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1. Antiseperim Antibodies: A Plausible Cause Of Repeat Breeding In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Amir Saeed, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The present study was designed with the assumption that high titres of antisperm antibodies in repeat breeders might be a contributing factor for conception failure in such animals. For this purpose, 32 buffaloes/buffalo heifers were divided into four equal groups. From the normal cyclic and repeat breeder buffaloes, 48 serum samples were collected at 0, 1, and 24 hours after insemination, respectively. Oestrus mucus was also collected from these animals. A total of 16 serum samples were collected from virgin heifers and pregnant buffaloes. The serum and mucus samples were subjected to simple agglutination test, sperm quantitative penetration test and sperm cervical mucus contact test. High antibody titres were recorded in the serum and oestrus mucus of repeat breeders. Moreover, it was observed that lesser number of spermatozoa penetrated through a definite distance in cervical mucus of repeat breeder buffaloes as compared to cervical mucus of normal cyclic animals. Similarly higher number of spermatozoa exhibited shaking movement over a period of time in cervical mucus of repeat breeders, which indicates the presence of spermagglutinins. Thus, it can be concluded that antisperm antibodies may be responsible for conception failure in repeat breeder buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0383,T] (1).

2. Comparison Of Two Methods Of Estrus Synchronization In Sahiwal Cows

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 24 Sahiwal cows were selected for this study and randomly divided into two groups viz A and B. Group A cows were injected two injections of prostaglandin F2 intramuscularly without palpation 11 days apart, while the other group involved the veterinarian skill for detection of palpable corpus luteum and only single injection of prostaglandin was given in all the cows. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Estrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. 91.66% and 83.33% cows from A and B groups respectively responded to the treatment. This response was slightly greater in cows of group A than group B. Interval to the onset of estrus after treatment was found non-significant (P>O.05) in both group cows. The length of estrus in group A was 21.54±1.65 hours whereas it was 19±0.88 hours in group B. The difference in the length of estrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The conception rate of both groups was found to be 54.54% and 50% respectively, which was slightly higher than the second group. The mucus characteristics of both the groups were noted and 81.81% and 70% cows were found having typical fern like pattern and discharged clear (Transparent) mucus. No one cow having atypical fern pattern and cloudy discharge of mucus conceived. The behavioural signs and the physical changes were recorded. There was little difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group B the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group A. The cost per animal for group A and B was 303 rupees and 276.50 rupees, economically group B technique seems to be profitable to the farmers, and by adopting this technique one can save money. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0462,T] (1).

3. Comparative Efficacy Of Cloprostenol, Estradial And Gentamycine For The Treatment Of Endometritis In Buffaloes

by Chaudhry, Shafiq, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of Cloprostenol, EstradioJ and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis in buffaloes. Eighty buffaloes suffering from endometritis were selected amongst the animals brought for A.J. on repeat breeding at different A.I. Center/Sub-Centres in Lahore and Gujranwala city. After detailed gyanaecological examination animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups. Twenty buffaloes in group A were injected 500 ig of Cloprostenol (Estrumate). On day 8 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group B were given 3 intrauterine infusion of stilbestrol. On day 3, 5 and 7 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group C were given single dose of gentamycine (intrauterine infusion) on the day of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group D served as control and were inseminated without giving any treatment. After two months all the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. Seventy animals were tested for pregnancy diagnosis. While others were later transferred to untraceable places. The percent curative and conception rate observed in Cloprostenol treated group 'A' were 65% and 58.33% respectively similarly in group B Stilboestrol treated animals the curative rate was 75% and conception rate was 64.28%. In group 'C', the animals treated with Gentamycine, the curative and conception rate were observed 45% and 42.85%. In control group 'D' only 35.71% animals were conceived after insemination. On the basis of curative and conception rates Stilboestrol was found better than Cloprostenol and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis buffaloes. The cost of treatment with stilboestrol is lower compared with Cloprostenol and Gentamycine. On the other hand a certain degree of invonvience remains with Stilboestrol therapy as intrauterine infusion demands special skill. It is concluded that Stilbestrol and Cloprostenol results were signficanly higher as compared to treated with Gentamycine and control group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0505,T] (1).

4. Progesterone And Lh Profile Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Low Breeding Season

by Rizwan Nasr Cheema | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the main objective was to determine the oestrus activity of buffaloes during low breeding season. Out of six buffaloes 3 showed oestrus and out of these 2 repeated oestrus cycle. Both the primary and secondary symptoms of oestrus were clearly visible at oestrus. Length of the oestrus cycle was observed as 21.5 days with the average oestrus period 30.8 hours. The mean progesterone concentration in cyclic buffaloes on the day of the oestrus cycle (d=0)was 0.09 ng/ml and the highest serum progesterone concentration were observed on 16th day of oestrus cycle. In the non cyclic buffaloes the progesterone concentration remained around 1 ng/ml throughout the study. At the onset and the end of the oestrus the concentration of luteiningzing hormone was 3.9 ng/ml. Whereas at the beginning of standing heat average luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration 3.8 ng/ml. The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) was 14.4 ng/ml observed. The average time of LH surge was 17.6 hours after the onset of the oestrus. End of oestrus time of following LH surge was 17.2 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0512,T] (1).

5. Induction Of Parturition In Buffaloes Using Dexamethasone In Conjunction With Prostglandin (Pgf2 Alpha)

by Arif Majeed | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present study was intended to study the effect of prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha) and dexarnethasone on reproduction and production of Nili-Ravi buffaloes after parturition. For this purpose eighteen pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes were selected on the basis of their breeding history, with good health status, their lactation phases were 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 9th and 10th respectively. These animals were divided into three equal groups viz group A, B and C, each comprising 6 animals. These animals were kept under uniform managemental and feedings conditions. Each buffalo in groups A and B were injected with 20mg dexamethasone and 526ig cloprostenol sodium (PGF2 alpha) intramuscularly on day 10 and 15 respectively before their expected term, while the buffaloes, in group C served as a control. From the present study it was concluded that parturition can be induced at day 10 and 15 prior to their expected term successfully did not affect the production and reproductive efficiency of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The use of PGF2 alpha and dexamethasone before parturition in buffaloes did not affect the milk yield of each buffaloes as compared with control group, and also the calve birth weight compared with control group. The only complication we found was the retention of foetal membrane, in all the treated buffaloes. No retention of foetal membrane was found in the control group. So the calving interval could be reduced by reducing the duration of pregnancy. It was also concluded that by induction the lactation period could be increased. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0546,T] (1).

6. Morphological Abnormalities In The Spermatozoa Of Cross Bred Cow Bulls During Summer Season

by Afzal, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Imriaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In this study twelve normally producing breeding bulls three of each Sahiwal and Friesian breeds and six bulls of 50% Cross-bred were selected. The mean volume of ejaculates were 4.87, 4.22 and 5.95m1 in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred, respectively. There is no significant difference among the volume of breeds during the months May, June and July. The semen concentration were 637.369, 606.554 and 312.806 million per ml in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred. However, the concentration of spermatozoa in Cross-bred were significantly lower (P<0.01) as compared to Sahiwal and Friesian bulls. The overall average values for head abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P <0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Crossbred (2.65 vs 7.20 and 8.90%) respectively during summer season. The neck abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P<0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Cross-bred 1.13 vs 3.52 and 5.59% respectively during summer season. Similarly the values of mid piece abnormalities percentage were significant higher in Cross bred vs Sahiwal and Friesian (2.04 vs 0.60 and 1.83%) respectively during summer season. The same results pertaining to protoplasmic droplets and tail abnormalities were obtained. The overall average abnormalities percentage in spermatozoa of Sahiwal breed were significantly lower vs Friesian and Cross-bred (8.64 vs 21.32 and 27.67%) respectively during summer season. These results indicated that Exotic breed (Friesian) as well as Cross-bred have poor adaptability against the stress of the high temperature during summer season, so they produce lower quality semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0549,T] (1).

7. Role Of Single Injection Of Prostaglandin F2 Alpha On Breeding Efficiency Of Buffaloes

by Sajid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In the present study, a total of twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups. In group A ten buffaloes were administered with prostagladin F2 alpha (Lutalyse, Upjohn), 2 hours after calving. In group B, ten buffaloes were not given any treatment and designated as control. The reproductive organs of each experimental buffalo were rectally palpated on day 14 and day 21 postpartum. After that twice a week rectal palpation was carried out until the first postpartum oestrus. The results of present study revealed that cervical and uterine involution was completed significantly (P < 0.05) earlier in group A as compared to group B (28.90± 1.79 and 35.40±3.95 days). There was no significant difference in the diameter of cervix, gravid and nongravid uterine horn at day 14 postpartum. A significant difference between the groups was obtained on days 21, 25 and 28 postpartum in the diameter of cervix and gravid horn. The corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy regressed very rapidly following calving. The overall period required for complete regression of corpus luteum of pregnancy was (19.20±4.87 days) in treated group and (18.40±6.07 days) in control groups. The difference was significant. Follicular activity resumed independently of uterine involution. It was, however, delayed slightly by the retained corpus luteum of pregnancy. The mean postpartum interval of initial follicular development was 21.20±5.71 days in treated and 28.20±8.75 days in control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Postpartum oestrus interval was shortened in treated group (79.50±19.83 days) as compared to control group (103.0± 17.45 days) and the difference was significant (P<0.05). So it seems beneficial to administer prostaglandin F2 alpha in postpartum buffaloes to reduce the period for uterine involution and enhance the subsequent reproductive performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0585,T] (1).

8. Use Of Prostaglandin (Pgf2 Alpha) To Induce Oestrus In Postpartum Non Cyclic Sahiwal Cows

by Amjad, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The incidence of ovarian cysts in dairy cows in variously reported as ranging from 10-12 percent. Various factors are reported to influence the incidence of ovarian cysts. Factors that have been suggested are age, level of. milk production, nutrition, heredity, length of postpartum interval, frequency of examination of the reproductive tract and stress around the time of parturition. Ovarian cysts are a significant cause of reproductive failure because of prolongation of the interval from parturition to the first oestrus. Twenty four postpartum anoestrus Sahiwal cows at 85 days postpartum were selected and randomly divided into the groups viz group A and B. Group A (n=12) cows were injected 2m1 (5mg) prostaglandin F2 alpha (Prostavet, Virbac, France) intramuscularly (i/rn) at day 85 postpartum without palpation. A second injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha was given 11 days apart to those cows who had not responded to first injection. Rectal palpation was performed at 105 days postpartum to confirm the presence of corpus luteum on the ovary. A third injection was given at 118 days postpartum to those cows that had not responded to 1st and 2nd injection of PGF2c. The cows in group B were not given any treatment and served as control. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Oestrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. In group A and B the oestrus response was 66.66% and 25% respectively. This response was greater in cows of group A than group B. There was difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group A the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group B. Interval to onset of oestrus in group A was 96±15.08 hours whereas it was 25.0±1.0 days in group B. The length of oestrus in group A was 23.25±1.99 hours whereas it was 20.33± 1.45 hours in group B. The difference in the length of oestrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Group A animals exhibited oestrus during 89±0.62 days of postpartum. In group B animal exhibited oestrus at 110±0.19 days of postpartum and the difference was ignificant (P < 0.05). From the present study it is concluded that PGF2 treatment at 85 days postpartum leutolysed the luteal cyst and brings the cows in oestrus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0607,T] (1).

9. Ovulation Induction And Synchronization In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes With Prolonged Post-Partum Period

by Mohammad Atif ikram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Estrus detection and correct tine insemination have been considered one of the important factors affecting the calving interval in 1)11 flab population. This study was undertaken to induce and synchronize ovu1a(on rather than esirtis in buffaloes. Ovsynch program ( ovulation synclronization) enables all fertile buffaloes to be bred at a fixed time by A.l. Sixteen buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed with a mean postpartum interval of 250±31.6 days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (ii=8). On day zero, Dalmeraline (25mcg/ml lecirilin; a GnRH analogue) was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. On day 7, 2cc Dalmazine (0.075mg/mi Cloprostenol) was injected intramuscularly. One day 9, second injection of Daimeraline (Lecirilin) was given intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. Insemination was carried out 1 6 hours after second injection of GnRH analogue, Dalmeraline. Buffaloes of group B were kept as control group. They were observed for naturally occurring estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried Out primarily on standing heat basis. Buffaloes of group A responded to hormonal therapy and five out of 8 animals (62.5%) showed estrus behaviour and signs. All animals of group A were inseminated twice, once early in the morning and then in the evening with an interval of 12 hours. Three animals (37.5%) from group A were conceived at induced and synchronized ovulation at first service, while one animal (12.5%) was conceived from group B. It is concluded that the Ovsynch protocol is a useful regime in inducing and synchronizing ovulation with reasonably good conception rates. It is however, found that ovsynch protocol is also effective enough in buflaloes with longer postpartum intervals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0783,T] (1).

10. Effect Of Collection Frequency On The Semen Quality Of Broiler Breeder

by Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Talat | Mr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: In future, artificial insemination (AI) in poultry industry has a considerable importance because of the excellent results in fertility and hatchability. Increasing male utilisation in artificial insemination depends upon the optimum use of bids by increasing semen collection. The project was designed to scrutinise the effects of collection interval, testes weight and body weight on semen yield. A total of ten broiler breeder males (35 weeks of age) were randomly selected. After providing ten-day sexual rest these were trained for semen collection by abdominal message technique. In study I the effects of various frequencies of semen collection on semen characteristics were investigated. All birds being collected at 48hours, 24 hours and 12 hours intervals. In each interval five consecutive collections were examined for motility percentage, semen volume and sperm concentration. Out of ten one cock gave no semen through out the study and 2 birds did not yielded semen at 12 hours interval and were excluded from the study. No significant difference in collection intervals was established for percentage motility (P> 0.05), but semen collected at 12 hours interval was significantly lower than 24 hours interval in respect of semen volume and lower than 48 hours interval in respect of sperm concentration. Thus at 48 hours and 24 hours intervals we get significantly higher values of number of sperms per collection, number of motile sperms per collection and number of doses per collection than the values collected at 12 hours interval (P < 0.05). But difference for theses values at 48 and 24 hours collections intervals was non significant (P > 0.05). The total number of semen doses over a six-day period increased linearly and significantly as the frequency of collection increased from once every two day to twice daily. Daily semen collection was found to be more suitable for Al programme at broiler breeder farm. In study II daily semen output, paired testes weight and body weight were correlated. The semen output was found to be significantly correlated with testis weight (r =0.82) and body weight (r = 0.79), but no significant correlation was found between testis weight and body weight (r = 0.56). In biometrical examination the weight of left testis was found significantly heavier than right testis but in respect of testicular volume no significant difference was observed between the two sides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0785,T] (1).

11. Effect Of Various Extenders On Semen Characteristics Of Beetal Buck (Capra Hircus)

by Aoun Raza | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ashfaq Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The artificial use of germ cells of genetcally superior bucks can enhance the growth potential of goat population to meet the shortage of mutton meat in Pakistan for daily slaughtering, sacrificial events, skin, hair and goat milk too. Beneficial use of superior germ cells can be made only when there is extension of life of germ cells for long periods, maintenance of motility of spermatozoa and increase in number of doses of ejaculate, for which an extender of choice has to be developed. Semen characteristics of forty ejaculates of bucks were evaluated. Pooled samples of ejaculates having motility estimates of at least 60% were used for evaluation. After washing of seminal plasma with physiological normal saline (20% ringer solution) and centrifugation at l000xg for 10 minutes to remove the sperm toxic factor Lecithinase-A. Pooled semen samples were extended in Tris yolk fructose citric acid (TYFCA), milk yolk (MY) and egg yolk citrate (EYC) extenders. Samples were extended using one step extension at a ratio of 1:60 in such a way that each milliliter of semen contained 30x106 progressively motile spermatozoa. Finally extended semen samples were placed at 5°C and 37°C for evaluation of motility percentage after every 24 hours interval and livability (hours) and absolute index of livability o spermatozoa, respectively. Mean±S.E. values of ejaculates of bucks for volume, pH, mass motility, individual motility percentage, sperm cell concentration, live and dead percentage, sperm abnormalities was recorded and post-extension motility percentage at 5oC, livability (hours) and absolute index of livability of of' spermatozoa of pooled semen at 37°C was recorded. Significant differences were observed (P<0.01) in post extension motility percentage at 5°C, at all intervals except at 120 hours interval where deference vas non-significant (P>0.05) between milk yolk and egg yolk citrate extenders. Post extension motility percentage at 5°C was highest in TYFCA than MY and EYC e\tenders. Post extension livability (hours) at 37°C was significantly different among three extenders at a level of probability (P<0.05) but non-significantly different among three extenders at a level of' probability (P>0.01). Absolute index of' livability at 37°C shows significant differences (P<0.01) for all extenders under statistical analysis. Livability (hours) and absolute index of' livability was higher in TYFCA than MY and EYC extenders. Based on these results and effect of extenders on semen characteristics of Beetal Buck, Tris- Yolk-Fructose-Citric Acid was developed as an extender of choice for short term preservation of' semen of' Beetal Buck. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0798,T] (1).

12. Use Of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone For Estrus Synchronization In Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Abdul Majeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Sixteen Nih Ravi buffaloes having postpartum period of 197±27.48 (Mean ±SE) days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (n=8). Estrus was induced and synchronized in buffaloes of group A by administering 75 mcg GnRH analogue (25 mcg/ml) intramuscularly on day 0 (first day of experiment). The buffaloes, showing estrus during day 0 to 7 were inseminated and were not given PGF2 alpha injection. The animals those did not exhibit signs of estrus till day 7, were injected with 0.150 mg Cloprostenol (0.075 mg/mi) intramuscularly. Buffaloes of group B served as control group and were not given any hormonal treatment. Animals in group A were observed for estrus from day 0 to 16 of the experiment, whereas the buffaloes of group B were bserved for natural estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried out mainly on the basis of standing heat. In group A, 4 buffaloes responded to the treatment and exhibited the estrus. One buffalo exhibited the estrus on day 5 following the injection of GnRH whereas three buffaloes exhibited the estrus on day 2, 4 and day 5 following the injection of PGF2 alpha. In group B, 2 buffaloes exhibited natural estrus, one on day 3 and the second on day 11 of the experiment. Variation in the interval to estrus may be because of huge difference in the postpartum days of animals. The duration of estrus in group A (24.62±O.96h) was significantly different (P>O.05) as compared to group B (20.25±O.33h). No difference was observed between group A and B towards the expression of estrus symptoms. Two animals from group A, conceived at induced and synchronized estrus at first service, whereas one animal conceived from group B. It is concluded that the select synch protocol is useful for synchronization of estrus in buffaloes with promising conception results. It is indicated that select synch protocol is also applicable for induction of estrus in buffaloes of variable postpartum intervals, it seems that select synch protocol will be an effective tool if used in cycling buffaloes during early postpartum days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0832,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Supplementation Of Different Types Of Fat On Buffalo Semen Production And Quality

by Muhammad Adeel | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr.Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0969,T] (1).

14. Assesment Of Buffalo Semen By Reduction Assay

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: In this study twenty Nili Ravi buffalo bulls were used. Semen was collected once weekly and each collection comprised two ejaculates .. Total volume of the semen was observed using graduated tube and the concentration by Spectrophotometer. Both the ejaculates were pooled and a representative sample of each collection was evaluated for viability using MTT Reduction Assay, Eosin and Nigrosin Staining, Hypo Osmotic Swelling Test and Motility. The results of the study shows high correlation (r = 1.00) between the MTT reduction rate and the sperm viability. When the %age of MTT viable sperm cells were compared with the E&N, HOST and Motility a negative correlation was found suggesting the physiological difference between the tests. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the MTT reduction Assay is an objective test and more reliable than the other tests which are more subjective and can be influenced by the experience of the indivi~ MTT Reduction Assay is more reliable test for the assessment of viability as it is simple and inexpensive. The results of our study suggest additional advantages of this test in evaluation ofNili Ravi Baffalo semen. Many samples and its replicates can be measured in the same time. It can be used successfully in routine analysis, where time, costs and practicability are important Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1014,T] (1).

15. Comparison Of Reproductive Efficiency Of Beetal Goats In Different Management

by Muhammad Younos | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Hafiz | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at two fanns (1) NH goat fann at Raiwind and (2) BN at Okara. The study consist the reproductive efficiency of beetal goats in different management systems. In this study we compared two management systems of goat production i.e. (1) seasonal (2) year round breeding were compared on the basis of reproductive efficiency and growth parameters, moreover cost effectiveness of the both systems were compared on the basis of their outcomes. In this study, reproductive and productive parameters of n = 72 adult goats + 2 bucks in each flock were collected and analyzed. Data regarding pubertal and twinning of their progeny born during a period of a year were collected and compared. Goats of same breed and comparable ages and body weight, body condition scoring were used in this study. Study was carried out at similar period of time for one year. The conception rate was higher at NH than BN goat fann. It was 0.809± 0.058 in BN and 0.88 ± 0.066 in NH respectively. The birth weight of male and female kids ofBN fann was higher than NH kids. It was (3.824 ±0.083 kg) in BN kids (3.513 ± 0.20 kg) in NH kids respectively. While the weight of female kids were (3.503 ±0.083 kg) in BN kids and (3.456 ± 0.10 kg) in NH kids. The age at puberty was higher at BN (245.3 ± 2.9 days) than NH goat fann (242.4 ±1.9 days). The kidding interval at BN was higher than NH flock. It was (314 ± 20 day) and (224.8 ± 0.915 days) days respectively. The post partum anestrous exhibited only in NH does, because in this fann the buck was free all around the year and after (50.0± 3.95 days) the does mate if they are in estrous, while in BN fann, bucks were free during the season. The body condition scoring (1-5 point) was higher in NH goats (2.44 ± 0.14) than BN goat fann (1.91 ± 0.11). The Body weight of does between both flocks were higher in BN (42.47 ± 0.92) than in N H goat farm (41.10 ± 1.9). The high concentrate feeding intake between two farms showed that the concentrate feed intake was higher in BN 491.5 ± 8.5 gm per day per goat than N H goat farm (146 ± 30 gm per day. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the reproductive efficiency of Beetal goats in N H goat farm was higher than BN farm~ because the seasonal breeding at BN has limited the kidding frequency. Where as~ all year round breeding was efficient and the kidding distribution almost doubled in the same year. The cost of feeding was higher in BN than NH goat farm~ because they provide concentrate daily~ but the cost of labour and miscellaneous was higher in NH than BN goat farm. The management of feeding~ green fodder was higher and there were sufficient green fodder for whole year in NH goat farm. The reproductive performance of Beetal goats can be improved by good managemental systems and all year round breeding. Research and development efforts can significantly improve reproductive efficiency of goats and simultaneously enhance the livelihood of the poor. Structuring the whole system via adapted reproductive techniques (thus allowing high levels of productivity). Findings of this study would be useful to determine the viability of systems on the basis of reproductive efficiency and may provide basic guidelines to establish goat farms in the future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1048,T] (1).

16. Use Of Antioxidate Containing Extender To Improve Post Thaw Quality Of Canine Semen

by Zia Ullah | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity and viability of spermatozoa) using the Labrador retriever dog frozen semen. Dog is a unique animal in terms of its semen ejaculation which is in fractions with a highly variable sperm concentration in different fractions as compared to other mammalian species like bull, boar, ram, human which have their ejaculate as a single fraction. In this study, BHT was found to improve post thaw motility, sperm viability, plasma membrane integrity and the acrosomal integrity at an inclusion level of 1.0mM in the extended semen. However, the higher concentrations than this were found to have detrimental effects on the parameters mentioned above. The reasons for these detrimental effects could be the change in osmolarity of the semen that varies in different species. The ROS production is associated with normal physiological functioning of the spermatozoa and when a semen sample is diluted the endogenous antioxidant mechanism of the semen is compromised and addition of exogenous antioxidant is needed to equilibrate. Therefore the addition of BHT at an inclusion level 1.0mM in study was found optimum and higher concentrations of this had detrimental effect on the spermatozoa, which could be due to two reasons as explained by Ijaz et al., 2009, i.e., firstly higher concentration of BHT reduce the physiological functions of the spermatozoa by extremely reducing the ROS which are needed to a certain level for physiological function of the spermatozoa and secondly it increases the fluidity of the plasma membrane above the desired levels thus making it prone to more damages. In conclusion, BHT was found useful for dog spermatozoa at inclusion level 1.0mM, however, further studies are required to investigate the fertility of the canine semen having inclusion levels of BHT. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1184,T] (1).

17. Use Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (Bht) As Antioxidant In Buffalo Semen Extender

by Tayyab Munir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The Buffalo is the major milk producing animal in Pakistan. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is the one of the best breeds of the world. Buffalo contributes seventy percent of total milk production in Pakistan. The excellent buffalo bulls are few in number and their semen volume and sperm concentration is also low as compared to cattle. The animal has lower fertility particularly when inseminated with frozen semen. There are many reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may be the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (POS) from the plasma membrane of spermatozoa causing damage to the membrane integrity due to lipid peroxidation. The addition of optimum level of antioxidants like BHT to buffalo semen extender before freezing may be answer to this problem. The main objective of the present study was to determine the level of total of antioxidants in the semen and to optimize the quantity of BHT in the semen extender of the Nili Rave Buffalo bulls. In this study semen from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls ( n=10) was collected twice per week and diluted with Tris egg yolk citrate extender. Antioxidant BHT was added to the extended semen at the rate of 1.0mM, 1.0 mM and 2 mM while Control was containing no BHT. The semen was visually analyzed under phase contrast microscope for motility, vitality (Eosin/Nigrosin staining), plasma membrane (HOS assay) and acrosomal integrity (NAR), at three stages i.e. after dilution, before freezing and after freezing. For the determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), semen samples were transported under ice to Spectophotometric Laboratary, GC. University Lahore. Data collected was presented as mean= SEM. Treatment groups were compared using one way ANOVA and Results were compared by using Duncan Multiple Range Test using SPSS (version 16.0) ; SPSS Chicago IL. Result of this study show significant (P< 0.05) improvement in semen motility, vitality, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity at 1.5 mM BHT concentration as compared to Control, however, insignificant difference was noticed with in treated groups and with in bulls. Maximum TEAC value (2.42) was observed in the extended semen containing two mM BHT and minimum TEAC values (0.58mM) in the post thaw semen sample with BHT. It is concluded that addition of antioxidants in the buffalo semen improve the semen quality before and after freezing. Fortification of buffalo semen extender with BHT (@ of 1-1.5 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and hoped to increase the fertility of buffalo. However, field fertility trials need to be carried out for confirmation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1288,T] (1).

18. Evaluation Of Different Extenders For The Cryopreservation Of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Buffalo is playing an important role in our country's economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Genetic potential of low producing animals can be improved by using artificial insemination technology. Unfortunately, less number of elite bulls are available and low fertility rate of buffalo by using cryopreserved semen has been obtained. Semen is exposed to osmotic and oxidative stresses during processing, cryopreservation and thawing before insemination. Fertilizing ability is lost due to spermatozoa damage and it ultimately results in poor conception rates in buffalo. In order to protect spermatozoa from these stresses and improve fertility in buffalo, five osmotic pressure based concentrations of three extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE) were prepared by varying the quantity of the solutes to obtain an osmotic pressure of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295 mOsm/kg. Osmotic pressure was measured by an osmometer. In the first experiment, equal volume of semen obtained from four Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was pooled and used to study the effects of osmotic pressure on post thawed semen characteristics. For this purpose, three basic media: citrate fructose media, tris citric acid fructose media and lactose media were prepared and divided each media in to five equal parts to maintain osmotic pressures of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg. These basis media were stored in a biomedical freezer, which were later used in preparing three semen extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE). During each collection, fifteen extenders (each of three extenders having five osmotic pressures i.e. 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg) were used to extend the semen. After freezing, semen characteristics like sperm motility rate, viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were noted. Post thaw sperm motility rate in (%) CEYE was significant (P<0.05) at 295mOsm/kg compared to 255, 265 and 275mOsm/kg. However, sperm motility rate of different osmotic pressures of TEYE and LEYE was non-significant (P>0.05). Sperm viability rate (%) was non-significant (P>0.05) in all three extenders. Sperm acrosomal integrity rate was non-significant in CEYE and LEYE. However, it was significant (P<0.05) at 265, 275 and 295mOsm/kg in TEYE. Sperm PMI rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were non-significant (P>0.05) in CEYE, TEYE and LEYE. On the basis of the individual and overall comparison of different semen characteristics of three extenders and their osmotic pressures, LEYE with 295mOs.kg was considered to be continued in the next experiment to upgrade the extender by adding taurine (TA) at 0.0, 30, 50 and 70 mM and trehalose (TR) at 0.0, 20, 40, 60 mM concentration. Semen collection, processing, freezing etc were done as per experiment-1 and same post thaw tests were carried out. Post thaw sperm motility rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TA-20mM and all concentration of TR. Sperm viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, PMI rate, MTT reduction rate and lipid peroxidation at different concentrations of TA and TR were recorded non-significant (P>0.05). However, sperm DNA integrity rate was significant (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TR-0.0mM. On the basis of comparison of different semen characteristics under various concentrations of taurine or trehalose, supplemented in semen extenders. Concentration of TR-70mM was considered to be continued in the next experiment to test fertility of the optimized extender. Semen straws of LEYE supplemented with TR-70mM were used to inseminate the 50 buffaloes in heat (Supplemented group), while, traditionally used tris based buffalo bull semen extender was used (control group) to compared pregnancy rate (PR) of this experiment. Pregnancy rate in control and supplemented group was 38 and 54% respectively, which was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1538,T] (1).

19. Development Of A Suitable Semen Extender For The Cryopreservation Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen

by Fazal Wadood (2007-VA-557) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Dr. Muhammad Younas | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Presently, buffalo farmers are dissatisfied with fertility rates of the frozen semen used in the field and tend to use bulls. This study was designed to develop a suitable semen extender for cryopreservation of Nili Ravi buffalo semen that can improve conception rate in buffaloes. Experiment-I, an attempt was made to develop semen extender with optimal osmotic pressure for buffalo semen using tris citric acid (TCAE), skim milk (SME) and coconut water (CWE) extenders (each extender have 260, 270, 280, 290 and 300 mOsm/kg osmotic pressure levels). In Experiment-II, best extender (TCAE: 300 mOsm/kg) of experiment-I was tried to improve post thaw spermatozoa characteristics by supplementing antioxidants [0.0, 1.75, 2.0 and 2.25 mM butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and 0.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mM L-cysteine]. Post thaw spermatozoa motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), DNA damage rate and lipid peroxidation were assessed in first two experiments. In Experiment-III, pregnancy rate assessment of extended semen was carried out by using Trial extender (best of experiment II) or Control extender of Semen Production Unit (SPU), Qadirabad, Pakistan (50 inseminations of each extender). Higher spermatozoa motility at ≥ 270 mOsm/kg was noted in TCAE than both SME and CWE could be due to less intracellular ice formation in zwitterions extender. Higher spermatozoa viability in TCAE and CWE compared to SME may be attributed to extender effectiveness. Higher acrosomal integrity rate at 300 mOsm/kg in TCAE and SME may be because of less intracellular ice formation in isotonic extenders. At 290 mOsm/kg, higher spermatozoa PMI in SME and lesser DNA damage in three extenders might be due to lesser intracellular ice formation at cryopreservation. Decreased spermatozoa DNA damage in SME might be due to the presence of natural antioxidants i.e., casein. Higher lipid peroxidation in CWE than TCAE and SME may be due to presence of natural antioxidants (in SME) and higher cell dehydration potential of TCAE. Higher spermatozoa motility recorded at 2.0 mM BHT compared to other BHT groups including DMSO might be due to fact that BHT protects spermatozoa mitochondria by reducing oxidative stress. Lower spermatozoa viability, PMI rates and higher DNA damage at 2.25 mM of BHT may be due to BHT toxic effects. Lower lipid peroxidation in BHT treated groups compared to DMSO and BHT control groups might be related to BHT strong antioxidant properties. L-cysteine caused higher spermatozoa DNA damage at highest level (i.e., 8 mM) that could also be due to antioxidant’s toxic effect. Pregnancy rate 18 % higher was noted in Trial than Control semen extender; however no significant difference have been noted that might be due to less no of inseminations. In conclusion, TCA extender (300 mOsm/kg) having BHT (2.0 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and yielded numerically better pregnancy rates. Results of study indicated that osmotic stress damaged the spermatozoa internal structures more severely than injury to plasma membrane. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2360-T] (1).



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