFCA), milk yolk (MY) and egg yolk citrate (EYC) extenders. Samples were extended using one step extension at a ratio of 1:60 in such a way that each milliliter of semen contained 30x106 progressively motile spermatozoa. Finally extended semen samples were placed at 5°C and 37°C for evaluation of motility percentage after every 24 hours interval and livability (hours) and absolute index of livability o spermatozoa, respectively. Mean±S.E. values of ejaculates of bucks for volume, pH, mass motility, individual motility percentage, sperm cell concentration, live and dead percentage, sperm abnormalities was recorded and post-extension motility percentage at 5oC, livability (hours) and absolute index of livability of of' spermatozoa of pooled semen at 37°C was recorded. Significant differences were observed (P<0.01) in post extension motility percentage at 5°C, at all intervals except at 120 hours interval where deference vas non-significant (P>0.05) between milk yolk and egg yolk citrate extenders. Post extension motility percentage at 5°C was highest in TYFCA than MY and EYC e\tenders. Post extension livability (hours) at 37°C was significantly different among three extenders at a level of probability (P<0.05) but non-significantly different among three extenders at a level of' probability (P>0.01). Absolute index of' livability at 37°C shows significant differences (P<0.01) for all extenders under statistical analysis. Livability (hours) and absolute index of' livability was higher in TYFCA than MY and EYC extenders. Based on these results and effect of extenders on semen characteristics of Beetal Buck, Tris- Yolk-Fructose-Citric Acid was developed as an extender of choice for short term preservation of' semen of' Beetal Buck. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0798,T] (1).

17. Use Of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone For Estrus Synchronization In Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Abdul Majeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Sixteen Nih Ravi buffaloes having postpartum period of 197±27.48 (Mean ±SE) days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (n=8). Estrus was induced and synchronized in buffaloes of group A by administering 75 mcg GnRH analogue (25 mcg/ml) intramuscularly on day 0 (first day of experiment). The buffaloes, showing estrus during day 0 to 7 were inseminated and were not given PGF2 alpha injection. The animals those did not exhibit signs of estrus till day 7, were injected with 0.150 mg Cloprostenol (0.075 mg/mi) intramuscularly. Buffaloes of group B served as control group and were not given any hormonal treatment. Animals in group A were observed for estrus from day 0 to 16 of the experiment, whereas the buffaloes of group B were bserved for natural estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried out mainly on the basis of standing heat. In group A, 4 buffaloes responded to the treatment and exhibited the estrus. One buffalo exhibited the estrus on day 5 following the injection of GnRH whereas three buffaloes exhibited the estrus on day 2, 4 and day 5 following the injection of PGF2 alpha. In group B, 2 buffaloes exhibited natural estrus, one on day 3 and the second on day 11 of the experiment. Variation in the interval to estrus may be because of huge difference in the postpartum days of animals. The duration of estrus in group A (24.62±O.96h) was significantly different (P>O.05) as compared to group B (20.25±O.33h). No difference was observed between group A and B towards the expression of estrus symptoms. Two animals from group A, conceived at induced and synchronized estrus at first service, whereas one animal conceived from group B. It is concluded that the select synch protocol is useful for synchronization of estrus in buffaloes with promising conception results. It is indicated that select synch protocol is also applicable for induction of estrus in buffaloes of variable postpartum intervals, it seems that select synch protocol will be an effective tool if used in cycling buffaloes during early postpartum days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0832,T] (1).

18. Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infectionin Butchers And Buffaloes By Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Latex Agglutination Test

by Rana Sajjad Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Naeem Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic zoonotic infection is usually aymptomatic in immunocompetent persons although it may be present as lymphadenopathy, febrility, etc. but it is a life threatening opportunistic infection in congenitally infected patients and in immunocompromised individuals (those with AIDS, malignancy, organ transplantation, etc). Human beings become infected with T. gondii usually by ingesting oocysts in food and water contaminated with cat feces or by consuming tissue cysts in undercooked meat. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on serological tests latex agglutination test (LAT). Detection of specific DNA seems to be of clinical value in the ingestion of patients infected with toxoplasmosis. In this study, latex agglutination test was used for the detection of the antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based on the amplification of repetitive B1 gene of T. gondii. The study was based on a total of 200 samples involving 50 butchers, 50 buffalo's sera and whole blood respectively. LAT established an overall infection of T. gondii in butchers and buffaloes as 20 % and 22 % respectively. The PCR analysis confirmed this T. gondii prevalence in butchers and buffaloes. LAT proved to be an efficacious method for routine serological screening for antibodies to T. gondii. The costly and sophisticated PCR results in our investigation showed good correlation with the serological data of these patients showing that LAT can be used as an alternation to PCR. The results demonstrated that PCR analysis of clinical samples of patients suspective for acute toxoplasmosis including those with an acquired infection presented by lymphadenopathy can be a promising diagnostic method that enables direct detection of parasitic DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0861,T] (1).

19. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Flumequine And Enrofloxacin On Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccinated

by Waseem Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted to determine whether Flumequine and Enrofloxacin supplementation has any immunomodulatory effects on broiler chicks. A total of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 48 chicks. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups of 24 chicks. The chicks in group 1st were administered Flumequine, those in group 2 were treated with, Enrofloxacin and those in group 3 were treated with cyclophosphamide. Chicks in group 4 were not given any treatment. The parameters of investigation included the effects of Flumequine and Enrofloxacin treatment on live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, effect on various lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen and liver) and immune response of treated chicks to NDV-vaccination, post field NDV challenge mortality. Data presented in this study indicated that the Flumequine treated chicks had higher mean body weights, better FCR, higher NDV HI antibody, lesser overall mortality, no NDV post challenge mortality and no detrimental effects on their lymphoid organs, compared to the cyclophosphamide treated, and untreated chicks. The overall findings of this study clearly demonstrate that the use of Flumequine has good effect on growth and performance of the treated chickens. (Key words: Flumequine, Enrofloxacin, Immunomodulation, Broiler) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0881,T] (1).

20. An Epidemiological Study Of Nosocomial Infections At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tayyaba Ijaz (Phd) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the Prevalence of Etiological Agents of Nosocomial Infections in Mayo Hospital, Lahore-Pakistan of the 32,620 patients studied during 1997-2001; a total of 4502 (13.80%) patients acquired various types of nosocomial infections during their stay at Hospital. Clinical samples collected from various types of patients consisted of 1040 samples of Pus & Wound Swabs, 109 samples of blood; 115 of Pleural Fluids, 286 of Ascetic Fluids, 37 of Cerebrospinal Fluid, 1398 of Urine, 988 of Sputum; 329 of Burn Swabs, 99 of Patient Body Devices and 101 of Fecal and Drainage Material. The routine techniques for isolation. Identification through Biochemical, Serological and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing were used for studying the Bacteriology of the selected samples. The present findings revealed that from a total of 4502 samples, 1287 Strains of Staphylococci, 429 Strains of Streptococci, 328 Strains of Enterococci, 781 Strains of Pseudomonas, 349 Strains of Enterobacter, 41 Strains of Acinetobacter, 26 Strains of Klebsiella, 140 Strains of Proteus, 1031 Strains of Escherichia, 67 Strains of Serratia, 93 Strains of Haemophilus, 119 Strains of other types of Gram Positive Bacteria, 13 Strains of other types of Gram Negative Bacteria, and 189 Strains of Yeast and Fungi were found as Etiological Agent for Nosocomial Infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0912,T] (1).

21. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Helminthases In Parrots At Lahore Zoo.

by Ashgar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the incidence of helminthiasis in all breeds of parrots and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different broad spectrum anthelmintics, albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) and levamisole (Nilverm drench, ICI) used against the nematodes at Lahore Zoo. For this purpose, 130 Faecal samples were collected group wise in clean polythene bags, properly labeled for identification and examined for the identification of helminths. Eighty eight out of 130 were positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia gaul have individual percentage as 73.86% and 26.14% respectively. Of 88 positive birds belonging to different breeds of parrots, 72 of the same age, weight and number were devided in three equal groups (24 each) i.e. A (love birds peach face breed), B (budgerigar ring necked breed), and C (Alexandrine parrots, Blossom headed parakeet and Blue fronted amazon breeds), while in group D (Cockatiel, Blue ring necked parakeet, Eclectus parrot and African grey parrot breeds), only uninfected and untreated birds were kept. Drug therapy was only induced to the group A i.e. albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) @ 0.lml/kg body weight and group B (levemisole hcl (Nilverm, ICI) @ 5m1/litre of water, while infected but non treated birds were placed in group C. Faccal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of egg/gram of faeces on day"O" (pre-medication) with McMaster egg counting technique (Soulsby, 1982). Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 3, 7 and 10 of medication and percentage reduction of EPG calculated. The overall prevalence of gastro intestinal helminthes in different breeds of parrots was found as 67.69%. Albendazole was found to be the more effective (96.33%) among the two anthelmintics while levamisole was less effective (84.90%). The EPG rise up to 8.98% at day 10 post medication in untreated group C was noted while no infection was observed in group D through out the experimental study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0962,T] (1).

22. Immmunobiolotical Observations On Avian Influenza Virus Types H7 And H,

by Shahid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was designed to 'find the prevalence of Avian Influenza disease in and around Lahore in commercial and household poultry. A total of 1000 blood and 500 cloacal swabs were collected from Broilers, Broiler-Breeders, Ducks, Pigeons, Sparrows, Quails and Desi Chickens. The blood samples from all the flocks showed non-significant titers while vaccinated flocks showed protective titers. All the cloacal swabs were negative for virus isolation. The final conclusions from this study were the following.i.e. - Avian influenza caused by H7 & H9 type is not prevalent in broiler and broiler breeders in and around Lahore. - The vaccinated poultry flocks showed higher titers of antibodies as compared to non-vaccinated flocks which means that vaccine can play a vital role in protection of bird from H7 & H9. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0963,T] (1).

23. Effect Of Supplementation Of Different Types Of Fat On Buffalo Semen Production And Quality

by Muhammad Adeel | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr.Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0969,T] (1).

24. Effect Of Levamisole On The Cholinesterase Inhibition By Trichlorfon In Rabbits

by Hafiz Muhammad Irfan | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: This project was designed in female rabbits to find out Trichiorfon- induced toxicosis and its interaction with Levamisole by inhibiting cholinesterase enzyme, taking account of the administration of levamisole before trichiorfon dosing. For this purpose, twenty female rabbits with weights of 1.0kg to 1.9kg were divided into four groups. Each group (A, B, C and D) containing five rabbits. Group 'A' was considered as control, group B was given trichiorfon 10mg/kg body weight (orally), while group 'C' was treated with levamisolelomg/kg (S/C) and then trichiorfon 10mg/kg (orally) after 30minutes of levamisole and the group 'D' was given levamisole 10mg/kg (S/C). After determination of butyryl cholinesterase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity and alanine aminotransferase activity, it was observed that Trichiorfon and Levamisole significantly inhibited butyryl cholinesterase enzyme at 10mg/kg body weight Where as Levamisole pretreatment did not potentiate the inhibitory activity of Trichlorfon at 10mg/kg body weight dosage whether the Levamisole was given subcutaneously or orally. The alkaline phosphatase activity was increased significantly with Trichiorfon and Levamisole had no significant effect on it while the effect on aspartate aminotransferase was non significant. The alanine aminotransferase activity was decreased significantly with Levamisole. The results also showed that the time interval between Levamisole and Trichiorfon dosage and route of administration did not affect the cholinesterase activity. No clinical signs and postmortem lesions were observed at 10mg/kg body weight dosage while Levamisole at 50mg/kg body weight, produced signs of toxicosis. In general, there was no adverse drug interaction between Levamisole and Trichlorfon. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0975,T] (1).

25. Factors Affecting Hemagglutination Potential Of Avain Influenza Viuruses (H5, H7, H9 Subtypes)

by Mubashir Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The objective of this study was to standardize hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests for AIV H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. These subtypes were propagated in 09-day old chicken embryonated eggs and after 72 hours post incubation the allantoic fluid (AF) was harvested and confirmed by spot agglutination test and by AGPT. While standardizing HA test maximum titers were recorded using 1% RBCs of chicken, human blood group Qe and dog using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a diluting agent for washing suspension of erythrocyte and by incubating the micro titer plates at 22c or 37C for 30 minutes or 40 minutes time period. The AIV subtypes eluted rapidly with increase in temperature with maximum elution observed within the time period of 8 hours. The live AIV provided much higher HA titer when compared with the titers obtained from AJV subtypes inactivated with formalin or Binary ethylene imine (BET). The BET was found to have little effect on HA activity as compared to formalin. While standardizing the HI test the best titers were obtained using 4 HA units of AIV antigen as compared to 1 HA and 8 HA units of antigen and by incubating the micro titer plates for 60 minutes period (time given for antigen-antibody reaction before the addition of erythrocytes suspension). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0984,T] (1).

26. Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Cryptosporidium Parvum In Dairy Calves

by Amar Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian agent of diarrhoeal disease affecting many mammals, including dairy calves. Calves infected with this enteropathogen may either be asymptomatic or manifest mild to profuse diarrhoea and dehydration. Keeping in view the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves, the current study was conducted to find out the prevalence in dairy calves, in and around Lahore and also to find out the most effective therapeutic measure to control the infection. For this purpose, 500 faecal samples (n=250 cow calves, n=250 buffalo calves) from different dairy farms and home-bred dairy calves were collected and analyzed by using faecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 25.6% Calves were shedding C. parvum with a slightly high infection rate in the cow calves 27.2% than buffalo calves 24%. The highest infection rate was recorded in 1-30 days age group of dairy calves as 50.81% and 42.02% in the cow calves and buffalo calves, respectively. The infection rate of C. parvunm in the dairy calves of cow breeds indicated relatively high infection rate in crossbred cow calves (28.18%) than the Sahiwal cow calves (20%) and Nih Ravi buffalo calves (24%). The pattern of oocyst shedding was negatively correlated with increase in age, highest in the 1-30 days age group and lowest in the age group ranging from 9 months to 1 year and above. Diarrhoeac calves were infected significantly higher than the nondiarrhoeac calves indicating a direct relationship of diarrhea with C. parvum infection. Diarrhoea was the highest contributing factor to infection in 1-30 days age group with 58.97% infection rate in both the cow calves and 48.88% in buffalo calves than the nondiarrhoeac calves of the same age group as 36.36% and 29.16%, respectively. The infection rate was not associated with the sex of the dairy calves and the infection rate was almost equal in both the sexes. The cumulative rate of infection was relatively high (30.28%) in the physically healthy calves than weak (21.5%) and emaciated (19%) calves. Milk suckling calves were infected almost two times more than the ones utilizing both milk and fodder and almost 7 times of the fodder eating calves. The calves kept on dirt yards were infected more (28%) than the ones on the paved floor (21 .11%). A significantly high infection rate was observed in the cow calves and buffalo calves having some sort of contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats (31.3%) and (25.80%) respectively, than the calves having very little or no contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats as 19.27% and 12.12% in cow calve and buffalo calves, respectively. The results of the comparative efficacy of a.zithromycin and cotrimoxazole and kalvangi showed that azithromycin was the most effective of the three in treatingcryptosporidial infection in dairy calves under field conditions. It resulted in significant reduction in the oocyst shedding and consequently, better weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain may be due to its vitamins, enzymes and Nigellone and Thmoquinone acting as an immune system booster. The results of Azithromycin in the present study on the overall weight gain of calves was significantly higher than the other two drugs used in the study suggesting it as a drug of highest efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0985,T] (1).

27. Isolation And Characterization Of Clostridium Perfringens From Domestic Animals An Man In Punjab

by Waheeda Raana | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The objectives of present investigation were to isolate the Cl. perfringens from the domestic and zoo animals and human beings; characterize it through biotyping and pathogencity observation, and to develop a vaccine- from the common CI. perfringens isolate. For this purpose a total of 1240 samples of morbid tissues (faecal samples from animals and gangrenous tissues from humans). From cattle (n=180), goats (n=180), horses (n=250), camel (n=250), deer (n=28), wild beast (n=07), monkeys (n16), zebra (n10), elephant (n01), yaks (n=09), foxes (n07), jackals (n=08), baboons (n=08), and bears (n08) were collected and processed for isolation of CI. perfringens. In addition a total of 100 human cases; 83 wound swabs and 17 gas gangrene were also collected and analyzed bacteriologically. This study has indicated that Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens causes multiple clinical problems in animals and human beings as was indicated by good rate of its isolation from the examined morbid tissues and fecal samples. Of the total 1240 samples from various types of animals 297 (23.95%) indicated the presence of CI. perfringens. The overall isolation percentages of various types of CI. perfringens from the cattle, sheep goat, horses, camel, wild beast, deer, bear, jackal, zebra, monkeys, yak, elephant, baboon, foxes, and humans were 22.2, 12.2, 57.2, 8.0, 21.6, 57.1, 30.76, 37.50, 50.0, 50.0, 37.50, 33.33, 100.00 75.00, 57.14 and 18.00, respectively. Of the tested population of domestic animals, goats indicated the highest Cl. perfringens (57.2%) infection rate. In the zoo animal population, the elephant, baboons, wild beast, jackals, and foxes were shown to be heavily infected with various CI. perfringens types compared to other wild life animals species. Of the 298 isolates obtained through this investigation Cl. perfringens type D was obtained from 118 (39.7%) morbid samples of the domestic and zoo animals; CI. perfringens type A from 63 (21 .21%) samples, Cl. perfringens type B from 95 (31.98%) samples; and the CI. perfringens type E was isolated from 21(7.07%) samples. None of the samples indicated the presence of CI. perfringens type C. Of the total 100 samples from the humans, CI. perfringens type A was isolated from 14 (14%) and Cl. perfringens type D was isolated from 04 (4%). None of the human samples showed the presence of Cl. perfringens types B, C, or E. Of the 17 human gangrene tissue samples, Cl. perfringens type A was isolated from 09 (52.94%) samples and the Cl. perfringens type D was recovered from 02 (11 .76%) samples. However, all attempts to isolate Cl. perfringens types B, C or E from the human gangrene tissue/material samples were unsuccessful. The overall findings indicated that of the total 297 samples positive for various Cl. perfringens types 63 indicated the presence of Cl. perfringens type A. Of those 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates, 49 were recovered from the animals; and 14 were isolated from the wound swabs and gangrene tissue material samples from humans. Of the 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates from the animals, 5 were isolated from cattle; 3 from sheep, 20 from goats; 5 from the horses; 10 from camels, 01 from the deer; 01 from the zebra, 01 from baboon, 01 from fox, 01 from the monkey, and 01 isolate was recovered from yak. Of the 14 isolates of Cl. perfringens type A from humans, 05 were recovered from the open wound swabs, and 09 strains of the organism were isolated from the gangrenous tissue material. Of the 297 samples positive for various Cl. Perfringens types, 95 animal samples indicated the presence of Cl. perfringens type B. These 95 isolates were obtained from cattle (n=22), sheep (n=10), goats (n=30), horses (n=03), camel (n=14), deer (n03), wild beast (n=02), monkey (n=02), zebra (n=02), yak (n=01), fox (n01), jackals (n02), baboon (n02) and bear (n=02). None of the human samples was positive for Cl. perfringens type B. Isolation of C/. perfringens type B from the zoo animals is a matter of concern for the human health, as the zoo visitors have the possibility to get infected with this organism. Of the total 297 positive samples of faecal and morbid tissues from various types of animals and human being Cl. perfringens type D isolates were recovered from 118 (39.7%) samples. Of these 118 isolates of Cl. perfringens typeD, 114 were obtained from various types of animals, and 04 isolates were from the humans. Of the 114 animal isolates, 10 from the cattle, 5 from the sheep, 44 from the goats, 9 from the horses, 27 from the camel, 4 from the deer, 02 from the wild beast, 02 from the monkey, 02 from the zebra, 01 from the elephant, 01 from the yak, 02 from the fox, 02 from the jackals, 02 from the baboon, and 01 isolate the bear. A total of 04 CI. perfringens type D isolates were recovered from gangrenous tissue and open wound samples from human beings. During this investigation 21 isolates of CI. perfringens Type E were obtained from domestic and zoo animals. Of the 21 isolates, 03 were from cattle, 04 from sheep, 09 from goats and 03 from horses, 01 from monkey, and 01 from the baboon. All the 21 isolations were from the fecal material of above mentioned animals. None of the human samples was positive for CI. perfringens type E. Alpha toxin was produced by all of the 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates. Within the toxin producing isolates, there was no difference in the quality of toxin in respect to its lethality for mice, dermonecrosis effects for guinea pigs and cytotoxicity in the HeLa cells. The 07 fecal isolates were hemolytic, lecithinase (+), and positive for all biochemical characteristics of Cl. perfringens. Those isolates were not lethal for mice, indicated no dermonecrotic activity in guinea pig, and produced mild degree of cytotoxicity in the cell cultures. The activity of beta toxin obtained from 95 isolates of CI. perfringens type B isolates was determined using standard toxin-antitoxin test carried in mice and the standard serum neutralization test with antitoxin raised in rabbits. Within the toxin producing isolates, no difference was seen in the potential of toxin based on its lethality for mice. Epsilon () toxin activity of the 114 isolates of CI. perfringens type D from animals and 4 of the human isolates was also determined. Of the 114 animal isolate, 110(96.49%), and all the 4 human isolates produced E-toxin. There was no difference in the lethal potential of toxin for mice, dermonecrotis action in guinea pig and production of CPE in VERO cells. Iota (i) toxin activity of the 21 isolates of Cl. perfringens type E was also determined serum neutralization test in mice. Many isolates produced more than one major toxin. Ci. perfringens (CP) type A produced Alpha (a) toxin; CP type B produced Alpha (a), Beta (3) and Epsilon (E) toxins; OP type D isolates produced Alpha (a) and Epsilon (E) toxins, and OP type E isolates produced Alpha (a) toxin + Iota (i) toxin. The immunobiologic studies of isolates showed that many of the isolates were quite antigenic. Isolates of CI. perfringèns type D and B were found highly immunogenic as those isolates producing SN titer of 1:320. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0998,T] (1).

28. Assesment Of Buffalo Semen By Reduction Assay

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: In this study twenty Nili Ravi buffalo bulls were used. Semen was collected once weekly and each collection comprised two ejaculates .. Total volume of the semen was observed using graduated tube and the concentration by Spectrophotometer. Both the ejaculates were pooled and a representative sample of each collection was evaluated for viability using MTT Reduction Assay, Eosin and Nigrosin Staining, Hypo Osmotic Swelling Test and Motility. The results of the study shows high correlation (r = 1.00) between the MTT reduction rate and the sperm viability. When the %age of MTT viable sperm cells were compared with the E&N, HOST and Motility a negative correlation was found suggesting the physiological difference between the tests. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the MTT reduction Assay is an objective test and more reliable than the other tests which are more subjective and can be influenced by the experience of the indivi~ MTT Reduction Assay is more reliable test for the assessment of viability as it is simple and inexpensive. The results of our study suggest additional advantages of this test in evaluation ofNili Ravi Baffalo semen. Many samples and its replicates can be measured in the same time. It can be used successfully in routine analysis, where time, costs and practicability are important Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1014,T] (1).

29. Evalution Of Berseem Hay Based Total Mixed Ration In Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves

by Sher Ahmed tareen | Jalles Ahmed Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The feeding management experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo calves raised on different levels of Berseem hay and concentrates at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. Twenty four (24) buffalo calves of approximately same age (7-8 month) and body weight (77 kg) were randomly divided into four groups' six calves in each. The calves were kept in individual stalls and fed for 12 weeks on Berseem hay based Total Mixed Rations (TMR) having Berseern hay only (A), Berseern hay: concentrate ratio of 70:30 (B), Berseem hay: concentrate ratio of 50:50 (C) and diet D: Berseem hay: concentrate ratio (30:70). The data on Daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, feed analysis, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and comparative economics were recorded, analyzed and interpreted in the manuscript. The mean daily DM1 on treatment A, B, C and D were 503±0.16, 3.94±0.16, 3.67±0.12 and 3.12±0.11 kg, respectively. Daily DM1 showed increasing trend as the proportion of berseem hay was increased in the diets. DM1 was statistically highly significant (P< 0.01) between treatments. The mean wejght gain of calves on weekly bases was 2.48±0.13, 3.30±0,13, 3.89±0.l7and 4.46±0.21 kg for treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in weekly weight gain with the increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The weight gain data also showed a highly significant (P< 0.01) difference between treatments and weeks. The feed efficiency of the diets in different treatments was calculated considering the amount of feed consumed per unit of weight gain on dry matter basis. Mean feed consumption per kg of weight gain was 14.21±2.24, 8.37±1.04, 6.60±0.57 and 4.90±0.40 kg for calves on treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The diet D having inclusion of 70 % concentrate was found highly efficient and diet A having 100 % berseem hay was least efficient to cnvert it into one kg gain. The comparative economics calculation of feeding experiment showed that the calves on treatment D were able to produce highest daily gross margin of Rs. 40.75 followed by treatment C (Rs. 28.25), treatment B (Rs. 19) and on treatment A (Rs. 2.25/calf/day), respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in daily gross margin as the proportion of concentrate was increased in the diets and decreased with the increase in the level of Berseem hay in the diets. The mean dry matter digestibility of the treatment A, B, C and D was 72.9 1±4.15, 78.79±2.15, 79.09±3.75, and 78.85±1.68 percent and mean crude protein digestibilities were 74.45±3.64, 73.51±4.62, 74.06±2.68 and 73.86±3.71 percent and mean ash digestibility vlues were 44.72±7.15, 45.35±4.16, 45.64±6.89, and 44.6 1±2.95 percent, respectively. Statistically non-significant differences were found in DM, CP and ASI I digestibility between treatments. CONCLUSION: On the basis the findings in the experiment it is concluded that the most efficient and economical feeding proportion of Berseem hay and concentrate is 30:70 on dry matter basis. It is suggested that Berseem hay and concentrate proportion of 30:70 is desirable to achieve higher growth rate. A ratio of 50:50 of Berseem hay and concentrate also resulted in handsome weight gain but it was relatively less efficient than treatment D (30:70). For fattening purposes in Nili-Ravi buffalo calves these combinations can be used according to the availability and prevailing prices of Berseem hay and concentrate. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1025,T] (1).

30. Comparison Of Reproductive Efficiency Of Beetal Goats In Different Management

by Muhammad Younos | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Hafiz | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at two fanns (1) NH goat fann at Raiwind and (2) BN at Okara. The study consist the reproductive efficiency of beetal goats in different management systems. In this study we compared two management systems of goat production i.e. (1) seasonal (2) year round breeding were compared on the basis of reproductive efficiency and growth parameters, moreover cost effectiveness of the both systems were compared on the basis of their outcomes. In this study, reproductive and productive parameters of n = 72 adult goats + 2 bucks in each flock were collected and analyzed. Data regarding pubertal and twinning of their progeny born during a period of a year were collected and compared. Goats of same breed and comparable ages and body weight, body condition scoring were used in this study. Study was carried out at similar period of time for one year. The conception rate was higher at NH than BN goat fann. It was 0.809± 0.058 in BN and 0.88 ± 0.066 in NH respectively. The birth weight of male and female kids ofBN fann was higher than NH kids. It was (3.824 ±0.083 kg) in BN kids (3.513 ± 0.20 kg) in NH kids respectively. While the weight of female kids were (3.503 ±0.083 kg) in BN kids and (3.456 ± 0.10 kg) in NH kids. The age at puberty was higher at BN (245.3 ± 2.9 days) than NH goat fann (242.4 ±1.9 days). The kidding interval at BN was higher than NH flock. It was (314 ± 20 day) and (224.8 ± 0.915 days) days respectively. The post partum anestrous exhibited only in NH does, because in this fann the buck was free all around the year and after (50.0± 3.95 days) the does mate if they are in estrous, while in BN fann, bucks were free during the season. The body condition scoring (1-5 point) was higher in NH goats (2.44 ± 0.14) than BN goat fann (1.91 ± 0.11). The Body weight of does between both flocks were higher in BN (42.47 ± 0.92) than in N H goat farm (41.10 ± 1.9). The high concentrate feeding intake between two farms showed that the concentrate feed intake was higher in BN 491.5 ± 8.5 gm per day per goat than N H goat farm (146 ± 30 gm per day. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the reproductive efficiency of Beetal goats in N H goat farm was higher than BN farm~ because the seasonal breeding at BN has limited the kidding frequency. Where as~ all year round breeding was efficient and the kidding distribution almost doubled in the same year. The cost of feeding was higher in BN than NH goat farm~ because they provide concentrate daily~ but the cost of labour and miscellaneous was higher in NH than BN goat farm. The management of feeding~ green fodder was higher and there were sufficient green fodder for whole year in NH goat farm. The reproductive performance of Beetal goats can be improved by good managemental systems and all year round breeding. Research and development efforts can significantly improve reproductive efficiency of goats and simultaneously enhance the livelihood of the poor. Structuring the whole system via adapted reproductive techniques (thus allowing high levels of productivity). Findings of this study would be useful to determine the viability of systems on the basis of reproductive efficiency and may provide basic guidelines to establish goat farms in the future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1048,T] (1).

31. Clinico -Therapeutical Trials Of Lactic Acidosis In Small Ruminants

by Haq Aman Ullah | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: During the present study clinical examination of 200 small ruminants (sheep and goats) any breed, age and sex with the history of diarrhea was performed at the Outdoor Hospital, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences Lahore and adjacent areas. A total of 38 animals were diagnosed positive for the disease. Temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, rumen pH, serum pH, ruminal movements and ruminal protozoa of affected animals were studied before and after treatment with two drugs magnesium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate. It was found that rectal temperature, rumen pH, blood pH, ruminal movements decreased significantly in lactic acidotic sheep and goats before treatment as compared to control group. While increased pulse and respiration rate were observed in lactic acidotic group before treatment as compared to control group. Thirty diseased and ten healthy animals were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D each having ten animals. Group 'A" was provided with magnesium hydroxide at a dose rate of 1.11 g/ Kg body weight orally mixed in water at a rate of 450 g/ 3.5 liter once, group "B" was treated with sodium bi carbonate at a rate of lg/ kg body weight orally once, group "C" was kept as diseased untreated control and group "D" acted as healthy control. Mean values obtained before treatment were rectal temperature 99.74 F° + 0.67153, lOO.59F° 1 0.75580, 101.25 F° ± 0.49448 and 102.86 F° ± 0.30155 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Rectal temperature values after treatment were 102.47 F° ± 0.2 1294, 101.9 + 0.27849, 101.19 F°±0.41965 and 102.95 F° ± 0.16142 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean pulse rate values for group A, B, C and D before treatment were 100.6/mm ± 3.40008, 97.2/mm ± 4.24745, 103.6/min ± 2.5636 and 86.3/min ± 1.85626 respectively while after treatment were 88.55/min ± 1.77768, 92/min ± 1.75123, 94.3/min ± 1.90938, 86/min ± 1.06460 respectively. Mean respiration rate values before treatment were 24.1min ± 0.86218, 28.2/min ± 2.52020, 24/min ± 0.84329 and 19.8/min ± 0.59256 for group A, B, C and D respectively while after treatment were 20.55/min ± 0.78953, 22.8/min ± 0.80001, 24.5/min ± 0.79234 and 20.7/min ± 0.66751 respectively. Mean rumen pH values obtained before treatment were 4.43 ± 0.14533, 4.49 ± 0.13287, 4.76 + 0.17075 and 6.39 ± 0.13699 while after treatment were 5.66 ± 0.17125, 5.41 ± 0.13506, 4.94 ± 0.18683 and 6.42 ± 0.08035 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean d pH values obtained before treatment were 7.18 ± 0.04667, 7.1 ± 0.05375, 7.21 ± 0.05044 and 7.33 ± 0 .02808 while after treatment were 7.37 ± 0.02806, 7.25 + 0.02390, 7.18 ± 0.03837 and 7.41 + 0.0383 7 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Ruminal protozoa were completely absent in ruminal fluid of lactic acidotic group. Ruminal stasis was also observed in lactic acidotic group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1052,T] (1).

32. Dvelpoment And Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For The Detection Of Avian Influenza Strains In Pakistan

by Mirza Salman Saleem | Asso. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Hanif | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The pathogenic Influenza A viruses (subtype H5N1, H7N2 and H9N3), are emerging avian influenza (AI) viruses that have been causing global concern as a potential pandemic threat. Some forms having zoonotic importance (H5N1 and H7N7). So it is a matter of priority to develop quick and efficient methods for detection of Influenza viruses. For the detection of avian influenza, HA (haemagglutination) test and HI (haemagglutination inhibition) tests are being used for long time. But studies have shown that Influenza virus shows variability and diversity and a high rate of mutation, which makes diagnosis difficult. For this reason the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays are considered to be a helpful tool. In this study design, a multiplex RT-PCR strategy was optimized and developed for the detection of AI virus (subtypes H5, H7 and H9). Primers were designed from sequence available Influenza Database (IVDB) for Pakistan and neighboring regions. The primers were annealed at different temperatures so as to optimize a temperature at which all three primers can amplify their respective subtypes. The results clearly indicated that a multiplex RT-PCR is a quick and efficient method for the detection and it is also economical as fewer reagents are utilized. The PCR products of the reaction can potentially be used to provide additional information about strain variation, either by restriction analysis or PCR product sequencing. The core objectives achieved are the development of an efficient and economical method for detection of avian influenza viruses by designing indigenous primers and optimization of a multiplex RT-PCR for the avian influenza virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1148,T] (1).

33. Prevalence Of Cestodes And Comparative Efficacy Of Niclosamide, Mebendazole And Fenbendazole In Pet Dogs

by Muhammad Shahid | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cestodes infestation in pet dogs in district Lahore and to evaluate the efficacy of niclosamide, mebendazole and fenbendazole against them. For this the samples were collected from three different clinics in Lahore for a period of 3 months. A total of 400 samples were collected. Three types of cestodes were identified (E.granulosus, T.hydatigena and D.caninum). The highest prevalence revealed was that of T.hydatigena and the lowest was of D.caninum in pet dogs. For the drug trials, 32 dogs were divided into four groups named group A (niclosamide), group B (mebendazole), group C (fenbendazole) and group D (positive control). The sampling was performed on day 0, 7 and 21 & the treatment with each drug was made on 0 and 7 days. Later on the reduction in EPG and the calculation of efficacy revealed that mebendazole is the best drug among the three drugs used and the efficacy of fenbendazole was found to be very poor. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1164,T] (1).

34. A Comparative Study On Clinico -Hemotological & Therapeutic Trails In Indigestion & Lactic Acid In Small Ruminents

by Muhammed Abdul Basit | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The Indigestion and lactic acidosis are most common non infectious managmental problem in small ruminants that have been causing global concern as a potential threat. Some cases shows the clinical signs very early while some shows late clinical signs most of which arc common among these two diseases. So it is a matter of priority to develop quick and efficient methods for differential diagnosis and quick response of the therapeutical agent. It was found that rectal temperature, Ruminal fluid pH, and ruminal movements decreased significantly in Indigestion and lactic acidosis in sheep and goats before the treatment in comparison to the control group. On the other hand it was observed that pulse and respiration rate were increased in both groups D-l and D-2 as compare to control group. In present study design, 2 groups of animals were designed for Indigestion and lactic acidosis (I for each disease). Each group was divided into 4 sub group each comprising 10 animals (sheep and goats). The group 1-1 of D-l was provided with Acetic Acid Vinegar 500-800 ml per animal per oral while 1-2 of D-l group was treated with Stomach powder @ 50-70 grams per animal per oral. Similarly sub group LA-l of D-2 was treated with sodium bicarbonate 5% 200-3 00 ml per animal intravenously and sub group LA-2 of D-2 group was provided with sodium bicarbonate @ 40-60 grams per animal per oral. On the other hand sub group 1-3 of D-l and LA-3 of D-2 was kept as diseased untreated control and subgroup 1-4 of indigestion group and LA-4 of Lactic acidotic group was kept as healthy control. Mean values obtained after treatment for D- I group (Indigestion) were rectal temperature increases more significantly in I-I than that of 1-2 while pulse rate of 1-2 sub group was significant than I-i. Respiration rate change was also significant in I- I sub group. Blood pH of 1-2 was significant while ruminal fluid p11 increases more significantly in 1-1. On the other hand mean values obtained allcr treatment for D-2 group (Lactic acidosis) were rectal temperature and pulse rate changed significantly in LA-i sub group. Respiration rate change was significant in LA-2 sub group Blood pit of LA-i & LA-2 in similar range while ruminal fluid pH increases more significantly in LA-I that LA-2 sub group. Ruminal protozoa were not seen in ruminal fluid of both groups. Ruminal movements was rarely observed in indigestion group and not observed in lactic acidotic glol''). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1167,T] (1).

35. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Of Carvediolol In Healty Male And Female Volunteers

by Alishba syed | Dr. Sualeha Riuffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in 6 healthy male and female volunteers. The study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers and six healthy female volunteers. Only those male volunteers were selected who were of age between 18-30 years, not suffering from any disease. Female volunteers were also between age of 18-30 years, who were not pregnant and not suffering from any disease. Written consent was taken from them and they were be informed about objectives of the study, frequency of blood sampling, and possible side effects of drug which they might face during the study. The male volunteers were considered as group A and healthy female volunteers were considered as group B. Both groups were treated with Carvedilol 12.5mg tablet per orally to each individual. 5m1 Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5. 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hr from vein through 5ml B.D syringe of 22guage needle after oral administration of Carvedilol. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 5000 RPM and stored at -40°C till analysis. Carvedilol concentrations in plasma were measured by HPLC method. All pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmacological analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in healthy male volunteers and in healthy female volunteers were compared. Data was analyzed byapproprite statistical methods and no significant difference was found between AUC and Cmax. Absorption rate was highr in females as compared to males. AUC of Carvedilol was 0.076±0.021 µg.h/ml in healty male voluneteers and 0.197±0.105 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers. The half life was 5.205±1.824 hours in healty male volunteers and 6.6768±1.328 hours in female volunteers. The Cmax was observed as 0.024±0.004 µg.h/ml in healty volunteers and 0.048±0.018 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1180,T] (1).

36. Use Of Antioxidate Containing Extender To Improve Post Thaw Quality Of Canine Semen

by Zia Ullah | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity and viability of spermatozoa) using the Labrador retriever dog frozen semen. Dog is a unique animal in terms of its semen ejaculation which is in fractions with a highly variable sperm concentration in different fractions as compared to other mammalian species like bull, boar, ram, human which have their ejaculate as a single fraction. In this study, BHT was found to improve post thaw motility, sperm viability, plasma membrane integrity and the acrosomal integrity at an inclusion level of 1.0mM in the extended semen. However, the higher concentrations than this were found to have detrimental effects on the parameters mentioned above. The reasons for these detrimental effects could be the change in osmolarity of the semen that varies in different species. The ROS production is associated with normal physiological functioning of the spermatozoa and when a semen sample is diluted the endogenous antioxidant mechanism of the semen is compromised and addition of exogenous antioxidant is needed to equilibrate. Therefore the addition of BHT at an inclusion level 1.0mM in study was found optimum and higher concentrations of this had detrimental effect on the spermatozoa, which could be due to two reasons as explained by Ijaz et al., 2009, i.e., firstly higher concentration of BHT reduce the physiological functions of the spermatozoa by extremely reducing the ROS which are needed to a certain level for physiological function of the spermatozoa and secondly it increases the fluidity of the plasma membrane above the desired levels thus making it prone to more damages. In conclusion, BHT was found useful for dog spermatozoa at inclusion level 1.0mM, however, further studies are required to investigate the fertility of the canine semen having inclusion levels of BHT. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1184,T] (1).

37. Prevalence Of Caprine Mycoplasmosis In Different Areas Of Pakistan

by Waseem Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007. For this purpose a total of 1440 different samples such as nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung piece, synovial fluid, and milk samples (1180), and 260 serum samples were collected from clinically affected goats of different breeds, age and sex. These samples were collected from twelve districts including Mansehra, Peshwar, Swabi, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Pishin, Jhang, Sargodha, Lahore and Faisalabad with 6 union councils (UC) in each district. Twenty samples of different nature were collected from each of union council. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, Growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One twenty one samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth whereas out of these 121 samples 58 grew on PPLO agar. All 58 field isolated organisms showed positive reaction to GIT. None of the serum sample showed a positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five samples out of 1180 prior to culturing were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing, whereas 58 samples were positive with this technique after culturing. Prevalence of mycoplasmosis in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5 % respectively) is not significantly higher as compared to semi desert and sub hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9 % respectively) which may be due to chance alone. Furthermore, the adult group-3 (age > 1 year) has significantly lowest prevalence (2.7 %) of Mmc as compared to age group-1 (age < 181 days) with 5.1 % prevalance and age group-2 (age: 181 to 365 days) with 4.4 % prevalence. This difference may be due to chance but not areal difference. Similarly prevalence (4.7%) of mycoplasmosis in female goats is not significantly higher as compared to males (3.2%). Beetal, Piamiri, Beetal teddy cross, Baltistani and Desi breeds of goats showed higher prevalence only by chance as compared to other breeds in the areas under study. Saponin inactivated vaccine was prepared from this field strain and found to be effective against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goats. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4+, CD8+, and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 ºC, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsintreated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1188,T] (1).

38. A Study Of Giardiasis And Its Chemotherapy With Metronidazole And Albendazole In Dogs

by Ayesha sara | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Giardiasis is an intestinal pathogenic protozoan which infect humans and a wide range of animals including dogs prevalence of giardia varies widely depending on the detection method, geographic localization and population studied. The objective of the study was to determine the percentage of giardiasis in dogs, its treatment and blood examination before and after treatment. The study was conducted in pet center of university of veterinary and animal sciences (UVAS) and private clinics in Lahore; collected sample were processed in medicine laboratory, department of clinical medicine and surgery (UVAS), Lahore. Faecal samples of five hundred dogs suspected with giardiasis were collected and assessment of giardia cyst were seen using zinc sulphate floatation technique and sucrose gradient centrifugation method, then the positive dogs were separated and divided into four groups viz A, B, C, groups D was negative control, group A was treated with Metronidazole and its efficacy wasll.3 %,64 % & 85 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment while group B was treated with Albendazole & its efficacy was 16.3 % ,44.2 % & 74 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment the results showed that the Metronidazole was better in efficacy then Albendazole, C group was serve as positive control & all these results were compared with negative control (healthy dogs) that is group D.The efficacy of the drugs was determined by the disappearance of giardia cysts from feceas. The blood examination total leukocyte count & Differential Leukocyte Count was conducted before & after the treatment with drugs & it showed that there was mild increase in TLC but not more increase in DLC & no adverse effect of drugs on blood parameters and values were almost normal and close to the values of negative control(healthy dogs). It has been observed during the present study that metronidazole & albendazole showed their mild effect on blood parameters as a result of curing giardiasis. Statistical analysis of data revealed non significant difference (p>O.O5) between groups, A, B, & D (-ye control) on day 3 & 7 of treatment. it was observed that metronidazole was the most effective 85% followed by albendazole 74% against giardiasis in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1192,T] (1).

39. A Study Of Parasitic Causes Of Diarrhea In Cattle Calves In District Gujranwala

by Muhammad Salman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The loss of fluids through diarrhea can- cause severe dehydration which is one cause of death on diarrhea sufferers. In present study cattle calves up to six months of age in district Gujranwala were examined for parasitic infestation. The samples were collected from different Government farms, veterinary hospitals and from villagers having livestock. A total number of 300 cattle calves were examined during the period of three months. The effect of parasitic diarrhea according to the factors like sex and age were studied, the percentage of parasitic diarrhea in cattle calves were also studied. Collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory of university of veterinary and animal sciences Lahore. Fecal samples were processed for different coporological tests, including direct smear, floatation, sedimentation, McMaster and for cryptosporidial examination, staining of fecal smears were used. Blood parameters like Hemoglobin level, TLC & DLC was also be studied. The faecal samples result showed that 147 samples were positive from parasitic diarrhea out of 300 samples and percentage was 49 % including cryptosporidium, cooperia, oesophagostomum, fashiodorous, toxocara, coccidian & eurytrema. The samples were collected age wise as 0-1 months, 42 samples were positive out of 90 samples showing 46.6%, in 1-3 months 47 samples were positive out of 95 samples showing 49.47 %, 1n3- 6 months 58 samples were positive out of 115 showing 50.43 %.while the blood parameters Hb level, TLC & DLC were altered in parasitic diarrhea which showed milk decrease in TLC & DLC as compared to normal values while Hb level was also decreased in parasitic diarrhea. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1193,T] (1).

40. Comparative Study Of Primary And Secondary Bloat In Buffaloes

by Sajjad Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Zia-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. M.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Bloat (tympany) is the abnormal distension of rumen and reticulum caused by excessive gases of fermentation, either in the form of persistent foam mixed with rumen contents or as free gas separated from the ingesta. The experimental study on bloat was conducted at outreach clinic of university of veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore and adjacent areas. There were 500 buffaloes, out of these cases 86 were diagnosed to be suffered from bloat (60 were suffering from primary bloat, 2o were suffered from secondary bloat as shown in the table No 5 and table No 6). Six animals were expired from primary bloat as shown in the table No 10. They were expire without any treatment. Thus the disease percentage recorded was 17.4 A systemic clinical examination of each animal was conducted. The age, breed, sex and general heath of the animal was also recorded. Complete history of each affected animal was recorded. Diagnostic confirmation between primary bloat and secondary bloat was done through stomach tube. Primary bloat was easily recognizable and there were no other diseases of reticulorumen that result in ruminal tympany. Secondary bloat was differentiated from causes of failure of eructation including esophageal obstruction,chromic reticuloperitonitis, vagal indigestion, tetanus, injury and rumen impaction. Treatment trials were carried out on the basis of grouping of animals. The buffaloes which are under attack of bloat were classified into two main groups i.e. group A and group B, which were further divided into four sub groups, which were A1, A2, B1 and B2.Animals suffered from primary bloat were kept into Group A1 and A2. While the animals suffering from secondary bloat were kept into Group B1 and Group B2. Treatment trials for Group A1 and Group B1 were same, while for Group A2 and Group B2 were same. The efficacy of drug was evaluated on reversal of clinical signs. The bloat affected buffaloes recovered with in 2 to 3 hours after the administration of medicine. No Side effects of these drugs, if any, was recorded the animals was examined for 24 hours after medication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1194,T] (1).

41. Pharmacokinetic Studies Of Amoxcillin Trihydrate In Healthy Buffalo Calves

by Amir Rashid | Dr. Sheryar Afzal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to determine and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Farmox (Test Product) and Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) in healthy buffalo calves. For this study sixteen healthy buffalo calves between the ages of 6 to 12 months were purchased from the local market. They were kept in the shed of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Their health status was monitored by physical examination. All the animals were maintained under similar conditions. The calves were provided fodder and water. All the animals were dewormed with Albendazole and a fifteen days wash out period was observed after deworming. The study was cross over design. Calves were divided into two groups A and B having eight animals in each. In the first phase calves of group A were administered Farmox (Test Product) intramuscular at the dose of 15mg/kg body weight and calves of group B were administered Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) intramuscularly at the dose of 15mg/kg body weight. In the second phase of the study, after a washout period of 15 days, group A were administered Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) and group B received the treatment with Farmox at same dose rate. Then 5ml blood was collected by direct pricking of jugular vein with needle and the blood was collected in heparinized test tubes. Prior to drug administration control/blank 5ml blood sample was also collected from each animal. After the drug administration the blood samples were collected at 0.166, 0.33, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 24.0, 36.0 and 48.0 hours. The blood samples were then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes. Plasma was separated in small capped plastic bottles and measured by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. Calculation of all the pharmacokinetic parameters was done by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmaceutical analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Farmox and Amoxi-vet were compared. Data was analyzed by appropriate statistical methods and it was concluded that there is no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of Farmox (Test Product) and Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) after intramuscular administration and both products are bioequivalent in their rate and extent. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1201,T] (1).

42. Evaluation Of Post Peak Production Of Commercial Layers And Fed On Extruded Hatchery Waste Meal

by Rafiullah | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Poultry feed ingredients are very expensive and raises poultry input cost with an inverse impact at final outcome. To decrease the feed cost and to increase farming output, utilization of non conventional feed resources such as hatchery waste meal (HWM) may be used in layer feed and seems a good economic properties. For this purpose the present study was designed to exploit post peak production of commercial layers supplemented with dietary extruded hatchery waste meal and this trail was carried out at poultry experimental farm University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Two experiments were conducted at the poultry experimental farm. In the first experiment raw hatchery was collected from a local hatchery and was dried at oven in 60°C till constant weight was achieved. The dried sample was then cooked by extrusion processes. In the second experiment the dietary inclusion of extruded hatchery waste meal (EHWM) was determined on performance of layer birds. For this purpose two hundred and fifty (250) White Leg horn layers in start of 2nd stage of production (35 weeks old) was procured and divided in to five groups (A, B, C, D and E) in such a way that there were fifty birds in each group. Each group was then further sub divided in to five replicates of ten birds. Group A served as a control. The experimental layers were being kept in cages with the standard norms of husbandry. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. Four different supplementary levels of extruded hatchery waste meal of groups B, C, D, and E respectively, i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% were incorporated in layers diet. The parameters studied daily egg production and egg weight, while shell weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, albumen height, yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk color, and Haugh units were studied on fortnight basis. At the end of the experiment the feasibility of each ration was also calculated. The data thus collected were statistically analyses using analysis of variance technique and comparison of means was made using DMR test. In the present study the high mean egg production was recorded in treatment 4 (53.2±1.15) in which 6% extruded EHWM was used while the lowest mean egg production was recorded in treatment 2 (49.9±1.82) in which 2% of extruded HWM was used. The result of the present study show non-significant (p>0.05) effect of extruded hatchery waste meal on egg production. Highest value of average egg weight (60.4±0.48) was observed in control group while lowest value (59.2±0.53) was observed by using 8% EHWM. Statistical analysis showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect among treatments. Highest value of mean egg shell weight (7.3±0.17) was observed by using 4% extruded HWM. Lowest value of mean egg shell weight (7.2±0.06) was observed by using 8% HWM. The high value recorded for shell thickness was that of treatment 4 (0.33±0.008) by using 6% dietary EHWM, while lowest value was recorded in treatment 5 (0.31±0.002) using 8% dietary EHWM. The result of mean shell weight and shell thickness also showed non-significant differences (p>0.05) among different treatments. The results of albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh units showed non-significant (p>0.05) effect of feeding different dietary levels of EHWM to commercial layers. However the highest values recorded for albumen weight and albumen height were (37.5±0.61) and (8.53 0.134) respectively in control group which was without of dietary EHWM. The highest value observed for Haugh units was (91.8±0.57) that of treatment 3 by using 4% EHWM. However albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh unit showed statistically non significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM fed on experimental commercial layers. The values for yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color were observed in order of merit for treatment, 2 (2% EHWM) (16.0±0.17), treatment 3 (4% EHWM) (38.8±0.11), and treatment 5 (8% EHWM) (5.5±0.15) respectively. Statistically the yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM on layers performance. The economic feasibility of each ration was calculated at the end of the experiment. The feed cost per kg and the cost of 1 kg eggs were decreased gradually as dietary supplementary level of HW was increased from 2 to 8% in the diet of commercial layers. The most economical ration was that of treatment 5 in which 8%EHWM was used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1202,T] (1).

43. Study Of Physico Chemical And Microbiological Quality And Adulteration In Processed Dairy Products

by Sibghat Ullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Dairy products are perishable food items and are good source of nutrients for human being as well as microorganisms. Adulteration in processed dairy products has become a very serious and alarming issue in Pakistan. The milk and milk product adulterants include water, starch, vegetable oil, yeast, Soya protein, whey powder and hazardous substances. There is a growing demand from consumers for healthy and hygienic dairy products. Keeping in view these facts, the present study was carried out to determine the physicochemical, microbiological and adulteration in various processed dairy products. The results are summarized as follows: The highest mean values of physical tests in ice cream samples were, melting resistance 11.64 +0.030, melting quality 28.27+0.322.The highest mean values of yoghurt samples in different chemical tests were i.e. Fat 3.46 +0.140%, pH 5.67±0.01, Ash 2.63+0.208%, Total solids 14.28±0.10% and Moisture content 81.56+2.645%. The highest mean values of cheese samples in different chemical tests were i.e. Fat 31.93+0.801%, pH 4.60+0.447, Lactose 1.81+0.159%. Highest mean values for milk powder samples were i.e. Lactose 47.98+1.178%, Protein contents 23.86+1.289%, Total solids 94.82 +0.430% and Moisture content 6.34+1.72%. Highest mean values of microbiological count in yoghurt samples were i.e. Total plate count 4.60+0.627 log cfu/g, Coliform count 3.85+0.442 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 4.52 +0.577 log cfu/g. Highest mean values of microbiological count in cheese samples were i.e. Total plate count 4.93+1.128 log cfu/g, Coliform count 5.28+0.759 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 4.64+1.132 log cfu/g. Highest mean values of microbiological count in butter samples were i.e. Total plate count 5.39+0.534 log cfu/g, Coliform count 5.39 +0.524 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 5.35 +0.736 log cfu/g. Highest mean values of different microbiological tests in ice cream samples were i.e. Total plate count 5.76+0.690 log cfu/g, Coliform count 5.41+0.616 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 6.38 +0.536 log cfu/g. Adulteration study in different dairy products are summarized as i.e. Haleeb and Nestle yoghurt brands were negative for chemical adulterants tests i.e. Urea, Formaldehyde, Neutralizers, Starch, Boric acid, Quaternary ammonium compounds, while H2O2 was detected positive in both yoghurt samples of Haleeb and Nestle. Similarly all the chemical adulterants tests were negative for milk powder samples of Haleeb and Nurpur brands while positive for H2O2. Results about ice cream samples shows that all the ice cream samples were negative for chemical adulterants tests i.e. Urea, Formaldehyde, Neutralizers, Starch, Boric acid, Quaternary ammonium compounds, while positive for H2O2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1203,T] (1).

44. Prepartyion And Evaluation Of Cheddar Cheese From Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacterum Bifidum

by Irum Naz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Cheese is a food product which is made by fermenting milk by adding certain starter culture. It is highly proteinaceous and contains high content of fat. It has many flavors but Cheddar Cheese is most popular among all of its kinds. By adding probiotics in cheese it would be added to the group of functional foods. Probiotics are live micro organisms that are useful for human body if taken in proper amount. There are many food products which contains probiotics like yogurt and fermented milk but the main drawback of these products are their shelf life which is very short and probiotics does not remain viable for longer period of time . The study was formulated to manufacture probiotic cheddar cheese, chemical and sensory evaluation of probiotic cheese and to check the viability of probiotics. The data was statistically analyzed for the effect of storage and treatment on probiotic viability by using Duncan's test. The probiotic cheddar cheese was manufactured at Haleeb Foods. Starter culture and rennet was provided by Haleeb foods and probiotic cultures in freeze-died form were obtained from Christian Hansen, Denmark. The starter culture alone and in combination with different concentrations of probiotics were added to milk for cheese making. After completing all the steps involved in its preparation, cheese were removed from mould, packed in vacuum cryovac packaging and were placed for ripening for 90 days at 4ºC. Sensory evaluation of Cheddar Cheese was done by a team of panelists to check its flavor, colour, taste, texture and overall acceptability at every fifteen days interval during maturation time. There is a significant effect of different levels of probiotics on flavor, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability of Cheddar Cheese. Storage has also shown a significant effect on the sensory parameters of cheese. Chemical tests like pH, fat, moisture, protein, salt and acidity concentrations were also carried out after fifteen days interval at the laboratory of Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. There is a significant effect of pH, acidity, fat and protein on cheddar cheese. As pH lowers with the passage of time its acidity increases. So there is significant effect of storage on different treatment levels. The levels of Lactobacillus acidophilus specifically have shown an increased acidity. Viability of probiotic bacteria was checked at 15 days interval at the Laboratory of Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. During ripening Bifidobacterium bifidum has shown a good viability level of 107 and 108 cfu/20g of cheese. But on the other hand lactobacillus acidophilus have sustain its numbers for about two weeks and then decreased to a very low level. So there is a significant effect of viability on both strains during the storage. There is non significant effect of levels on viability of probiotics. The statistical analysis used was two way analysis of variance to check the treatment and storage effect on probiotic cheddar cheese by following the method (Steel et al., 1997). Significance of means was compared by using DUNCAN'S multiple range tests (1955). The research has enabled us to conclude the outcomes that the Cheddar Cheese is a good vehicle for delivery of probiotics but the lactobacillus strain needs more improvements its viability is concerned. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1206,T] (1).

45. Study Of Physicochemcial And Microbioloigcal Quality And Adulteration Of Processed Fluid Milk In Punjab

by Abdul Rehman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Jalees | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Milk production, handling, storage, transportation and marketing of milk is handled in a primitive way in Pakistan. Mostly middle man and contractors are involved in the collection, marketing and distribution of milk. Most of the milk is produced in rural areas and transported to cities where it is supplied to milk plants and also to house consumers. During transportation and distribution there is no refrigeration involved. Middle man adds ice to keep the milk cool and prevent from spoilage. In addition, they also add chemical to kill bacteria and prevent spoilage of milk. Adulteration of milk is one of the most serious issue in the dairy sector of Pakistan, causing not only major economic losses for the processing industry, but also major health risks for the consumers. Milk is a perishable item and to prevent the spoilage of milk various chemicals are added by the milk collectors. In addition, the microbiological quality of milk is very important which directly concern not only with milk spoilage but also consumer's health Keeping in view the above mentioned factors, study was conducted to determine the physico-chemical, microbiological and adulterants in processed milk in Punjab. A total of 30 samples of UHT and 30 samples of pasteurized milk were collected and examined from production units in Punjab. Density in UHT milk ranged from 22.53+0.08 to 28.44+0.27 and in pasteurized milk ranged from 23.43+0.35 to 27.21±0.17. Conductivity in UHT milk ranged from 9.72+0.38 to 11.33+0.28 and in Pasteurized milk ranged from 9.13+0.08 to 10.13±0.18. Freezing point in UHT milk ranged from -0.49+0.006 ºC to -0.45±0.005 ºC and in pasteurized milk brands ranged from -0.47+0.002 ºC to -0.45+0.008 ºC. Fat in UHT milk ranged from 3.74+0.17 % to 3.99+0.31 % and in Pasteurized milk fat ranged 3.46+0.09 % to 3.60+0.01. SNF in UHT milk ranged from 7.65+0.30 % to 8.03+0.66 % and in Pasteurized milk SNF ranged from 7.57+0.13 % to 7.89+0.08 %. Protein in UHT milk ranged from 3.16+0.11 % to 3.24+0.03 %, in Pasteurized milk protein ranged from 2.92+0.09 % to 3.05+0.03. Lactose in UHT milk ranged from 3.90+0.01 % to 4.08+0.04 %, in Pasteurized milk lactose ranged from 3.69+0.16 to 4.05+0.04. Ash in UHT milk ranged from 0.70+0.003 % to 0.75+0.003 %, in Pasteurized milk ash ranged from 0.54+.08 % to 0.73±0.01 %. Water added in UHT milk ranged from 6.36+0.33 % to 11.11+0.06 % in Pasteurized milk water added ranged from 8.74±0.04 % to 11.54+0.02 %. pH in UHT milk ranged from 6.67+0.01 to 6.82+0.008, in Pasteurized milk pH ranged from 6.38+0.19 to 6.76+0.11. Acidity in UHT milk ranged from 0.15+0.03 % to 0.16+0.06 % and in Pasteurized milk acidity ranged from 0.14+0.003 % to 0.16+0.01 %. TPC in Pasteurized milk ranged from 5.0 x 104+1.2 x 104 to 6.8 x 104+2.3 x 104 . Coliform count in Pasteurized milk ranged from 62+3.84 to 378+25.98. Staph aureus Count in Pasteurized milk ranged from 63.33+4.41 to 275.32+17.32. All UHT milk brands were found negative for TPC, Coliform, Staph aureus and Yeast and Mold count. The qualitative tests adulterants were performed by (M.A.T) Kit. In UHT and Pasteurized brands the adulterants found were Salt, Sugar, Starch and Hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion On the basis of present finding, it is concluded that water addition was one of the major factors present in every segment of milk marketing which decreases the fat and SNF content of milk and markedly effect the physical and chemical quality of milk. Consumers may also be facing potential public health hazards caused by chemical adulteration and food borne pathogens in the milk. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1207,T] (1).

46. Comparative Efficacy Of Intravesical Mucosal And Extravesical Apposition Techniques For Ureteroneocystostomy in Dogs

by Muhammad Talha Sajjad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shahan Azeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different techniques of Ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral reimplantation in dogs. Sixteen stray dogs were selected and were divided into two groups i.e. group A & B, comprising eight animals each. The efficacy of the procedures was evaluated on the basis of physical examination, serum evaluation for creatinine & urea, contrast radiography and post mortem findings. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia in both the groups and urinary bladder was exteriorized in both the groups. In group A, longitudinal incision was made near the bladder dome, a mosquito hemostat was passed from the surface of the bladder through the bladder wall at an oblique angle then the ureter was brought to the level of the bladder mucosa incision. A 6-0 Polyglactin 910 (Vicyrl,Jhonsons & Jhonsons Pharma) suture with double needles was then placed at each apex of the spatulated ureter and the full-thickness of ureter anastomosed to the bladder mucosa in one layer with a continuous, nonlocking stitch. In group B, two small incisions were made at the outer part of the bladder wall until the mucosa was seen through the cuts. Then a submucosal tunnel was dissected between them and the graft's ureter was introduced. Once the ureteral end has been spatulated, a reabsorbable 4-0 suture thread with independent needles at each end was passed (each needle goes from the outer to the inner side of the ureteral wall. Afterward, both needles were advanced into the bladder by the creation of a mucosal incision at the distal hole; these two needles then transfixed the bladder wall from inside about 2 cm distally. During knotting of the suture (outside the bladder) the distal ureter was pushed to the bladder wall that it anchored against the mucosa. The results of this study clearly indicated that both techniques are equally effective for the reimplantation of the ureter to bladder but an extravesical ureteroneocystostomy (Modified Lich Gregoir) has an edge over in intravesical mucosal apposition technique (Modified Lead better-Politano) in terms of effectiveness , safety and minimum postoperative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1210,T] (1).

47. Epidemiology Diagnosis And Chemotherpy Of Strangles In Equines

by Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Strangles is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis and causes high morbidity and low mortality. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. The present study comprised of five phases. In phase-I, epidemiology of the disease including prevalence, variations in SeM, SzPSe and Se18.9 proteins and mortality rate were studied in Lahore and Sargodha districts. For epidemiology, nasal swabs and pus samples from the affected lymph nodes of 500 equines (nr=250 horses, rutz250 mules) suspected for strangles were collected and cultured for identification of S. equl. The collected samples were processed at Medicine and Microbiology Laboratories of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lhore, Pakistan and Gluck equine research center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, USA. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules, 113(45.2%) horses and 99 (3 9.6%) mules tested positive for S. equi. on the basis of culture. Number of S. equl isolates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in pus samples taken from sub-mandibular lymph nodes as compared to nasal discharge samples. The difference was significant (P<0.05) among mules of different age groups. The highest prevalence of strangles was recorded in horses and mules less than 2 year of age as compared to those having age more than 2 years. In the present study, prevalence of strangles round the year in horses and mules were also calculated and it was found to be the highest during the months of February, March, April and May while few cases were seen during the months of January, June and July and no cases were observed during others months. The significant difference was observed (p<O.O5) among the prevalence levels of strangles in different months of the year. Similarly when compared the prevalence of strangles in different seasons of Pakistan i.e. summer, winter, spring and autumn. The highest prevalence rate was recorded during the spring season. The prevalence on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of S. equi in horses and mules was also recorded. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules tested, 122(48.8%) horses and 113(45.2%) mules were positive for S. equi. When compared the prevalence rate on the basis of PCR and culture of nasal and pus samples from affected submandibular lymph nodes it revealed that the sensitivity of Polymerase chain reaction appears to be much greater than culture. The culture along with PCR is the best diagnostic technique for S. equi as PCR test does not differentiate between dead and live bacteria, hence a positive test may not correlate with active infection; therefore, a positive culture may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this phase of epidemiological study of disease, effect of selective pressure of allelic diversity in SeM of S. equi on immunoreactive proteins SzPSe and Se 18.9 was also studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM are accompanied by variations in the immunoreactive surface of exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9. Sequences of genes of 25 S. equi alleles isolated from different countries of the world over a period of 40 years were compared. Twenty different SeM alleles were identified including 6 not included in the data base (http:// pubmlst.org/szooepidemicus). Amino acid variation was also detected distal to the N- terminus of SeM. No variation was observed in SzPSe except for an Australian isolate which showed a deletion of one PEPK repeat. The Se 18.9 protein in all 25 isolates of S. equi did not exhibit any variation. Interestingly, only 2 SNP loci were detected in Se 18.9 compared to 93 and 49 in SeM and SzPSe respectively. The greater frequency of mutation in SzPSe compared to Se18.9 may be related to a high rate of recombination of SzPSe and the inclusion of exogenous DNA sequence based on the atypical GC percentage of its central hyper variable region. In horses the mortality rate was recorded as 1.64% whereas the mortality rate in mules having less than 5 years of age was found to be 0.88%. No significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rate among horses and mules of different age groups affected with strangles was observed. In phase-I! of the present study, carrier status of the horses and mules were studied. Out of 122 horses found positive to PCR, 20 horses (10<2 years and 10 between 2 and 5 years of age) were selected and monitored for 12 weeks. Their nasal swab samples were used for identification of bacteria through culture and PCR on weekly basis. Till the end of 3rd week all horses <2 years of age remained positive but at the end of 4th to 7th weeks there remained positive only 5, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture whereas through PCR at the end of the 4th week all horse <2 years of age were found positive, but at the end of 5th to 10th weeks there remained 7, 5, 4, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively. While all the horses aging between 2 to 5 year, were positive up to the 1St week but at the end of 2nd to 8th week out of 10 there were 9, 7, 6, 3, 1, 1 and zero horses respectively positive on the basis of culture but through PCR, all horses were positive till 4th week but at the end of 5th to 9th week number was reduced to 9, 7, 6, 3, 2 and zero. Similarly, out of 113 mules, 20 mules (10<2 year and 10 between 2 and 5 years of old) were also monitored for 12 weeks to study their carrier status. After the end of 2nd week all mules <2 years of age were positive but at the end of 3rd to 6th weeks there remained 7, 3, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR at the end of the 5th week all mules <2 years of age were positive, but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there remained 9, 7, 3, 2 and zero mules out of 10, respectively. While in 2 and 5 year old mules, all were positive up to the 2nd week but at the end of 3rd to 7th weeks there were 6, 4, 2, 1, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR, all mules were positive up to 5th week but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there were 8, 5, 2, 1 and zero. Horses and mules were declared free of infection on the basis of three consecutive negative samples through culture and PCR. From the result of present study, it may be concluded that sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction appears to be much greater than culture for study of carrier status of equines. Moreover, recovered animals should be kept in quarantine period at least upto 9th week because the recovered horses and mules remain carrier for prolonged period of time and can act as source of infection for susceptible animals through periodic shedding of S equi. (comprising 10 horses and 10 mules) for in-vivo trials. Efficacy of the antibiotics was assessed weekly on the basis of negative nasal swab culture. Results of in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity revealed that in horses and mules, S equi was most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine, erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim + sulfdiazine and gentamycin whereas the result of in-vivo antibiotic trials revealed that horses and mules suffered from strangles without abscess formation were most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine and erythromycin whereas animals which developed abscess showed no response. It is concluded from the result of present study that Procaine penicillin is most effective in-vitro and in-vivo antibiotic followed by ceftiofur Na and cephradine. These antibiotics might be used for the treatment of strangles infection. Phase-V, comprised over in-vitro trials of disinfectants. Efficacy of disinfectants, like povidone iodine, 0.6% H2S04, dettol and bleach was assessed. Phenol Co-efficient Test was applied, to ascertain efficacy of these disinfectants, used in, in-vitro trials. Among four disinfectants, povidone iodine was found to be the best one with a phenol coefficient of 1.25 that is greater than phenol i.e. 1.00 while 0.6% H2S04 showed similar phenol coefficient as that of phenol. The phenol coefficient of dettol and bleach were observed as 0.5 and 0.75 respectively. Therefore it is recommended that S. equi is highly sensitive to povidone iodine and 0.6% H2S04. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1211,T] (1).

48. Implications Of Varying Electrolytes (Sodium Potassium And Chloride And Their Balance On Growth Performance and Physiologcal Responses of Broilers

by Mirza Muhammad Haroon | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad | FAPT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A series of experiments were envisaged to evaluate the effect of supplementation of dietary electrolytes with applicability of dietary electrolyte balance by using different salts on growth and carcass responses, body physiological responses and litter condition of modern day broiler chickens under phase feeding system. Day-old straight-run Hubbard broiler chicks were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments replicated four times in such a way that a floor space of 0.09 m2 was provided to each bird. Birds were housed in environmental control system. Continuous light was provided 24 hours for the first 3 day and thereafter a light pattern of 23L:ID was adopted for the entire experimental. In each experiment, a basal diet was formulated having lowest level of each electrolyte. In experiment 1, Na and DEB in the basal diet were maintained at 0.08% and 160 mEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was then supplemented with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and disodium sulphate (Na2SO4) to maintain four levels of Na (0.17, 0.26, 0.35, and 0.44%) by fixing K and Cl with DEB 200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg, respectively. In experiment 2, a basal diet was prepared to contain the lowest level of K and DEB i.e. 0.70% and 160 mEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was supplemented with potassium sulphate (K2S04) and potassium carbonate (K2C04) by fixing Na and Cl. So, four levels of K (0.86, 1.02, 1.18, and 1.34%) were maintained in eight dietary treatments. In experiment 3, a basal diet was prepared to contain the lowest level of Cl and DEI3 i.e. 0.17% and 320 rnEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was supplemented with ammonium chloride (NH4CI) or calcium chloride (CaCl2), so that, in each diet, we can have the increase of 40 mEq/kg DEB at 0.3 I, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73% of Cl at DEB 280, 240, 200 and 160 mEq/kg, respectively, by fixing Na and K. At the end of each phase (pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher); data of feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio, mortality, water intake, water intake-to-feed intake ratio and litter quality were collected and evaluated. At the end of each experiment, two birds were slaughtered for their carcass and body physiological responses. Blood was also collected from these same birds for blood pH. glucose and serum mineral analyses. For statistical analyses, four (4) levels of electrolyte were used with two (2) sources of salt in a factorial arrangement of 4 x 2 under completely randomized design using GLM. In experiment 1, highest weight gain and feed intake were found in birds consuming 0.17% (NaHCO3) and 0.44% (Na2SO4) dNa, respectively during d 1-10. However during d 11-20, weight gain and feed:gain were reduced with same levels of dNa. Maximum weight gain was found in diets containing 0.17 and 0.24% dNa during d 21-33 and 34-42, respectively. Improved FG was the result of diets containing 0.20% (NaHCO3) and 0.37% (Na2SO4) dNa during d 2 1-33. Linear rise in water intake was observed in birds with increasing dNa during d 1-42. Minimum litter dampness was seen at 0.37% (NaHCO3) and 0.2 1% (Na2SO4) during d 1-10. Minimum and maximum mortality were observed at 0.37% level of dNa in case of supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2SO4, respectively. Significantly increased pH and kidney weight while reduced dressing percentage were observed by amount and salt of dNa. Increased breast, thigh and gizzard weights were observed with increasing sodium. Weights of pancreas, gall bladder, bursa, and lungs, and shank length were affected by interaction of amount and salt of dNa. In experiment 2, BWG (P0.03) and feed:gain (P0.05) was improved at 1.20% dK during 32 to 42 d of age. K2S04 supplemented diets increased feed intake during I to 10 d (P<0.05), water intake during 34 to 42 d (P0.04) and mortality during 1 to 42 d (PE0.02). Water intake was increased linearly with increasing dK when supplemented by K2C03 whereas this was decreased linearly with increasing dK with that of K2S04 during 11 to 20 d (P0.002). The K2S04 supplemented diets lowered the blood pH (P0.00l), dressing (P0.04), abdominal fat (P0.03) weights and shank length (P0.02). A significant salt x dK effect was observed where low levels of dK with K2C03 and high levels with K2504 exhibited lower litter moisture during all phases. Increasing concentration of serum cations was observed by increasing dK, by balancing of increasing serum HCO3 with decreasing Cl at the end of the experiment. In experiment 3, body weight gain and water consumption were optimized at 0.73%, and 0.73% (CaCI2) and 0.45% (NH4CI), respectively, during d 1-10. During d 2 1-33, maximum weight gain and feed intake were observed at 0.42%, and 0.63% (CaCI2) and 0.63% (NH4CI), respectively. Highest weight gain (0.60% dcl), feed intake (0.61% CaCI2 0.42% NH4CI) and mortality (0.73%) while improved feed:gain (FG; 0.38% dCl) were obtained by interaction effects of amount and source of dCl during d 34-42. Fl (0.60%), feed:gain (0.3 8%) and litter moisture (0.31% NH4CI; 0.35 CaCl2) was affected during I -42d by amount of dcl. Increased blood pH, serum glucose and dressing percentage were found by dCl and replacing CaCI, with NH4C1. Improved breast meat, thigh meat and shank length while reduced abdominal fat were observed by replacing salts (CaCI2 withNH4Cl). It is concluded that birds showed better growth performance and reduced mortality against high levels of dietary sodium in Na2SO4 than NaHCO3 supplemented diets, while significant rise in pH, breast and thigh meat yield while reduced dressing percentage were observed with increasing dietary sodium. The importance of high concentration of dK for better weight gain and feed efficiency was depicted in later stages of production. K2C03 increased survivability and dressing responses but both dK levels and salts played important role for water intake, litter condition, carcass characteristics and serum mineral concentration. Birds were also suggested to be more sensitive to amount and source of dC1 in later part of their life. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1212,T] (1).

49. Effect Of Strawberry Juice On Angiogenesis Using Chorioallantoic Membrane (Cam) Assay

by Sadia Abrar | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a hallmark of almost all neoplastic and non-neoplastic degenerative diseases. Targeting angiogenesis with natural antiangiogenic compounds may lead to safe, effective and low cost budget therapies. Strawberries provide various vital natural substances which have a significant role in human health and disease prevention. In our study, we have focused on the effect of strawberry juice on angiogenesis using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Fresh fertilized eggs were taken, sprayed with 70% ethanol and incubated at 37 °C (humidity 55-60%). At day 5 of incubation a small window was made on each egg, 4-5 ml of albumen was removed, windows were sealed with sterile parafilm and eggs were returned to incubator. Strawberry juice was obtained from fully ripened strawberry fruits and various dilutions were prepared in distilled water. Filtered dilutions of the juice were used for experimental analysis and applied to the CAMs on day 6. of incubation. Macroscopic vascular changes were evidently observed among all treated CAMs on day 7 of incubation. Reduction in the total area and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels was observed after treatment with strawberry juice in concentration dependent manner. By using SPIP software 3D surface roughness measurements were carried out which clearly elaborated antiagiogenic effect of strawberry juice on CAMs. Strawberry juice inhibits angiogenesis, which is a common denominator shared by various major disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1213,T] (1).

50. Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs

by Adeel Shahbaz | Prof Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr. Shahan Azeem | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used. In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1218,T] (1).



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