Evalution Of Berseem Hay Based Total Mixed Ration In Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: The feeding management experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo calves raised on different levels of Berseem hay and
concentrates at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. Twenty four (24) buffalo calves of approximately same age (7-8 month) and body weight (77 kg) were randomly divided
into four groups' six calves in each. The calves were kept in individual stalls and fed for 12 weeks on Berseem hay based Total Mixed Rations (TMR) having Berseern hay only (A), Berseern hay: concentrate ratio of 70:30 (B), Berseem hay: concentrate ratio of 50:50 (C) and diet D: Berseem hay: concentrate ratio (30:70). The data on Daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, feed analysis, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and comparative economics were recorded, analyzed and interpreted in the manuscript.
The mean daily DM1 on treatment A, B, C and D were 503±0.16, 3.94±0.16, 3.67±0.12 and 3.12±0.11 kg, respectively. Daily DM1 showed increasing trend as the proportion of berseem hay was increased in the diets. DM1 was statistically highly significant (P< 0.01) between treatments. The mean wejght gain of calves on weekly bases was 2.48±0.13, 3.30±0,13, 3.89±0.l7and 4.46±0.21 kg for treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in weekly weight gain with the increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The weight gain data also showed a highly significant (P< 0.01) difference between treatments and weeks.
The feed efficiency of the diets in different treatments was calculated considering the amount of feed consumed per unit of weight gain on dry matter basis. Mean feed consumption per kg of weight gain was 14.21±2.24, 8.37±1.04, 6.60±0.57 and 4.90±0.40 kg for calves on treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The diet D having inclusion of 70 % concentrate was found highly efficient and diet A having 100 % berseem hay was least efficient to cnvert it into one kg gain.
The comparative economics calculation of feeding experiment showed that the calves on treatment D were able to produce highest daily gross margin of Rs. 40.75 followed by treatment C (Rs. 28.25), treatment B (Rs. 19) and on treatment A (Rs. 2.25/calf/day), respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in daily gross margin as the proportion of concentrate was increased in the diets and decreased with the increase in the level of Berseem hay in the diets.
The mean dry matter digestibility of the treatment A, B, C and D was 72.9 1±4.15, 78.79±2.15, 79.09±3.75, and 78.85±1.68 percent and mean crude protein digestibilities were 74.45±3.64, 73.51±4.62, 74.06±2.68 and 73.86±3.71 percent and mean ash digestibility vlues were 44.72±7.15, 45.35±4.16, 45.64±6.89, and 44.6 1±2.95 percent, respectively. Statistically non-significant differences were found in DM, CP and ASI I digestibility between treatments.
On the basis the findings in the experiment it is concluded that the most efficient and economical feeding proportion of Berseem hay and concentrate is 30:70 on dry matter basis. It is suggested that Berseem hay and concentrate proportion of 30:70 is desirable to achieve higher growth rate. A ratio of 50:50 of Berseem hay and concentrate also resulted in handsome weight gain but it was relatively less efficient than treatment D (30:70). For fattening purposes in Nili-Ravi buffalo calves these combinations can be used according to the availability and prevailing prices of Berseem hay and concentrate.
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Prepartyion And Evaluation Of Cheddar Cheese From Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacterum Bifidum
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Cheese is a food product which is made by fermenting milk by adding certain starter culture. It is highly proteinaceous and contains high content of fat. It has many flavors but Cheddar Cheese is most popular among all of its kinds. By adding probiotics in cheese it would be added to the group of functional foods.
Probiotics are live micro organisms that are useful for human body if taken in proper amount. There are many food products which contains probiotics like yogurt and fermented milk but the main drawback of these products are their shelf life which is very short and probiotics does not remain viable for longer period of time .
The study was formulated to manufacture probiotic cheddar cheese, chemical and sensory evaluation of probiotic cheese and to check the viability of probiotics. The data was statistically analyzed for the effect of storage and treatment on probiotic viability by using Duncan's test.
The probiotic cheddar cheese was manufactured at Haleeb Foods. Starter culture and rennet was provided by Haleeb foods and probiotic cultures in freeze-died form were obtained from Christian Hansen, Denmark. The starter culture alone and in combination with different concentrations of probiotics were added to milk for cheese making. After completing all the steps involved in its preparation, cheese were removed from mould, packed in vacuum cryovac packaging and were placed for ripening for 90 days at 4ºC.
Sensory evaluation of Cheddar Cheese was done by a team of panelists to check its flavor, colour, taste, texture and overall acceptability at every fifteen days interval during maturation time. There is a significant effect of different levels of probiotics on flavor, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability of Cheddar Cheese. Storage has also shown a significant effect on the sensory parameters of cheese.
Chemical tests like pH, fat, moisture, protein, salt and acidity concentrations were also carried out after fifteen days interval at the laboratory of Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. There is a significant effect of pH, acidity, fat and protein on cheddar cheese. As pH lowers with the passage of time its acidity increases. So there is significant effect of storage on different treatment levels. The levels of Lactobacillus acidophilus specifically have shown an increased acidity.
Viability of probiotic bacteria was checked at 15 days interval at the Laboratory of Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. During ripening Bifidobacterium bifidum has shown a good viability level of 107 and 108 cfu/20g of cheese. But on the other hand lactobacillus acidophilus have sustain its numbers for about two weeks and then decreased to a very low level. So there is a significant effect of viability on both strains during the storage. There is non significant effect of levels on viability of probiotics.
The statistical analysis used was two way analysis of variance to check the treatment and storage effect on probiotic cheddar cheese by following the method (Steel et al., 1997). Significance of means was compared by using DUNCAN'S multiple range tests (1955).
The research has enabled us to conclude the outcomes that the Cheddar Cheese is a good vehicle for delivery of probiotics but the lactobacillus strain needs more improvements its viability is concerned.
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Study Of Physicochemcial And Microbioloigcal Quality And Adulteration Of Processed Fluid Milk In Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Milk production, handling, storage, transportation and marketing of milk is handled in a primitive way in Pakistan. Mostly middle man and contractors are involved in the collection, marketing and distribution of milk. Most of the milk is produced in rural areas and transported to cities where it is supplied to milk plants and also to house consumers. During transportation and distribution there is no refrigeration involved. Middle man adds ice to keep the milk cool and prevent from spoilage. In addition, they also add chemical to kill bacteria and prevent spoilage of milk.
Adulteration of milk is one of the most serious issue in the dairy sector of Pakistan, causing not only major economic losses for the processing industry, but also major health risks for the consumers. Milk is a perishable item and to prevent the spoilage of milk various chemicals are added by the milk collectors. In addition, the microbiological quality of milk is very important which directly concern not only with milk spoilage but also consumer's health
Keeping in view the above mentioned factors, study was conducted to determine the physico-chemical, microbiological and adulterants in processed milk in Punjab. A total of 30 samples of UHT and 30 samples of pasteurized milk were collected and examined from production units in Punjab.
Density in UHT milk ranged from 22.53+0.08 to 28.44+0.27 and in pasteurized milk ranged from 23.43+0.35 to 27.21±0.17. Conductivity in UHT milk ranged from 9.72+0.38 to 11.33+0.28 and in Pasteurized milk ranged from 9.13+0.08 to 10.13±0.18. Freezing point in UHT milk ranged from -0.49+0.006 ºC to -0.45±0.005 ºC and in pasteurized milk brands ranged from -0.47+0.002 ºC to -0.45+0.008 ºC. Fat in UHT milk ranged from 3.74+0.17 % to 3.99+0.31 % and in Pasteurized milk fat ranged 3.46+0.09 % to 3.60+0.01. SNF in UHT milk ranged from 7.65+0.30 % to 8.03+0.66 % and in Pasteurized milk SNF ranged from 7.57+0.13 % to 7.89+0.08 %. Protein in UHT milk ranged from 3.16+0.11 % to 3.24+0.03 %, in Pasteurized milk protein ranged from 2.92+0.09 % to 3.05+0.03.
Lactose in UHT milk ranged from 3.90+0.01 % to 4.08+0.04 %, in Pasteurized milk lactose ranged from 3.69+0.16 to 4.05+0.04. Ash in UHT milk ranged from 0.70+0.003 % to 0.75+0.003 %, in Pasteurized milk ash ranged from 0.54+.08 % to 0.73±0.01 %. Water added in UHT milk ranged from 6.36+0.33 % to 11.11+0.06 % in Pasteurized milk water added ranged from 8.74±0.04 % to 11.54+0.02 %. pH in UHT milk ranged from 6.67+0.01 to 6.82+0.008, in Pasteurized milk pH ranged from 6.38+0.19 to 6.76+0.11. Acidity in UHT milk ranged from 0.15+0.03 % to 0.16+0.06 % and in Pasteurized milk acidity ranged from 0.14+0.003 % to 0.16+0.01 %.
TPC in Pasteurized milk ranged from 5.0 x 104+1.2 x 104 to 6.8 x 104+2.3 x 104 . Coliform count in Pasteurized milk ranged from 62+3.84 to 378+25.98. Staph aureus Count in Pasteurized milk ranged from 63.33+4.41 to 275.32+17.32.
All UHT milk brands were found negative for TPC, Coliform, Staph aureus and Yeast and Mold count.
The qualitative tests adulterants were performed by (M.A.T) Kit.
In UHT and Pasteurized brands the adulterants found were Salt, Sugar, Starch and Hydrogen peroxide.
On the basis of present finding, it is concluded that water addition was one of the major factors present in every segment of milk marketing which decreases the fat and SNF content of milk and markedly effect the physical and chemical quality of milk. Consumers may also be facing potential public health hazards caused by chemical adulteration and food borne pathogens in the milk.
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Study Of Livestock Health Issues And Availability Of Veterinary Services To Pastoral Herds Of Northern Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pastoralists contribute great contribution in the economy of the developing world providing food and employment to peoples. In Pakistan pastoralism is also present and the pastoralists having their livestock keeping mobile through all the year upland and lowland. The goal of this research study has been to assess the major health problems in market oriented Livestock development. Although the feed resource and grazing land are quite enough, the research that was carried out in Narran valley reveals of how widespread the diseases are the health problems of livestock. The study indicates Narran valley has a high livestock population, which plays a substantial role in the livelihood of the farmers. In general, livestock is the most important unit of the Agricultural Community in both the market and the households' level. Unfortunately, animal productivity is very low in the area there are many reasons for this, among which is the major obstacle of widespread animal health problems and veterinary services availability. The diseases reported in the herds are the CCPP, FMD, Brucellosis, Small Pox, Liver flukes, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Enterotoxaemia, GID, Tympany, and PPR. These diseases cause heavy economic losses in their herds every year. The veterinary services for the land less pastoralists were not available where their herds were settled. For this research a survey was conducted to get the perceptions of the pastoralists and the veterinary services providers. Questionnaires were made for the pastoralists and veterinary services providers.
Results of this study lead to development of a policy for the landless herder's livestock. This was a useful study on the livestock health issues and veterinary services, as no other study has been carried out in Pakistan for the livestock of land less transhumant herders. Additionally this study can become the basis for further research in their livestock.
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Genetic And Phenotypig Trends In Some Performance Traits Of Kajlli Sheep
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Kajli sheep is one of the native breeds and is found in the irrigated areas of central Punjab
(Districts of Sargodha, Khushab, Gujrat, Mandi Baha-ud-Din, and Mianwali). Kajli sheep is
mostly raised for mutton, wool and occasionally for milk production. Wide variation exists in
various production and reproduction traits of Kajli sheep which indicates a great scope of
improvement in these traits of economic importance. Any program of breed improvement is
based on maximum exploitation of genetic variation. The potential of genetic improvement
largely depends on genetic variation of the trait and its relationship with the other traits.
Knowledge of heritability, repeatability and correlations among various traits is essential for
formulating efficient breeding plan and selection strategies. Objective of this study is to evaluate
the performance of a purebred flock of Kajli sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station
Khushab and Livestock Experimental Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Data on performance traits
as Birth weight, Weaning weight, Yearling weight and Greasy fleece weight from 1994 to 2009
were collected, An effort was made to determine the effect of all environmental and non genetic
factors on the performance of animals. For this purpose LSMLMW computer program was used.
The genetic parameters i.e., heritability, and phenotypic and genetic correlations among various
traits will be estimated. The breeding values for different traits were estimated for comparative
ranking of animals. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines were drawn to assess the selection success
in previous generations of Kajli sheep. These analyses were done using DFREML computer soft
ware which is s pecially designed for the estimation of variance components. The information so
generated will ultimately be helpful in developing future breeding plans for genetic improvement
of Kajli sheep in Pakistan. The birth and weaning weight in this flock averaged 4.16±0.0Ikg and
18.70±0.08 kg whereas yearling weight was 37.52±0.06 kg. The pre weaning average daily gain
was 142.34±0.83 gms. Birth weight varied significantly due to years, season, sex, type of birth
and flock. Data showed non- significant interaction between sex and type of birth. Analysis of
variance revealed significant effect of year of birth and season of birth on weaning weight.
However, the difference due to sex is non-significant. Type of birth and age of the dam were
significant. Effect of weaning age of the lambs on weaning weight was also significant, whereas,
birth weight had a non significant effect (P<0.05) on weaning weight. The variation in body
weight due to year, sex, and season of birth were significant (P<0.05).Whereas, effect of flock
and type of birth were non- significant. Weaning age of the lambs and birth weight had a non
significant (P<0.05) effect on yearling weight whereas weaning weights of the lambs had
significant effects on the trait under consideration. The analysis of variance revealed that year
and season of birth and birth type showed significant effect on pre weaning average daily gain
while sex had non-significant effect on the trait. The regressions of weaning weight and birth
weight on pre weaning average daily gain were significant (P<O.OI). The estimates of heritability
for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, pre-weaning average daily weight gain, and
greasy fleece weight were 0.054±0.019, 0.069±0.016, 0.015±0.020, 0.056±0.016, and
0.170±0.060 respectively. The low heritability estimates indicated the presence of less additive
genetic variance and large environmental variance. Hence, improvement in the traits through
selection may be limited. The estimated breeding values for Khizerabad farm were, for birth
weight from -0.205 to 0.164 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.149 to 0.180
kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.822
kgs in males and corresponding values were from -1.205 to 1.555 kgs in females. The breeding
value estimated for yearling weight was -0.152 to 0.285kg in males and -0.159 to 0.224kg in
females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.194 to 0.212 gms in
males and -0.174 to 2.00 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.247 to 0.708 kgs
and -0.429 to 0.575 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for
Khushab farm were, for birth weight from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs in males. The corresponding
values were from -0.148 to 0.145 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 0.284 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -0.976 to
1.923 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.198 to 0.176 in
males and -0.166 to 0.170 in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate
was -0.281 to 0.195 gms in males and -0.205 to 0.148 gms in females, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.380 to 0.706 kgs and -0.267 to 0.590 kgs in males and females respectively. The
estimated breeding values for sire in Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.169
to 0.164 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.694 kgs.
The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.151 to 0.285 kgs. The estimated
breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.190 to 0.212 gms, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.146 to 0.520 kgs. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khushab farm were,
for birth weight ranged from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 2.846 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -
0.198 to 0.176 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to
0.195 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.335 to 0.706 kgs. The genetic trends for birth
weight in Kajli sheep showed decreasing trend and phenotypic trend was fluctuating, whereas, the genetic
and phenotypic trend for weaning weight showed fluctuating trend. For yearling weight genetic and
phenotypic trend was also observed which show fluctuation, pre weaning growth rate also not statistic.
The phenotypic trend for greasy fleece yield showed little increasing trend.
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Correlatin Response Of Udder And Body Measurements As Affected By Age And Parity On Milk Contents And Yield In Nili- Ravi Buffaloesin Peri- Urban Areas of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is diverse specie of domestic livestock and the utmost need of
modern dairy farms in developing countries especially where it is indigenous animal as in
Pakistan and India. To achieve and enhance the full genetic potential of the animal, first of all,
one must be able to select the animal which will seems to have good genetic for the dairy
production on the basis of phenotypic characters. As far as. selection of this animal. on the basis
of its milk producing unit i.e. udder conformation is concerned has not yet been conducted
precisely. Only animals are judged by traditional ways without scientific approach. The core
purpose of this study was to select Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes on the basis of their phenotypic
features for commercial purpose. A total of 200 lactating ili-Ravi animals were measured in
and around peri-urban areas of Lahore. Out of 200 animals 4, 32, 63, 53, 34 and 14 were
belonging to first, second, third, fourth, fifth and Sixth lactations, respectively. The animals
found in different lactation stages. 47 (23.5%) were in first. 76 i.e. 38% were in second and
77(38.5%) were present in their third lactation stage. The mean and standard deviation of udder
length in first to sixth lactation were 57.0 3.05cm, 62.4 1.08cm, 63.6±0.98cm, 65.9±0.95 em,
66.1±1.17 ern and 62.7±2.41 em, respectively. Whereas, measurements of udder depth in
lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes ranged in six lactations from 13.3±3.05 cm,10.7±0.37 ern. IO.8±0.20 em, 14.7±2.64cm. 11.11:0.22 ern andl0.5±0.40clll respectively .. Udder width of lactating buffaloes in first six parities was 23.9±0.6 cm, 28.0:1..3.2 em, 28.3 4.2 ern, 29.2±4.6 cm, 31.6± 3.2 ern and 30.7±1.3cm respectively. The size of milk vein in from parity one to six was 5.6±0.7 ern, 6.6±1.1 ern, 7.3±1.2 ern, 7.4±1.6 ern, 8.1±0.8 cm and 7.9±O.77 em respectively. The average udder length, udder depth. udder width and milk vein in all lactations were found to be 64.2±0.52cm, I 0.9±0.14 ern, 29.1 0.29cm and 7.4±0.1 ern respectively. Bowl shaped udder was found in 156 animals (78%), whereas only 39 out of 200 (19.5%) had round and only five animals got goaty shaped udders i.e.2.5%. The average teat length and teat diameter in all parities under study were 9.6±0.86 ern and 4.08±0.046 ern, respectively. Whereas, average distance between both fore teats was found 14.4±0.23cm. between rear teats 6.3±0.13cm and between fore and rear teats of right and left side were 6.4±0.13cm and 6.4±0.13cmrespectively. 89% (178/200) Nili- Ravi animals in the peri-urban areas of Lahore were found to have cylindrical shaped teats. Whereas only eight animals (4%) have bottle and fourteen animals (7%), was having funnel shaped teats. Average Heart Girth. Body Length and Body Height of lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were found to be 203.2'10.77 em, 147.3 0.71 em and 140.2± I.06cm. The mean distance between the two pin bones and hook bones of the body were 30.2±0.26 em and
56.9±0.32 em, whereas, mean body depth found in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was 83.2±1.23 ern. The average scoring given to the different parts and overall body in the study were: Tail Head: 22.5±0.02; Ribs and Sacral region: 3.1±0.018; Angularity of Bones: 3.1±0.01; and Overall BCS: 2.9±0.0 17. The average fat%, protein%, SNF%, lactose% and solids (ash) % were 5.98±l.S, 3.3±O.2, 8.67±O.5, 4.58±O.3 and O.83±0.04 respectively.
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Comparative Performance Of Lohi Lambs Supplemented With Lucerne (Medicago Sativa) Hay And Pelleted Diets In Addition
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Animal feed resources are still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons)
and digestible protein (1.76 million tons). To meet the requirement of animal, there is need to
properly conserve the flush season growth of Rabi fodder like berseem and alfalfa in their
. different physical forms. Lucerne pallets are economical feed supplement to fulfill protein and
energy requirements of grazing lambs. Feeding management study was conducted to evaluate the
different physical forms of lucerne in eighteen extensive grazing male Lohi lambs having
approximately same body weight. Lambs were fed on individual basis on three experimental
diets designated as A, Band C having extensive grazing, chopped lucerne hay, Lucerne hay
pellets respectively. Each lamb was also given concentrate ration @ 0.5% of body weight on dry
matter basis. The data on daily feed intake, weekly gain, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and
economics was recorded. Samples of feed were analyzed by official method of analysis. Mean
daily dry matter intake of Lohi lambs kept on treatments A, B and C was 820.88 ± 13.22,905.19
± 13.83 and1010.24 ± 15.34 g, respectively. The dry matter intake difference was highly
significant (P< 0.001) between treatments and weight gain on daily bases in lambs was 82.89 ±
0.27, 91.74 ± 0.40 and 119.49 ± 0.44g in treatment A, B and C, respectively. Group C is highly
efficient consuming 8.49 kg dry matter for 1 kg of weight gain following group B consuming
9.86 kg dry matter for 1kg weight gain. Group A showed lower efficiency as it consumes 9.90kg
dry matter for one kg of weight gain. It was highly economical to feed Lucerne pellets with
grazing with a gross margin of Rs.13.75/animal/day followed by extensive grazing with a gross
margin of Rs.11.15/animal/day. Lowest gross margin of Rs.11.12/animal/day was shown by the
lambs kept on extensive grazing.
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Sheep Breeding Options And Role Of Support Services For Landless Mobile Herders In Norther Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Northern areas of Pakistan are blessed with countless natural resources. One of these resources is small ruminants including sheep and goat. This study was done on sheep population of up and low land areas. This study was designed to investigate the breeding practices followed, perceptions about different breeding strategies by the low and upland pastoralists and support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians). By the help of this study productive, economical and ecological adaptation characteristics of native (Kaghani), exotic (Rambouillet, Afghani) and crossed sheep breeds were also be examined. For this purpose three questionnaires were developed. First questionnaire were carry questions on current number, number in last year and relative proportion of different sheep breeds on breeding strategies, productive characteristics, ecological adaptation and economical characteristics of different pure and cross breeds of sheep. While the investigations on support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians) were covered in second questionnaire. Interviews were be conducted from the low and up land pastoralists for the data recording of first questionnaire, while data recording of third questionnaire was done by interviewing the livestock promoting authorities. Statistical analysis of all the data recorded was done by epi - info software.
The studied parameters presented by various breeds in this experiment elucidated the fact that Afghani breed could be regarded as most economical and successfully adapted breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan in respect of its market value, disease resistance, twining rate, age at puberty and meat quality. The Kaghani breed on the other hand was having an advantage of being native breed of the respective area as it presented one of the best disease resistant characters among the studied breeds; for the same reason, it was the most prevalent breed of the area. Ramboullite is an exotic breed introduced in the area from USA and was kept mostly for having a trait of better and high wool production though its poor disease resistance and low twinning rate renders it less economical. The crossbred animals were produced mostly as a result of deliberate cross between Kaghani and Ramboulette and the maximum heterosis results in many of the better characters, increased wool quantity and quality, increased disease resistance and accelerated twinning rates, to name some of them.
The present study can be concluded to rate Afghani sheep breed as most economical breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan. This study was lead to explore the breeding practices in sheep in northern areas and future breeding policies making in sheep. The investigators of this trial opine that the Afghani breed being most economical breed of the area be bred and reared on a priority basis with selective breeding and proper management of the parent herds. In context of the wool production and disease resistance, crossbred animals should be investigated in a number of future trials to determine the most productive combination of blood percentage of the two parent breeds, i.e. Kaghani and Ramboullette. In spite of all the measures to improve economical scenario of the mobile herders with reference to sheep production, the gene pool of each pure breed population, i.e. Afghani, Kaghani and Ramboulette, should be maintained via selective breeding to ensure the availability of the parent nucleus. All these healthy and economical practices can be propagated only by the effective and efficient provision of the extension and support services of the local area, implementation authorities and livestock business related institutions.
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Phenotypic And Genetic Aspects Of Some Performance Traits Of Buchi Sheep In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1598,T] (1).
Effect Of Mannan Oligosaccharides On The Performance Of Neonatal Cross Bred Calves
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1418,T] (1).
Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study.
The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval.
Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs.
A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively.
A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons.
Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament.
Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09;
udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively.
Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment.
Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament.
Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively.
The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone.
The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone.
Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight.
Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area.
Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low.
Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001.
About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor.
All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats.
Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons.
Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats.
All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor.
Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively.
Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg.
Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes:
" In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding.
" A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament.
" Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed.
" Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study.
" A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature.
" Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped.
" Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00.
" Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield.
" Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves.
" Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves.
" Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential.
" Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording.
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Comparative Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Beetal Goats In Accelerated And Annual Kidding Systems
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Three kiddings in two years or five kiddings in three years refers as accelerated kidding which is helpful to have more kids, helps to fetch higher market prices during off-season. This can also increase life time production in the form of meat, milk and fiber. High reproduction rate is the basiccondition to increase efficiency of production. Most of the goats do not follow seasonal breeding pattern and breed round the year resulting in management problems and high mortality during severe weather conditions. Accelerated kidding strategy is a viable option that affects the health and fertility of the flock. In the present investigation, three experiments were conducted at Small Ruminant Training and Research Centre (SRT&RC) Ravi Campus Pattoki, UVAS, Lahore. The experiment-I was about the initiation of estrus activity in anestrus Beetal goats during low breeding season. Twenty Beetal goats were selected from the existing flock, maintained at SRT&RC. These goats were divided randomly into 4 groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 5 animals in each group. Group A was treated as negative control by offering only green fodder, group B was provided flushing ration along with green fodder (control), group C was kept on green fodder along with hormone therapy of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostagladin (PGF2?) while group D was provided with green fodder, flushing ration (600 gms/animal) and hormone therapy by providing GnRH and PGF2?. Hundred percent estrus induction was achieved in group B, C and D as compared to group A. The results revealed that fertility rate and kidding rate was high i.e. 80 and 60 percent among animals of B group while animals of control group had less fertility, kidding and gestation rate. The shortest gestation length was found in group B and C while triplet births were observed in goats of group D.
The experiment-II was regarding the initiation of estrus through buck effect in Beetal goats. This experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 comprised two groups A and B for which estrus induction was done during pre-breeding (August) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Similarly, Phase 2 comprised two groups C and D in which estrus induction was done during post-breeding (December) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Different reproductive parameters like estrus, fertility percentage, were noted. The data regarding average birth weight (kg) and gestation length (days) were recorded. Estrus signs were maximum in group B while low in group C. However fertility rate was high in group A, instead of group B. Overall kidding percentage was higher in A group but the lowest in group D. The highest gestation length was observed in group D whereas the lowest value was found in group B. Average litter size was higher in group D as compared to A and B group, respectively.
The experiment-III was conducted to compare productive and reproductive performance of Beetal goats in accelerated and annual kidding systems. Total of 50 adult Beetal goats were divided into two groups viz. accelerated kidding and annual kidding having 25 animals each. The does were selected on the basis of their age, body size, weight and parity. Different breeding bucks were used for each group having similar size, weight and age. All the animals included in this study were fed according to national research council (NRC) nutrient requirements for goats (NRC, 1981). Flushing rations and estrus inducing hormones both were provided to the does of respective groups for preparation of breeding activity during out of season breeding. The annual kidding group was considered as the control group, while the does were bred every eight months for accelerated kidding. The offsprings produced by the pregnant does of 1st batch of both the groups were reared under similar managemental conditions up to maturity. Three crops were produced in accelerated kidding system as compared to two crops in annual kidding system. It was observed that more number of animals i.e. 17 out of 25 showed estrus signs as compared to annual kidding system where 15 animals showed estrus signs. There were non significant differences for number of services per conceptionin two crops under annual kidding groups. Higher percentage of estrus was observed in accelerated to annual kidding. Total number of kids produced in accelerated kidding system was 42 with an average 14 kids in three crops while 23 kids were produced in annual kidding system in two years. Average cost of concentrate was observed high in accelerated kidding system as compared to annual kidding system. Birth weight of kids produced in 3 different seasons i.e. March-April, October- November and June-July were found as 2.84, 2.91 and 2.98 kg. The overall results in term of reproductive efficiency, oestrus behavior and kidding percentage were better in accelerated group than annual kidding.
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Documenting Goat Production System In Two Agro-Ecological Regions Of Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Feeding Milk Replacer And Diet With Varying Levels Of Concention On Growth Puberty And First Lactation
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Feeding Frequency On The Growth Performance Of Lohi Lambs During Post Weaning Period
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Thesis Submitted with Blank CD.
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Productive And Physiological Performance Of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Under Various Housing Management Practices During Summer
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Back ground: Among various factors that are affecting buffalo productivity, heat stress is challenge for the dairy farmers of Pakistan since the geographical location of Pakistan is sub-tropic as it is situated 23.6 degree above the line of equator between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and summer season prevail for long duration with high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Information on production potential of mature Nili-Ravi buffalo against hot-dry and hot-humid season and its adaptability to the sub-tropical conditions of central Punjab has not been documented before. In this regard, study is designed to understand the relationships of environmental stress with physiological, behavioral and production responses in Nili-Ravi buffaloes under different housing and cooling conditions.
Hypothesis: Developing and implementing housing and cooling systems to mitigate heat stress may decrease this effect but must be cost effective. To test these hypotheses, the proposed study was carried out at Buffalo Research Institute (BRI).
Methodology: Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the physiological, productive, serum biochemical and behavioral profile of mature Nili Ravi buffaloes under subtropical conditions, at BRI (Buffalo Research Institute), Pattoki. Experiments were conducted during proposed duration of March-April; May-June; July-August and September-October on various physiological and productive parameters. Lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (n=20) were divided in to four groups with five animals in each group. Group A buffaloes were kept under roof shades
only (control). Group B was supplemented with yeast powder under roof shade; C group buffaloes were raised under ceiling fans and group D was treated with ceiling fans and showers.
During all summer periods, fans with showers (D) showed highest milk production followed by fans only (C), then control A and B have been similar for most of times. However, in early summer (March-April), the additional cost of supplement feed and cooling strategies was higher than revenue generated from increased milk. Cost per liter of milk produced was higher and thus marginal revenue was lower than expected. Whereas, shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies.
In all other periods of mid-summer (hot-dry: May-June and hot-humid: July-August) and late summer (July-August), higher milk production was noticed in group D followed by group C despite additional costs of cooling strategies. Lower cost/ liter of milk were noticed as well as high marginal revenue. During these periods, fans were noticed as more effective strategy to alleviate thermal load compare to supplemental feed as cost per liter was high and marginal revenue was less in group B. Looks like feed additive may only be applicable in early summer compare to fans group but shaded group A had best performance in terms of cost per liter and revenue. Group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue in mid and late summer.
Statistical Analysis: The recorded data was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) under completely randomized design (CRD). The difference of means among treatment groups were determined by using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT;
Steel et al., 1997) for the interpretation of results and portraying conclusions with the help of statistical software (Statistical packages for social sciences; SPSS).
Conclusion: However, it is noted that during March and April control group buffaloes performed better economically but they had lower production and higher physiological responses. Improved performance and health of animals under fans with or without showers did not produce enough marginal income to pay for the additional costs. Shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies. Therefore, small scale farmers may use shade only for their buffaloes during early summer only but progressive farmers better go for shower and fans strategy since early summer as this approach works best throughout other periods of summer season. Since, the group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue therefore, fans with showers would be a quite useful technique for progressive farmers and also necessary from animal’s health point of view. Also, small scale farmers may use fans to avoid drastic decrease in milk production and take maximum achievable measures according to their affordability during mid and later summer.
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Nutritional, Microbiological And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Yoghurt Prepared From Goat-Buffalo Milk Blends
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Due to the high nutritional quality, goat milk is considered important daily food. But in our country, less usage of goat milk is due to lack of information about its basic nutrients and nutritional benefits, which provides less profit to the goat owners. Present study has been designed to prepare yoghurt from goat-buffalo milk blends for physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological evaluation and to find out the best goat-buffalo milk blend for yoghurt preparation through organoleptic acceptability studies. Raw goat and buffalo milk was collected from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pattoki Campus, Pakistan and transferred to laboratory for analysis. After yoghurt preparation, chemical analysis was conducted for total solids, pH, ash content, lactose, cholesterol, protein, acidity and then physical analysis for viscosity and syneresis was conducted. Samples of yoghurt were microbiological analyzed for total viable count of Lactobacillus acidophilus, yeast, molds, coliforms by using different media. Yoghurt was also studied for sensory and nutritional evaluation after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of storage at 4 °C. The data obtained was statistically evaluated through two way ANOVA by applying CRD.
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Study Of Factors Affecting Quality Of Silage As A Component Of Total Mixed Ration On Growth And Production Performance In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Silage production is at initial stages to be a part of animal agriculture in Pakistan. The lack of research on silage making and its benefits for livestock production under local conditions is an important factor for slow propagation of silage in our country. Under such scenario a multi-step study was conducted. At first, the effect of proper maturity stage for harvesting different fodders was investigated, and then the effects of silo type and silage additives were assessed on silage quality. In last part of the study the feeding trials were conducted on growing calves and lactating buffalo to evaluate the effect of silage feeding on growth and milk production respectively.
In all the three fodders i.e. oats, maize and sorghum, the full bloom stage for harvesting produced the best results regarding silage quality and fermentation characteristics. Although the trench silo produced best results regarding fermentation characteristics and silage quality, the expected operational cost and dry matter losses during face management for trench silo would make it harder for farmers to adopt. Under such circumstances, for long term use the bunkers would be a good choice for silage making with comparable silage quality as that of trench silo. Silage inoculants certainly improved the silage quality and it is highly recommended to use such additives for silage making and these additives are not that costly. Buffalo calves raised on fresh corn fodder and three different silages showed similar daily weight gain. Further growth trials on buffalo calves with varying levels of concentrate feeding along with silage are suggested to investigate silage feeding in calves. Corn silage fed lactating buffaloes had lower dry matter intake and total milk yield, but higher total solids as compared to fresh fodder feeding. The future studies of silage feeding compared to different inclusion levels of fresh and dry roughage sources would add further to explore the economic implications of silage feeding.
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Identification And Expression Analysis Of Genes Involved In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder In Pakistani Population
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The background of this study is that WHO reports that psychiatry disorders affect worldwide 0.8 to 2% population. Anxiety illnesses are a class of illness associated with unreasonable and disturbing sensation of fear and tension. There are several types of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social phobia, OCD. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic disabling condition. OCD is characterized by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, and impulses and by repetitive, ritualistic physical or mental acts performed to reduce the attendant anxiety. The severity of OCD depends on the amount obsessions and compulsions. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is a reliable and consistent scoring system that can be used to categorize OCD. The major genes involve in OCD are SLC6A4, BDNF, SLC1A1 and COMT genes.
The study was enrolled patients treated for OCD. Blood samples have been collected from the patients. DNA extracted from fresh blood. Primers were designed. Then DNA amplification have done by Bio-Rad thermal cycler. Then gel electrophoresis was done for PCR product quantification. PCR products precipitated and sequenced. SNPs were identified. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for each sample with TaqMan Universal PCR mastermix which showed down regulation of COMT gene in OCD patients in Pakistani population.
The aim of this study was SNP identification in Pakistani Population in Obsessive Compulsive disorder and to analyze the gene expression of COMT gene involved in OCD in Pakistani Population.
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Effect Of Pre-Weaning Diets And Varying Levels Of Concentrate During Post-Weaning Period On The Performacne Of Female Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves Up To One Year Of Age
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Nili-Ravi buffalo is a well-known buffalo breed in subcontinent Indo-Pakistan region and famous for its high milk production ability. Currently, buffalo calves and growing heifers are fed on deprived quality and quantity roughages with poor nutritive values resulting in reduced growth rate, reproduction with delayed attainment of puberty and high mortality. These constraints can be overcome through nutritional management of buffaloes. There is a need for the development of standards for adequate, cost effective provision of colostrum, whole milk/milk replacer and calf starter ration to neonatal calves up to weaning, establishment of nutrient requirements for growing buffalo heifer with aim of more average daily gain to reduce age at puberty and nutrients requirements for lactating buffalo according to their status and stage of milk production.
The current study comprises of two experiments and was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey, Pattoki, District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. The first experiment was performed with an aim to check the growth performance of female buffalo calves on whole milk & milk replacer and find out the cost effective and growth rate friendly alternate source of liquid diet. The duration of this experiment was 120 days. Thirty six female calves were selected and randomly divided into three (n=12) different treatments A (whole milk), B (50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer) and C (milk replacer). All the calves were given colostrum for first three days, then whole milk up to 15 days of age and transferred into three treatments. In addition to this all the calves were provided calf starter and fresh water ad-libitum. The calves were given
liquid diet @ 10% of their body weight for first two months and then gradually decline of 1% on weekly basis for the subsequent two months. Green fodder was started on three month of age. The average daily total dry matter intake was remained same for all the three treatments but the average daily gain was higher in treatment A (457.38±110.13a) compare to treatment C (362.22±107.83b) but it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. The mean FCR value was also better for treatment A (3.49±0.56b) compare to treatment C (4.30±1.24a) and it was same for treatment A&B and treatment B&C, respectively. The mean cost/kg gain was higher in treatment A (422.72±70.66a) compare to treatment C (352.97±97.49b) and it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. Animals had performed well on mix liquid (50 % whole milk: 50% milk replacer) diet and it was more cost effective than other two treatments.
The aim in second experiment was to set the standard and cost effective level of concentrate ration for growing female buffalo heifer calves. For second experiment thirty (30) calves were selected from first experiment and were randomly dived into three treatments A, B and C. Treatment A was fed on concentrate ration according to 0.5 % of their body weight, treatment B 1.0 % and treatment C 1.5 % of their body weight. In addition to this all the calves were given ad-libitum green fodder and fresh clean water. All the calves were fed on similar concentrate ration having CP: 17 % and ME: 2.6 Mcal/kg. The duration of this experiment was 8 months. There was significant difference (P<0.05) in mean dry matter intake, protein intake, energy intake and protein per kg gain across all the three treatments and were higher (P<0.05) for treatment C then treatment B and lower (P<0.05) in treatment A, respectively. The average daily gain was remained same (P>0.05) for all the three treatments (497.32±17.92, 503.63±19.09 and 532.77±20.67). The higher feed efficiency was observed in treatment A (0.135±.004a) while it was same for treatment B & C (0.113±.003b & 0.108±.004b), respectively. The average body
condition & score, body mass index and blood constituents (RBCs, WBCs, heamoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, platelets count, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) were unaffected (P>0.05) by different concentrate levels. Concentrate levels had significantly affected some of serum components (total protein and urea) but some components (glucose & cholesterol) were unaffected by dietary treatments. The values of mean serum total protein and serum urea were found lower in treatment A (6.12±0.17b & 42.34±1.59b) compare to treatment B (6.65±0.23a & 50.08±2.05a) and C (6.79±0.23a & 51.41±2.29a), respectively. The higher values of serum total protein and cholesterol in treatment B & C may be attributed to higher concentrate level in these two treatments. Concentrate levels had significantly (P<0.05) affected some of the digestibility parameters (DM %, CP% and NDF%) while other parameters (organic matter, fat, ash, ADF and urine pH) were remained same (P>0.05) on varying concentrate level diet. The mean body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth) were also not affected (P>0.05) by dietary treatments. There was significant difference across all the three treatments in total average daily dry matter intake cost and cost per kg gain. These were lower in treatment A compared to other two treatments B & C. It was observed that mean dry matter, protein and energy intake was lower in treatment A (0.5% of body weight) and weight gain was remained same on all the three dietary treatments. The mean feed efficiency was greater and mean cost per/kg gain was lower in treatment A. So, treatment A was remained more cost effective than other two treatments.
Both experiments were planned by keeping in mind the problems of buffalo farmer. Rearing of calves with improved growth rate on least cost feeding regime is important in dairy farming. Milk replacer is an alternate source of whole milk. Most of the buffalo farmers don’t use milk replacer for rearing of calves because of slower growth rate. Mixing of milk replacer
with whole milk in 50:50 ratio make the consistency of liquid diet near to whole milk. Feeding of whole milk with milk replacer along with calf starter reduces the cost without affecting growth rate. At this stage farmers should keep in mid the cleaning of feeding pans to avoid the risk of diarrhea.
In post weaning period calves’ rumen is fully develop and is completely shifted to solid diet. During this transition phase farmers don’t follow the nutritional requirements of calves, which slow down the growth rate and ultimately increase the age at puberty. As buffalo are efficient converter of low quality diet. If farmers offer concentrate ratio (16-18% CP) to buffalo heifers at the rate of 0.5% of body weight along with ad-libitum green fodder, growth rate can be improved cost effectively.
The findings of first experiment shows that 50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer @ of 10 of body weight along with adlibitum calf starter ration help in early rumen development, improved growth rate and better FCR on economical basis. So, it is recommended that whole milk and milk replacer in 50:50 ratio is growth rate friendly and cost effective for rearing of female buffalo calves up to weaning. The results of second experiment shows that growth rate, body measurements and body condition & score remained the same on all the three dietary concentrate levels but the feed efficiency was improved on lower concentrate level. So, it is recommended that it is cost effective to raise buffalo growing heifers on small amount of concentrate ration (0.5% of body weight) along with ad-libitum green fodder.
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Extraction Of Functional Polysaccharides From Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum) And Application As Edible Coating On Cheddar Cheese
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Cheddar cheese was collected from the market and coated with three different coatings. All the reagents used in this study were High Performance Liquid Chromatography grade and obtained from Sigma Aldrich, USA. Experiment were performed in completely randomized design. Cheddar cheese was ripened for 60-days for lipolysis and was analyzed at the interval of 30-days interval. Composition of cheese milk and cheese, peroxide value, Iodine value, free fatty acids and changes in fatty acids (short chain and unsaturated fatty acids) composition were determined.
Fat content of all the treatments and control went on decreasing throughout the storage period of 60-days. There was not-significant difference in the protein content of cheddar cheese coated with different coatings.Moisture contents of cheddar cheese coated with different coatings decreased with the decreased ripening period of the cheddar cheese (P>0.05). Free fatty acids increased in all the treatments during the entire ripening period from 0 day to 60 days, the concentration of free fatty acids in all the treatments at all the determination time points were not different from each other and control. There was also increase the peroxide value of control sample from 0 day to 60-day time period of cheese ripening. All the determination frequencies showed that peroxide value of control and experimental samples were not different.Iodine value decreased in control sample day 0 to day 60 continuously, the decline in iodine value of control and experimental samples was not different.Concentration of short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain fatty acid decreased during the ripening period of 60 days but the decline in all the treatments was non-significant.Anisidine value increased in control sample day 0 to day 60 continuously. There also increased the Anisidine value higher in all treatments and control (P>0.05).
These results suggest that galactomannas based coating can be used for the coating of cheddar cheese.
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